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VI. Biological Fixation of Phosphorus in Soils

VI. Biological Fixation of Phosphorus in Soils

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FIXATION OF SOIL PHOGPHOPUS



407



been applied, namely; the treatment of soils with hydrogen peroxide to

oxidize the organic matter, followed by measurement of the increase in

acid soluble phosphorus (Dickman and DeTurk, 1938; Peterson, 1911) ,

and the extraction of the organic with alkalies. The organic phosphorus

is assumed to be the difference between the total and tGheinorganic phosphorus in the extract (Dean, 1938; Pearson, 1940; Potter and Benton,

1916; Schollenberger, 1918; and Wrenshall and McKibben, 1937). Certain objections could be raised pertaining to the accuracy of these methods; however, their use does permit useful generalization concerning the

overall distribution of organic phosphorus in soils.

Schollenberger (1920) studied the organic phosphorus contents of

virgin and cultivated soils representative of 12 soil types of Ohio. When

the organic phosphorus was expressed as per cent of the total phosphorus,

the virgin and cultivated soils contained very nearly the same ratio of

organic to total phosphorus. The range in organic phosphorus found in

the surface soils was 18 to 52 per cent of the total phosphorus. Dean

(1938) measured the organic phosphorus content of 34 surface soils from

widely separated parts of the world. The organic phosphorus content of

these soils was correlated with their carbon content and varied from 8 to

50 per cent of the total phosphorus. A study of the distribution of

organic phosphorus in seven Iowa soil profiles by Pearson and Simonson

(1939) has shown the amounts to range from 205 to 393 p.p.m. in surface

soils to as low as 8 p.p.m. in the C horizons. The ratios of organic phosphorus t o organic carbon and nitrogen varied considerably within the

individual profiles and from one soil type to another. Wrenshall and

Dyer (1939) found 75 to 85 per cent of t.he total phosphorus in black

muck soils and approximately 50 per cent of the phosphorus in podsol

soils to be in organic combination.

2. Jdentification of the Organic Phosphorus Compounds in Soils



The efforts to identify and characterize the organic phosphorus in

soils have centered about nucleic acids, phytin, and t,heir derivatives.

The ether-soluble phosphorus fraction accounts for only about 1 per cent

of the total organic phosphorus (Wrenshall and McKibbin, 1937). The

common approach to characterizing the organic phosphorus compounds

of soils has been to isolate phosphorus-rich fractions of the soil organic

matter and study the properties of these fractions. Virtually complete

extraction of the organic phosphorus can be facilitated by leaching soils

with dilute hydrochloric acid to remove the calcium, followed by an extraction with hot sodium or ammonium hydroxide. When these alkali

extracts are made slightly acid, the alpha humus precipikates and may

be removed by filtration. Yoshida (1940)) working with sodium hy-



408



L. A. DEAN



droxide extracts from Hawaiian soils, showed that very little of the

organic phosphorus was retained as part of the alpha humus. On the

other hand, Dyer and Wrenshall (1941a), working with ammonium hydroxide extracts, showed that with the majority of the Canadian soile

studied only about 10 per cent of the organic phosphorus passed into the

filtrate from the alpha humus. Additions of ammonium oxalate before

acidifying the alkali extract increased the organic phosphorus in the

alpha humus filtrate to as much as 52 per cent of the total, These diecrepancies have remained unexplained. The elimination of the alpha

humus without loss of important quantities of organic phosphorus is an

important step in the isolation procedures used to date especially if quantitative data are sought.

An additional concentration of the organic phosphorus can be effected

by precipitation with alcohol of the filtrate from the alpha humus.

