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IX. Mixtures of Fertilizers and Other Agricultural Chemicals

IX. Mixtures of Fertilizers and Other Agricultural Chemicals

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The quantity of pesticide added to a fertilizer depends on the nature

of the pesticide, the kind of pest to be controlled, the degree of its

infestation, and other factors. Examples are 10 pounds of chlordane per

ton, 10 to 20 pounds of aldrin, and up to 40 pounds of DDT. The commercial forms of the pesticides include granules and dustless powders

formulated with inert carriers, solutions in low-viscosity solvents, and

emulsion concentrates. The pesticide usually is added to the prepared

fertilizer just before the mixture is shipped.

Arne11 (1956), Folckemer et al. (1955), and Smith (1956) have

described the various forms in which pesticides are supplied to the trade

and have discussed the methods for their blending with fertilizers.

Incorporation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides in liquid fertilizers requires the use of special emulsions or liquid-suspendible

powders and precaution to maintain homogeneity of the mixture.

Several investigations have been made of the stability of pesticides

in mixtures with fertilizers. Marth et al. (1949) found no serious loss

in the herbicidal potency of 2,4-D when its mixtures with solid fertilizers

were stored in air-tight containers for 10 months at ordinary temperatures. Accelerated, laboratory tests by Fleck and Haller (1945) indicated

considerable reaction of DDT with dolomitic limestone but not with

numerous fertilizer materials and mixtures. According to Yost et al.

( 1955), malathion has good compatibility with potassium chloride, superphosphate, and urea but rapidly decomposes in the presence of phosphate rock.

Folckemer et al. (1955) reported loss of 10 to 15 per cent of aldrin

from its inclusions in several mixed fertilizers stored for 12 months in

paper bags at laboratory temperature. The loss was reduced considerably

by storage in tight containers. Studies by Creamer and Lamont (1959)

showed high stability of aldrin mixtures with a wide variety of fertilizers kept in closed containers at 30" C. The decomposition was

usually less than 6 per cent in 8 months. Under the same conditions, the

stability of several other chlorinated hydrocarbons decreased in the approximate order: DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane.

13. MIXTURESWITH GIBBERELLIC

Acrr,



The remarkable results obtained with gibberellic acid as a plantgrowth stimulant have aroused interest in the possibilities for its inclusion

in fertilizers. Norland and Erickson (1959) found that the effectiveness

of this compound in promoting growth of pinto beans was not influenced

greatly by mixing its potassium salt with each of several nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer salts and storing the mixtures for 16

weeks at atmospheric temperature. Similar effects were produced whether



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the solid mixtures were added to the soil or their aqueous solutions were

applied directly to the plant itself.

X. Future Prospects



Fertilizers will undoubtedly play an increasingly important part in

the world agricultural economy, and there is every indication that the

trend in their production and use will continue markedly upward. The

potentiality for the United States is indicated by the fact that in this

country the total use of the three primary plant nutrients per acre of

agricultural land still averages less than 25 per cent of that in western

Europe. Substitutions for or among the several nutrient elements are

not possible because each of them performs specific functions in the

growth and fruiting of plants which permit no alternates. Thus, the

essence of fertilizers is not subject to change, though its forms may differ

greatly.

The United States has very large resources of fertilizer raw materials

and of their requisites for processing, which are economically usable

under present conditions, and far greater resources reside in less favorable situations. The country has extensive facilities for winning and

processing the raw materials, which constantly are undergoing expansion and improvement.

The future will see important advances in the technology of fertilizers and in the economy and efficiency of their use. New kinds of

products will be developed, and the average nutrient content of the

materials and mixtures will rise to even higher levels. Further improvement will be made in the physical condition of fertilizers and in the

methods and means for distributing them in the field. Both atomic and

solar energy may eventually be applied in fertilizer manufacture.

Continued dominance of synthetic ammonia as the primary nitrogen

product is expected. Anhydrous ammonia, nitrogen solutions, ammonium

nitrate, and urea will gain further ground as the principal nitrogen

materials. Increasing attention will be given to less-soluble forms of

nitrogen, such as the urea-formaldehyde products.

The paramount position of normal superphosphate in the phosphate

industry will be threatened increasingly by more concentrated materials.

Much greater use of triple superphosphate and of ammonium phosphate

products can be expected. Phosphoric acid, especially the wet-process

material, will gain progressive prominence as an article of trade in the

fertilizer industry, and elemental phosphorus may serve increasingly for

fertilizer manufacture.

Potassium chloride is unlikely to suffer serious competition from



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other potash carriers in the foreseeable future, but production of nonchloride forms of potassium will increase. Potassium nitrate, as yet

scarcely used as a fertilizer, has considerable promise, and there is a

need for materials which slowly release potassium to crops.

The production and use of trace element materials having improved

nutrient efficiency and lower toxicity hazard are scarcely touched fields

for research.

Further progress will be made in the manufacture of granular mixed

fertilizers, and the potentialities of liquid mixtures are just beginning to

be realized. Wider adoption of soil-testing practices and ever-mounting

transportation costs could well result in major shifting of mixed-fertilizer manufacture from the larger centralized plants to smaller local

units, with increasing emphasis on bulk distribution of the products to

the farmer.

Agronomic research has been a vital factor in shaping the destiny of

the fertilizer industry. Still greater emphasis, however, needs to be

placed on basic studies in plant nutrition and all of its interrelationships, so that, together with technological researches, the industry may

be guided even more intelligently in providing the nutrients in the most

efficient and economical forms.



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