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V. Rice Breeding and Improvement in the United States

V. Rice Breeding and Improvement in the United States

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RICE IMPROVEMENT AND CULTURE IN UNITED STATES



97



in 1926. Rice experiments were conducted also at Elsbeny from 1928

to 1941 and later at Palmira in Missouri. Rice investigations were started

at the Delta Branch Experiment Station, Stoneville, Mississippi, in a

small way about 1950, and a fairly comprehensive breeding program now

is being conducted. Breeding investigations are conducted cooperatively

by the U.S. Department of Agriculture with State Agricultural Experiment Stations at each of these locations. Most of the earlier work

consisted of testing selections from foreign introductions. Some of the

varieties developed by selection from 1909 to about 1930 were CALORO,

COLUSA, FORTUNA,

NIRA, and REXORO. CALORO

and COLUSA are the leading

varieties at this time in California, and REXORO is grown on a significant

acreage in Louisiana and Texas. Salmon L. Wright, a rice farmer in

Louisiana, obtained material from varietal experiments on demonstration farms before the establishment of the Rice Experiment Station

at Crowley. From this material he selected the medium-grain varieties

BLUE ROSE and EARLY PROLIFIC and the long-grain varieties EDITH and

LADY WRIGHT. None of these varieties is now in production, but for many

years, about 1915 to 1944, they were the leading varieties in the South.

The varieties developed during these earlier years were described

by Chamliss and Jenkins (1923), Jones ( 1936), and Jones et al. ( 1941).

Rice improvement investigations were summarized by Jones ( 1936).

He stated that at that time the objectives were “to develop varieties

that are resistant to diseases, that do not lodge or shatter, that mature

at the desired time and that produce high field and mill yields of good

table quality.’’ It is seen that the present-day objectives, as given in

Section V, B, are simply a refinement and more detailed statement of

the earlier objective.



B. CURRENT

OBJECTIVES

AND METHODS

FOR



THE RICE-BREEDING

PROGRAM

IN THE UNITED

STATES



Rice-breeding research at all experiment stations in the United States

is closely coordinated. This coordination is achieved because most of

this work is conducted cooperatively by the U. S . Department of Agriculture and the State Experiment Stations. The Rice Technical Working

Group meets biennially, so all rice breeders and geneticists can discuss

their common problems with other rice research workers. Uniform

yield and disease experiments conducted in the South further unify

the work.

Objectives of the rice-breeding program are to develop short-,

medium-, and long-grain varieties that germinate quickly and have

seedling vigor; tolerate low temperatures in the germinating and seedling

stages; are resistant to alkaline soils and salt in the irrigation water; are



98



C . ROY ADAIR, M. D. MILLER, AND H. M. BEACHELL



resistant to diseases and insects; respond to maximum rates of fertilizers;

have short, stifE straw and resist lodging; mature uniformly; produce

high field and mill yields over a wide range of environmental conditions;

and have the desired cooking and processing characteristics.

Breeding methods used for rice have followed the usual pattern for

all small grains. Up until about 1920, rice varieties were introduced from

most rice-producing countries and tested for adaptation in the United

States. Selections were made from the better varieties and several fairly

well-adapted varieties were obtained. These are mentioned in Section V, A.

It was not possible to attain all breeding objectives by these methods;

so, about 1920, some of the rice breeders started to make crosses in an

attempt to combine desired characteristics. All varieties that have been

released since 1942 are progeny of hybrids. The backcross or a modified

backcross method now is commonly used.

One example of a method now commonly used to achieve a breeding

objective is described: In 1956, the potential threat of hoja blanca, a

virus disease, to rice production in the United States was recognized.

In 1957, experiments were started in Cuba and Venezuela to test all

available material to determine the reaction to the hoja blanca disease.

It was learned that many varieties and breeding lines were resistant. All

the leading commercial varieties grown in the United States were

susceptible to hoja blanca, but short- and medium-grain types were

resistant and could be grown if the disease became established in this

country. There were no hoja blanca-resistant long-grain varieties adapted

to the environmental and cultural practices in the United States. Crosses

between resistant types and leading United States long-grain varieties

were made in the field in 1957. The F1 plants were grown in the

greenhouse and some were backcrossed to the long-grain parent during

the winter of 1957-1958.