Yoshida (1940) prepared ash-free soil organic phosphorus by adsorption

on charcoal and desorbing with dilute ammonium hydroxide. The

product obtained contained 7.4 per cent phosphorus, all in organic

combination.



a. Nucleic Acids and Derivatives. Upon total hydrolysis nucleic

acids yield phosphoric acid, pentose sugars, pyrimidine and purine compounds. The identification of nucleic acids in soils has been based upon

the hydrolysis products obtained when organic phosphorus products prepared as described above are subjected to acid hydrolysis. Shorey (1913)

identified pentose surgars, hypoxanthine, and adenine; Bottomley ( 1919)

identified adenine and uracil. Wrenshall and McKibbin (1937) and

Wrenshall and Dyer (1941) identified pentose sugars, adenine, uracil,

xant.hine, and guanine, but Yoshida (1940) was unable to identify either

purine or pyrimidine componnds. This evidence tends to support thc

contention that some of the organic phosphorus in soils exists as nucleic

acids. There is no evidence to indicate, hawewr, whnt proportion of t h e

total organic phosphorus this comprises.

Dyer and Wrenshall (1941b) compared thc rate of cieconiposition in

soils of known nucleic acid and nucleotidr preparations with a preparation from soils which was presumed to contain nucleotide. These materials were mixed with soils which were in turn inciihatd and extracted

with diluted acid. The increase in ac.id-sohrhle phosphorus was used as

an index of decomposition. The soil preparations of organic phosphorus

were found to be highly resistant to dephospharizstion as compared with

the known nucleotides.

It is commonly believed that a considerable part of the organic phos-



FIXATION OF SOIL PHOSPHORUS



409



phorus is made up nucleic acids. The evidence available, however, does

not seem to wholly support this generalization.

b. Phytin and Inositol Phosphates. Phytin is the calcium-magnesium

salt of phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) ; intermediate derivatives

such as inositol tri- and monophosphate are also known. Upon hydroly4 s the inositol phosphates yield phosphoric acid and inositol. Yoshida

11940) isolated and identified inositol in the hydrolysates of soil organic

phosphorus preparations which had failed to reveal the presence of

nucleic acid derivatives. Thus the conclusion that inositol phosphates

were present. The phosphorus: ammonia-nitrogen ratio of the product

suggested the presence of the ammonium salt of inositol monophosphate.

Quantitative measurement of the amount of inositol and phosphoric acid

liberated by hydrolysis indicated that only a part of the total soil organic

phosphorus could be accounted for as inositol-phosphate compounds.

Wrenshall and Dyer (1941) added ferric chloride to a N/6 hydrochloric acid solution containing soil organic phosphorus and separated a

ferric salt having a P:Fe ratio similar to an authentic ferric phytate precipitated under similar conditions. By a similar procedure Bower (1945)

separated a soil ferric phytate preparation which on hydrolysis yielded

an inositol : inorganic phosphorus ratio corresponding to inositol hexaphosphate. Another fraction, isolated from the filtrate of the iron

salt, gave an inositol : phosphorus ratio indicating the presence of

derivatives of phytic acid. Quantitative estimates showed that approximately 35 per cent of the organic phosphorus of Carrington and Webster

soils and 26.5 per cent of that of a Fayette soil occurred as phytic acid.

I n addition, these same soils were found to contain 11.4 to 14.1 per cent

of the organic phosphate as derivatives of phytic acid.

The contention that an important part of the organic phosphorus of

soils is present as inositol phosphates seems to be well substantiated.

The observation by Wrenshall and Dyer (1941) that Fe- and Al-phytates

are virtually immune to the action of phytase provides a possible explanation for persistence of phytin in soils. The writer is not aware of

any reports indicating that microorganisms synthesize phytin or its

derivatives, the implication being that the phytin in soils originated in

the plant materials returned to the soil.



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410



L. A. DEAN



Ballard, 5. S., and Dean, L. A. 1940. J . Applied Phys. 11, 386-370.

Bassett, H. 1917. J . Chem. SOC.111, 620-642.

Bear, F.E.,and Toth, S. J. 1942. Znd. Eng. Chem. 34, 49-52.

Benne, E.J., Perkins, A. T., and King, H. H. 1936. Soil Sci. 42, 29-38.

Black, C. A. 1942. Soil Sci. SOC.Am., Proc. 7, 123-133.

Blair, A. W., and Prince, A. L. 1936. N J . Agr. Expt. Bta. Bull. 604.

Bottomley, W. B. 1919. Proc. Roy. SOC.London B90, 39-44.

Bower, C. A. 1945. Soil Sci. 59, 277-285.

Bradfield, R.,Scarseth, G., and Steele, J. G. 1935. 3rd Intern. Cony. Soil Sci. 1, 7475.

Bray, R. H., and Dickman, 5. R. 1941. h i 1 Sci. Soc. Am., Proc. 6,312-320.

Brown, I. C., and Byers, H. G. 1938. US. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 609.

Bryan, 0. C. 1933. Soil Sci. 36, 245-259.

Burd, J. S. 1948. Soil Sci. 65, 227-247.

Cameron, F. K.,and Bell, J. M. 1907. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bur. of Soils Bull. 41.

Chandler, W. V. 1941. J . Am. SOC.Agron. 33, 1-12.

Coleman, R. 1942. Soil Sci. SOC.Am., Proc. 7, 134-138.

Coleman, R. 1944. Soil Sci. SOC.Am., Proc. 9,72-78.

Conrad, J. P. 1939. J . Agr. Research 59,507-518.

Cummings, R.W. 1945. Sbil Sci. SOC.Am., Proc. 10,240-244.

Davis, F. L. 1943. Soil Sci. 56,457-478.

Davis, F. L. 1945. Soil Sci. 60, 481-489.

Davis, F. L. 1946. Soil Sci. 61, 179-190.

Davis, L.E. 1935. Soil Sci. 40, 129-158.

Dean, L. A. 1934. Soil Sci. 37, 253-266.

Dean, L. A. 1938. J . Agr. Sci. 28, 234-244.

Dean, L.A,, and Rubins, E. J. 1947. Soil Sci. 63, 377-387.

Demolon, A., and Bastisse, E. 1934. A m . Agron. 4, 53-76.

Dickman, S. R.,and Bray, R. H. 1941. Soil Sci. 52, 263-273.

Dickman, S.R.,and DeTurk, E. E. 1938. Soil Sci. 45, 29-40.

Drosdoff, M.,and Truog, E. 1935. J. Am. SOC.Agron. 27, 312-317.

Dyer, W. J., and Wrenshall, C. L. 1941a. Soil Sci. 51, 159-170.

Dyer, W. J., and Wrenshall, C. L. 1941b. Soil Sci. 51, 323-329.

Fisher, E.A. 1922. Trans.Faraday SOC.17, 305-316.

Ford, M. C. 1933. J . Am. Soc. Agron. 25, 134-143.

Fraps, G. S. 1922. Texas Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 304.

Gaarder, T. 1930. Medd. Vestlandets foist. Forsdcssta. 14, 1-140.

Gaarder, T., and Graehl-Nielson, 0. 1935. Medd. Vestlandets forst. Forsdcssta. 18,

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Gile, P. L. 1933. US. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 371.

Heck, A. F. 1934a. Soil Sci. 37, 343-355.

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FIXATION OF S O L PHOSPHORUS



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Lohse, W. H., and Ruhnke, G.N. 1933. Soil Sci. 36, 303-316.

Low,P. F.,and Black, C. A. 1947. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Proc. 12, 180-184.

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McGeorge, W. T. 1939. Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 82.

MacIntire, W.H.,and Hatcher, B. W. 1942. Soil Sci. 53, 43-54.

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Mattson, S. 1930. Soil Sci. 30, 459-495.

Mattson, S.,and Karlsson, N. 1938. Ann. Agr. Coll. Sweden 6, 109-157.

Metzger, W.H. 1940. J . Am. Soc. Agron. 32, 513-526.

Metsger, W.R. 1941. J. Am. Soe. Agron. 33, 1093-1099.

Midgley, A.R. 1931. J . Am. Soc. Agron. 23, 788-799.

Murphy, H.F. 1939. Hilgardia 12, 343-382.

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Neller, J. R.,and Comar, C. L. 1947. Soil Sci 64,379-387.

Pearson, R.W. 1940. Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 12, 198-200.

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Peech, M. 1945. Soil Sci. Soc. Am, Proc. 10,245-251.

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This Page Intentionally Left Blank



Author Index

Names in parenthesev indicate cuauthom of the references and are included t o assist in locating

reference6 where a particular name is not on a given page.