When this program started, the backcrossed plants were saved

until their progeny had been tested to see which carried genes for

resistance to hoja blanca. The plants carrying resistance were then

backcrossed to the long-grain parent. It now i s possible to plant the

backcross seeds; and as soon as the plants tiller, they can be divided

and a part of each plant tested for reaction to hoja blanca in the greenhouse. Results of these tests are available by the time the plants flower so

that resistant plants can be backcrossed to the recurring parent. Plants

have been selected from each round of crossing and the progeny

continued in the selecting and testing program.

Concurrently with testing this material for reaction to hoja blanca,

the lines were tested for cooking and processing characteristics as

described in Section V, C.



RICE IMPROVEMENT AND CULTURE IN UNITED STATES



99



C. RESULTS OF THE RICE-BREEDING

PROGRAM

All the rice varieties now grown in the United States were developed

by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the State

Agricultural Experiment Stations and other agencies. All varieties being

grown on farms and a few varieties that had been used as parents but

were not in production were described by Johnston (1958). Of the

22 varieties described by this author, 16 were developed and released

after about 1930, and 6 had been developed and released earlier. One

of these older varieties is BLUE ROSE, one of the Salmon L. Wright

varieties mentioned in Section V, A. Most of these varieties were described by Jones et aE. (1953). Two additional varieties, GULFROSE and

BELLE PATNA, have been released since 1958.

The annual acreage and production of rice varieties in the United

States for 1956 to 1960, inclusive, are given (Table V ) . The total

acreage was about the same in 1960 as in 1956 but it was lower in 1957

and 1958. The acreage of the R E x o R o - t y p e varieties declined sharply

during this period, but there was an increase in acreage in 1960 as

compared with that in 1959. The acreage of CENTURY PATNA 231 declined

sharply. The acreage of BLUEBONNET 50 increased slightly as did that

of ARKROSE. The CALROSE acreage increased in 1960 in California with

a corresponding decrease in the acreage of the short-gain varieties

CALORO and COLUSA. The acreage of TORO increased sharply in 1957

and 1958 and then declined in 1959 and leveled off in 1960. The greatest

change in varieties was the rapid increase in the acreage of NATO and

the corresponding decline in the acreage of ZENITH and MAGNOLIA.

The days from seeding to maturity, plant height, and grain yields

for 13 of the leading varieties are given (Table VI). The long-grain,

late-maturing varieties TEXAS PATNA, TP 49, and REXORO are grown only

in Louisiana and Texas. These varieties normally will not mature before

killing frosts in the other areas. The midseason long-grain varieties

BLUEBONNET 50, TORO, and SUNBONNET are grown throughout the Southern

area as is the early long-grain variety CENTURY PATNA 231. The midseason medium-grain variety ARKROSE is grown only in Arkansas. The

early-maturing medium-grain varieties NATO, ZENITH, and MAGNOLIA are

grown in all the southern rice-producing states. The medium-grain variety

CALROSE and the short-grain varieties CALORO and COLUSA are grown in

California. These three varieties sometimes are fairly productive in

the South but seldom are grown there because their yields are erratic

in the area and because of limited market demands for the rices. The

short-grain varieties sometimes are grown in Arkansas when seeding

is delayed because of inclement weather.



"

Annual United States Rice Acreage and Production by Varieties, 1956-19W

II1ULIa.4



Acreage and

production



Variety



Acreagc



REXORO"



CENTWHY PATNA

BLUEHONNET



506



Tono

MAGNOLIA

AnmOSEC



ZENITH

NATO

CALROSE

Short-grain

Minor Varietiesd



Total



231



Production?

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production

Acreage

Production



1956



___



179,086

4,209.6

253,008

7,334.2

527,383

14,179.0

8,326

239.5

50,854

1,244.7

11,490

340.9

269,112

6,869.6

I



-



20,151

688.4

290,686

10,168.6

8,409

201.2

1,618,505

45,475.7



Includes TEXAS PATNA and TP 49.

Includes BLUEBONNET and SUNBONNET.