Ezample: Adams, A. J., 46 (see Curtis), 73 (SF Cueis) means that Curtis et al. will be mentjoned

on page 48, the et caE: accounting for Adams. This article can he located under Curtis in the list of

references. Numbers In italics refer to the pages on which references are listed in bibliographies at

the end of each article.



A

Aberg, B., 293, 316



Adams, A. J., 46 (see Curtis), 78 (see

Curtis)

Adams, J. E., 103,162,274 (see Morrow),

686 (see Morrow)

Adams, J. R., 51 (see Robs, Whittaker),

76 (see Ross), 76 (see Whittaker)

Adati, M., 266, 271, 282

Addams, R. M., 293 (see Avery), 301 (see

, Avery), 316 (see Avery)

Agati, J. A., 106, 162

Agafonoff, V., 173, 200

Agricola, G., 322, 348

Agulhon, H., 322, 324, 3@, 349 (see Bertrand)

Ahi, S. M., 24, 31, 36

Ahlgren, H., 292, 293, 295, 306, 316

Akamine, E., 293, 316

Akeley, R. V., 356, 386

Akerberg, E., 214, 238

Akesson, N. B., 312, 316

Albert, A. R., 102, 162

Albrecht, H. R., 234 (see Brink), 238 (see

Brink)

Albrecht, W. A., 94, 102, 106, 162, 163

(see Ferguson, Hampton), 192, 200,

279,282,371,986,389 (see Schroeder)

Aldrich, D. G., 177, 200, 292, 916

Alexander, E. D., 69, 72

Alexander, L. T., 161, 162, 170, 178, 185

(see Hendricks), 186 (see Hendricks),

200,602 (see Hendricks)

Allard, H. A., 85, 86, 87, 162, 163 (see

Garner)

Allard, R. W., 304 (see Ennis), 310, 916,

317 (see Ennis), 380 (see Ennis), 987

(see Ennis)



Allaway, W. H., 60, 73 (see Fitts), 173,

186 (see Grim), 193, 200, 202 (see

Grim)

Allen, D. I., 94, 162

Allen, T. C., 382, 386

Allington, W. B., 108, 109, 144, 145, 147,

162, 166 (see Porter)

Allison, F. E., 104 (see Pinck), 166 (see

Pinck), 250 (see Pinck), 253, 259,

260, 282, 286 (see Pinck)

Allison, L. E., 32 (see Reeve), 34,37 (see

Reeve), 395, 401, 40.9

Allison, R. V., 366, 386

Allman, S. F., 214, 298 (see Dwyer)

Alway, F. J., 48, 72

Aniundsen, R. F., 303 (see Shaw), 319

(see Shaw)

Anderson, A , 233 (see Kiesselbach), 239

(see Kiesselbach)

Anderson, J. C., 292, 295, 306, 307, 916

Anderson, P. J., 392, 409

Anderson, W. S., 19 (see Leonard), 37

(see Leonard)

Andrews, W. B., 56, 58, 72, 91, 106, 107,

162

Angell, H. R., 262 (see also Link,

Walker), 282, 284 (see Link), 987

(see Walker)

Anthony, R. D., 177, 178, 202 (see

Jeff ries)

Apoiger, F., 322, 336, 561 (see Wittstein)

Apple, J. W., 382 (see also Linn), 387,

388 (see Linn)

Appleman, M. D., 109, 162, 277, 279, 282

Arant, F. S., 224, 238 (see Eden)

Ardenne, M., 180, 200

Arenz, B., 341, 360 (see Schropp)

Arle, H. F., 292 (see Leonard), 314 (see

Leonard), 318 (see Leonard)



413



414



AUTHOR INDEX



Armiger, W. H., 46 (see Hill), 51, 73 (see

also Hill), 253 (see Allison), 259

(see Allison), 2886 (see Allison), 366,

388 (see Jacob)

Armstrong, J. M., 207, 208, 210, 211, 238

Arneson, M. A., 231 (see Reitz), 232 (see

Reitz), 235 (see Reitz), 236 (see

Reitz), 237 (see Reitz), 139 (see

Reitz)