0 Includes a small acreage of KAMROSE and BLUE ROSE.

d Not the same each year, but includes REXARK, NIRA, R-N,

R-D, LACROSSE, and others.

a

b



1957



- _._

_____

.



91,905

1,971.5

201,344

6,729.0

445,536

13,211.6

51,424

1,905.1

45,838

1,082.9

16,525

630.4

268.069

6,404.6

6,555

190.8

11,050

462.6

241,438

9,752.2

3,471

91.0

1,383,228

42,438.2



.._.



1958



___



73,644

1,655.0

196,029

7,341.6

518,553

15,644.3

61,942

1,802.2

53,873

1,365.1

20,454

597.7

184,632

4,577.2

72,811

2,599.7

23,082

977.0

249,505

10,997.5

476

10.7

1,455,001

47,568.0



w



8

1959



1960



7 1,004

2,226.6

200,350

5,550.2

540,498

17,535.7

42,506

1,163.7

18,885

505.7

18,640

514.7

113,916

2,773.9

312,021

10,173.5

34,401

1,340.5

264,276

10,729.3

555



89,363

2,743.1

111,696

3,571.0

596,120

18,357.7

44,593

1,261.3

11,884

346.0

26,761

850.0

37,121

1,131.8

401,184

12,516.0

90,438

4,010.9

199,007

8,943.5

250

8.0

1,608,417

53,739.2



-g



1,617,052

52,513.8



e 1000 bags of 100 pounds each.

I Statistics compiled by the Rice Millers Association, New



Orleans, Louisiana.

g Included with



BLUEBONNET



50 in report.



n



2

&

"



p

p



Y

+



8

g



E2



RICE IMPROVEMENT AND CWLTVRE IN UNITED STATES



101



The cooking and processing characteristics of rice varieties and

breeding lines have been tested in the cooperative quality laboratory at

Beaumont, Texas. Typical United States long-grain varieties cook dry

and flaky and are suitable for use in quick-cooking and canned soup

products. Typical United States medium- and short-grain varieties cook

moist and somewhat cohesive and are more suitable for making “dry”

cereals and for use in baby foods and in brewing. Eating habits of different ethnic groups vary; so there is a demand for all types for use as

TABLE VI

Length of Growing Period, Plant Height, and Grain Yield of 13 Rice Varieties

Yield per acre



Seeding to

Variety



C.I. no.



TP 49

REXORO

CENTURY

PATNA 231

BLUEBONNET

50

TORO

SUNBONNET

MAGNOLIA

ARICROSE



ZENITH

NATO

CALROSE

CALORO

COLUSA

a



b

c



d



Results

Results

Results

Results



for

for

for

for



8991

1779

8993

8990

9013

8989

8318

8310

7787

8998

8988

1561-1

1600



maturity

(days)



1660

1730

1230

138-148b

137-148b

139-147b

126-132b

140C

126-132b

125-131b

1523

1526

137d



Plant

Ark.

La.

Texas Cal.

height 1953-58 1953-59 1955-58 1951-60

(in.)



53a

550

460

44-48”

44-47”

46-53b

48-52’’

45C

46-52b

4348b

364

36d

35a



(lb.)



3969

3636

4100

3712

3681

4648

4036

4293



-



4500



-



(Ib.)



(lb.)



- 2786



-



(lb.)

1945



-



2754

3139

2516

2933



-



2923

3228



-



2538

3287

3817

3985



-



3902

3770

3832

3824



-



-



3112

3097

3280



’Texas.

Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas.

Arkansas.

California.



home-cooked table rice. The dry-flaky cooking characteristic is associated

with a high percentage of amylose, a medium-high gelatinization temperature, and a maximum viscosity of the cooked paste when cooled to

55°C. The amylose content is estimated by the starch-iodine method

( Halick and Keneaster, 195s), which requires only a small sample, and

quantitatively by the method described by Williams et al. (1958).The

gelatinization temperature is estimated by the digestion in dilute alkali

(Little et al., 1958) and determined fairly accurately by using the birefringence-end point-temperature or granule-swelling methods ( Halick

et al., 1960).For final testing of a new variety, the gelatinization temperature and pasting characteristics are determined with an amylograph

( Halick and Kelly, 1959).