Arnold, C. Y., 382 (see also Linn), 387

(see Apple), 388 (see Linn)

Arnon, D. I., 19, 36

Asdonk, T., 368, 387

Ashbaugh, F. A., 305, 316

Askew, H. O.,332, 848, 349

Attoe, 0. J., 194, BOO

Atwater, C. G., 343, 3-49

Atwood, S. S., 206, 238

Avery, G. S., 293, 301, 316

Ayers, A. D.,8, 11 (see Magistad), 14,

16, 17 (see Magistad), 22, 25 (see

Magistad), 26, 27, 28, 30, 31 (see also

Magistad), 32,36,97 (see Magistad),

38 (see Wadleigh), 191, 192 (see

Jenny), 202 (see Jenny)



B

Baeza, M. A., 304 (see Smith), 319 (see

Smith), 380 (see Smith), 389 (see

Smith)

Bainer, R., 315, 316

Baker, G. O.,48, 76 (see Toevs), 326, 349

(see Colwell)

Bakke, A. L., 312, 320 (see Sylwester)

Baldwin, I. L., 248 (see Fred), 183 (see

Fred)

Ballard, S. S., 394, dl0

3arker, H. A., 256, 182

Barrons, K. C., 295, 305, 308, 316

Bartholomew, R. P., 60, 73, 109,162

Baskervill, W. H., 48 (see Copson), 7 3

(see Copson)

Baslavskaja, S. S., 17, 36

Bassett, H., 399, 410

Bastisse, E., 402 (see Demolon), 410 (see

Demolon)

Batchelor, L. D., 67, 75 (see Parker)

Bateman, H. P., 115, 162

Bates, G. H., 378, 387



Baumeister, W., 341, S@

Baver, L. D., 160, 194, ,900, 203 (see

Page)

Beale, 0. W., 198, 204 (see Peele), 263,

286 (see Peele)

Bear, F. E., 15 (see Wallace), 38 (see

Wallace), 333 (see Reeve), 334 (see

Reeve), 360 (see Reeve), 367, 387,

398, 410

Beeson, K. C., 93, 162, 327, 3@

Beeson, K. E., 101, 162

Beijerinck, M. W.,252, 254, ,982

Bell, J. M., 399 (see Cameron), 410 (see

Cameron)

Bell, R. E., 42, 73

Benedict, H. M., 316

Benne, E. J., 394, 410

Bennett, E. R., 361, 387

Bennett, H. W., 70, 74 (see Means)

Bentley, F., 218, 238

Benton, T. H., 407 (see Potter), 411 (see

Potter)

Berezova, E. F., 246, 260, 288

Berger, K. C., 326, 326, 328, 3% (see

Kubota), 330, 331, 333 (see Kubota),

342, 349, 360 (see Kubota, Olson),

370, 373, 377, 387

Bergman, W. E., 162,103 (see Marshall)

Berkner, F., 365, 587

Bernal, J. D., 184, 185, 186, 197, 201 (see

also Fowler)

Bernstein, L., 26

Bertrand, G., 324, 344, 345, 349

Binkley, A. M., 379 (see Kunkel), 388

(see Kunkel)

Bird, J. J., 360, 363, 372, 887

Bizzell, J. A,, 250 (see Lyon), 251 (see

Lyon), 286 (see Lyon)

Black, C. A., 195, $03 (see Low), 255,267,

287 (see Thompson), 395, 396, 397,

399 (see Low), 403 (see Low), 410,

411 (see Low)

Blackman, G. E., 301, 316

Blair, A. W., 392, 410

Blair, W. M., 27, 36 (see Hayward)

Blank, L. M., 267 (see Clark), 283 (see

Clark)

Blaser, R. E., 43, 73 (see Bledsoe)

Bledsoe, R. W., 43, 73

Blodgett, F. M., 357, 387



AUTHOH, INDEX



Blood, P. T., 102 (see Prince), 103 (see

Prince), 165 (see Prince), 364 (see

Prince), 389 (see Prince)

Blumer, C., 214 (see Harrison), 239 (see

Harrison)