TABLE VII

Dimmsions, Physical, and Chemical Characteristics of Milled Kernels of 14 Rice Varietie9

Starch content



Variety and

grain type

Long-grain

CENTUIIYPATNA 231

BLUEBONNET

50

TP 49

REXOHO



TORO

SUNBONNET

Medium-grain

NATO

MAGNOLIA

ZENITH

ARKROSE

CALROSE

Short-grain

COLUSA

CALOHO

MOCHIGOMI



Dimensions



GelatiWeight, nization

100 temperakernels

ture

(gram) (“C.)



Width

(mm.)



Thickness

(mm.)



W:L



Length

(mm.)



6.60

7.08

6.93

6.69

6.50

6.76



1.92

2.08

2.00

1.94

1.98

2.10



1.55

1.64

1.64

1.56

1.52

1.69



3.44

3.41

3.47

3.44

3.28

3.27



1.53

1.88

1.73

1.61

1.68

1.93



5.53



2.51

2.51

2.49

2.66

2.57



1.65

1.77

1.68

1.83

1.85



2.21

2.46

2.25

2.41

2.09



1.76

2.08

1.77

2.33

2.00



6.06

5.62

5.80

5.37



ratio

(1:)



Amylopectin: Cooking

amylose quality

ratio (cohesive(1:) ness No.)b



Total

(%)



Amylose

(%)



75.0

72.0

69.0

69.0

66.0

73.5



88.66

89.24

87.76

87.40

89.45

87.43



20.21

23.47

25.18

25.10

17.90

24.04



0.295

0.356

0.402

0.402

0.250

0.379



5.4

6.0

5.1

6.0

5.5

6.1



67.5

68.0

66.0

61.5

61.5



89.45

87.36

89.14

89.71

90.07



16.10

14.16

20.47

23.77

18.80



0.219

0.193

0.298

0.360

0.263



5.4

6.1

4.1



3.8

4.0



4.92

2.97

2.05

1.66

2.22

63.0

91.15

20.70

0.294

4.4

5.01

2.82

2.08

1.77

63.0

90.45

21.17

0.305

3.6

4.56

2.62

2.09

1.75

1.78

60.0

89.11

2.10

0.024

2.9

a Data from a study conducted by the Crops, Human Nutrition, Western Utilization, and Southern Utilization Research Divisions, Agricultural Research Service and Foreign Agricultural Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

b Batcher et al. (1956).



0

m



2



RICE IMPROVEMENT AND CULTURE IN UNJTED STATES



103



Data for some of the physical and chemical characteristics of 14

rice varieties are given (Table VII) . MOCHIGOMI is a “glutinous” variety;

that is, it has a very low percentage of amylose. The other 13 are

“common” varieties and have a comparatively high amylose content

although the range in the amylose:amylopectin ratio among the varieties

in this group is fairly wide.

The kernels of long-grain varieties (Table VII) are 6.5 mm. or more

in length and the 1ength:width ratio is 3.27 to 3.47:l. The kernels of the

medium-grain varieties range from 5.37 to 6.06mm. in length and have



FIG.1. Spikelets and milled kernels of: ( a ) long-grain variety BLUEBONNET 50;

( b ) medium-grain variety NATO;and ( c ) short-grain variety CALORO.



a 1ength:width ratio of from 2.09 to 2.46:l. KerneIs of the short-grain

varieties range from 4.56 to 5.01mm. in length, and the 1ength:width

ratio varies from 1.66 to 1.77:l. Kernels of all long-grain varieties were

lighter in weight than kernels of most medium- and short-grain varieties.

Spikelets and milled kernels of typical long-, medium-, and short-grain

varieties are shown in Fig. 1.

The gelatinization temperature of the starch was low for all shortand medium-grain varieties and intermediate for most long-grain

varieties. The two exceptions were CENTURY PATNA 231, which had a high,

and TORO, which had a low, gelatinization temperature.

The long-grain varieties TP 49 and REXORO had the highest amylose

content. BLUEBONNET

50 and SUNBONNET had somewhat lower amylose



104



c.



ROY



-rim,



M. D. MMILLER,AND H. M. BEACHELL



content. The amylose content of CENTURY PATNA and

range as most medium- and short-grain varieties.



TORO



is in the same



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