Bobko, E. V., 330, 349

Boggs, H. M., 103 (see Adams), 162 (see

Adams)

Bohart, G. E., 216, 238

Bollen, W. B., 260 (see McBurney), 286

(see McBurney)

Bolley, H. L., 293, 916

Bolton, J. L., 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214,

215, 216, 217, 220, 221, 225, 226, 227,

228, 229, 231, 238, 239 (see Peck),

840 (see Stevenson)

Bond, G., 105,162

Bonde, R., 378 (see also Schultz), 385,

387, 389 (see Schultz)

Bonner, J., 260, 282, 887 (see Thimann)

Bordakow, P. P., 119, 162

Borthwick, H., 86, 87 (see also Scully),

88 (see also Parker), 89 (see also

Heinze), 162, 163 (see Heinze), 166

(see Parker, Scully)

Bortner, C. E., 44 (see Karraker), 74

(see Karraker)

Bottomley, W. B., 408, 410

Bower, C. A., 9, 19, 36, 94, 162, 268,

882, 409, 410

Bowling, J. D., Jr., 17 (see Garner), 36

(see Garner)

Boyd, F. T., 304 (see Ennis), 3i7 (see

Ennis), 378, 380 (see Ennis), 387 (we

Ennis), 989 (see Wilson)

Boynton, D., 16, 36, 68, 69 (see Fisher),

73 (see also Fisher)

Boysen-Jensen, P., 260, 989

Bradfield, R., 192, 901, 904 (see Peech),

397, 410

Bradley, W. F., 162 (see also Grim), 168

(see Grim), 169 (see Grim), 170, 173,

174 (see Grim), 187, 193, 201 ( S P C

also Clark), 202 (see Grim)

Brady, N. C., 370, 388 (see Nelson)

Brain, S. G., 314, 319 (see Neely)

Brandenburg, E., 322, 349

Bray, R. H., 162 (see also Grim), 168

(see Grim), 169 (see Grim), 170, 172,

191,194 (see aIso De Turk), I96 (see



415



also Kurtz), 201 (see also De Turk,

Dickman, Grim), LO2 (see Grim),

203 (see Kurtz), 392, 401 (see Kurtz),

403 (see Dickman), 410 (see also

Dickman, Kurtz)

Breazeale, J. F., 9, 19, 20, 36, 37 (see

McGeorge), 280, 282, 398 (see McGeorge), 399 (see McGeorge), 410

(see McGeorge)

Breed, R. S., 273, 282

Brenchley, W. E., 332, 349

Brentzel, W. E., 380, 387

Brickley, W. D., 367, 387

Bridger, G. L., 45, 46, 76

Briggs, G. B., 341, 3-49

Briggs, G. M., 102 (see Albert), 162 (see

Albert)

Brink, R. A., 207, 208, 209, 234, 838

Briscoe, C. F., 106, 158 (see also Andrews), 168

Broadbent, F. E., 250, 882

Bronson, T. E., 384, 387

Brooks, F. F., 235 (see Toovey), 236

(see Toovey), 240 (see Toovey)

Brooks, 0. L., 54, 7 3

Brown, A. L., 304 (see Savage), 305 (see

Savage), 319 (see Savage)

Brown, B. A., 62, 73, 360, 364, 372, 387

Brown, B. E., 49, 51 (see Whittaker),

73, 76 (see Whittaker), 365, 366, 371

(see Hawkins), 387, 388 (see Hawkins)

Brown, C. A., 302, 303, 313, 316

Brown, 1. C., 392, 4 l O

Brown, J. G., 15 (see Lilleland), 28 (see

Lilleland), 34 (see Lilleland), 37 (see

Lilleland)

Brown, J. W., 7, 18, 27, 31, 296, 304, 306,

318 (see Mitchell)

Brown, P. E., 250, 278, 282

Brown, R., 260, 282

Brown, S. M., 64 (see Chapman), 67

(see Chapman), 73 (see Chapman),

161 (see Kelley), 173 (see Kelley),

178 (see Kelley), 187 (see Kelley),

188 (see Kelley), 202 (see Kelley)

Browning, G. M., 105, 137, 138, 139, 140,

141, 162, 166 (see Norman), 198 (see

also Johnston, 201 (see Feng), 202

(see Johnston), 20.1 (see Wilson), 280



416



AUTHOR INDEX



(see also Johnston), 283 (see Feng),

284 (see Johnston), 288 (see Wilson)

Brayer, T. C., 256, 282 (see Barker)

Brunner, A., 263, 286 (see Sekura)

Bruce, H. D., 295 (see Crafts), 305 (see

Crafts), 316 (see Crafts)

Bryan, 0. C., 392, 4lO

Buehrer, T. F., 171, 173, 174, 178, 201

Ruffum, B. C., 20, 21, 25, 55, 37 (see

Slosson)

Bull, H. B., 16, 37 (see Moyer)

Burd, J. S., 410

Burgess, P. S.,4, 36

Burkhart, L., 103 (see Nelson), 166 (see

Nelson)

Burlison, W. L., 107, 110, 163

Burnham, P., 184 (we Cross), 201 (see

Cross)

Burrell, A. B., 16, 36 (see Boynton)

Burrell, R. C., 120 (see Wolfe), 167 (see

Wolfe)

Burris, R. H., 105, 166 (see Umbreit)

Bursik, J., 312 (see Price), 319 (see Price)

Burton, J. C., 288 (see Wilson)

Burvill, G. H., 361 (see Teakle), 389 (see

Teakle)

Bushnell, J., 363, 367, 382, 387, 389 (see

Sleesman)

Byers, H. G., 326 (see Whetstone), 327

(see Whetstone), 331 (see Whetstone), 367 (see Whetstone), 392,

410 (see Brown)

C



Caillere, S., 173, 203

Calder, R. H., 207, 208, 211, 212, 214,

239 (see Hadfield)

Caldwell, A. C., 60, 62, 73

Caldwell, 0. G., 180, 203 (see Marshall)

Calfee, R. K., 323, 324, 349, 360 (see

McHargue)

Calland, J. W., 101, 111, 163

Callbeck, L. C , 380, 387

Cameron, F. K., 31, 36, 399, 4l0

Camp, A. F., 68, 73

Campbell, J. C., 49 (see Houghland), 73

(see Houghland), 383 (see Pepper),

384 (see Pepper), 386, 387, 388 (see

Pepper)



Cannon, H. B., 374, 388

Carlson, J. W., 207, 208, 211, 220, 221,

222, 224, 225, 238, 240 (see Sorenson)

Carlson, R. F., 30'4, 310, 316

Carlyle, R. E., 277, 282

Carolus, R. L., 362, 387

Caron, A., 274, 282

Carr, R. S., 110, 163 (see Henson)

Carter, D. G., 115, 162 (see Bateman)

Cartter, J. L., 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 115,

117, 118, 123, 131, 136, 150, 163 (see

also Earley), 164 (see Morse). 166

(see Probst)

Cassal, C. E., 324, 349

Chamberlain, D. W., 144, 145, 147. 16.2

(see Allington), 163

Chambers, R., 16, 96

Chamblee, D. S., 70 (see Woodhouse),

76 (see Woodhouse)

Chaminade, R., 194, 201

Chandler, F. B., 372, 387

Chandler, R. F., Jr., 48, 49, 53, 73

Chandler, W. V., 395, 410

Chang, S. C., 57, 74 (see Jackson)

Chapman, C. J., 102 (see Albert), 152

(see Albert)

Chapman, J. E., 264, 284 (see Hubbell)

Chapman, H. D., 19, 36, 56, 57, 64, 67, 73,

340, S49, 395 (see Stephenson), 411

(see Stephenson)

Chase, F. E., 272, 284 (see Lochhead)

Chenoweth, 0. V , 64 (see King), 74 (see

King)

Chermezon, H., 6, 36

Chilton, S. J. P., 232, 238

Chittenden, E., 332 (see Askew), 349 (see

Askew)

Choudhri, R. S., 277, 288 (see Wilson)

Christiansen, J. E., 30, 32, 33, 34, ST (see

Magistad), 327, 360 (see Magistad)

Chucka, J. A., 360, 361, 364, 367, 368,

371 (see Hawkins), 374, 387, 388 (see

Hawkins)

Clark, C. F., 386, 387

Clark, F. E., 245, 251, 253, 255 (see

Thompson), 261 (and see Stumbo),

262, 265 (see also Mitchell, Stumbo),

266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273,

275 (see also Stumbo, Mitchell), 276,



417



.4UTHOR INDEX



282, $83 (see Goring), 186



(see

Mitchell), 287 (see Stumbo)

Clark, G. L., 174, 201

Clark, K. G., 48, 49 (see also Houghland), 51, 73 (see Brown, Fuller,

Houghland), 74 (see Madorsky)

Clark, N. A., 260, 283

Clarke, E. J., 16, 38 (see Walsh)

Clarke, I., 231, 240 (see Tysdal)

Coates, W. H., 364 (see Prince), 389 (see

Prince )

Colberg, W. J., 382 (see Post), 389 (see

Post)

Coleman, N. T., 178, 181, 195, 201

Coleman, 0.H., 233 (see Weihing), 2440

(see Weihing)

Coleman, R., 329, 8.49, 395, 397, 399, 402,

410

Collander, R., 15, 36

Collins, E. R., 102, 103, 163, 369, 387

Colwell, W. E., 103 (see also Nelson),

163, 164 (see Nelson), 326, 331, 349

Comar, C. L., 394 (see Nellar), 411 (see

Nellar )

Conover, R. A., 147, 153

Conn, H. J., 273, 283

Conrad, J. P., 13, 36, 395, 410

Conrad, P. F., 303 (see Shaw), 319 (see

Shaw)

Cooil, B. J., 7, 27, 31

Cook, H. L., 55 (see Scarseth), 59 (see

Scarseth), 76 (see Scarseth)

Cook, H. T., 371, 387

Cook, R. L., 65, 76 (see Peikert), 323, 3.49

Cook, W. H., 293, 316

Coon, B. F., 149, 163

Cooper, D. C., 207, 208, 209, 238 (see

Brink)

Copson, R. L., 46 (see Curtis), 48, 73

(see also Curtis)

Cordner, H. B., 387

Cormack, M. W., 232, 235, 238

Corum, C. J., 370, 387

Costello, D. F., 304,305,319 (see Savage)

Coulter, L. L., 295,305,316 (see Barrons)

Cowie, G. A., 363, 368, 587

Cox, G. M., 135, 167 (see Weiss)

Cox, H. R., 304, 916 (see Ahlgren)

Cox, T. R., 71, 73, 365, 387

Crafts, A. S., 291 (see Robbins), 292



(see also Robbins), 293 (see also

Robbins), 294, 295, 296, 297, 298,

299, 300, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308 (see

also Robbins), 309, 311 (see Hannesson), 312 (see also Robbins), 313,

315, 316, 318 (see Hannesson)

Crtlndall, B. H., 213, 216, 225, 226, 229,

230, 232, 238, 24O (see Tysdal)

Cross, P. C., 184, 201

Croxall, H. E.,,370 (see Wallace), 389

(see Wallace)

Crump, S. L., 98, 16Y

Cummings, R. W., 54, 73, 331, 349 (see

Colwell), 410

Currie, G. A., 292, 817

Currier, H. B., 296 (see Crafts), 304 (see

Crafts), $17 (see Crafts)

Curtis, H. A., 46, 73

Cuthbert, F. L., 186, 10.2 (see Grim)

Cutler, G. H., 124, 163

Cseratzki, W., 195, 203 (see Nitzsch)



D

Daines, R. H., 366, 387

Daugherty, 16

Davidson, R. C., 163, 201

Davidson, R. S., 385, 387

Davies, R. O., 362, 387

Davis, E. H., 64, 73

Davis, F. L., 393, 402, 410

Davis, L. E., 399, 400, 401, 403, 4 l O

Davy, R. H., 108, 163

Dawson, R. E., 278, 283

Dawson, R. F., 259,286 (see Routien)

Dawson, V. T., 276 (see Smith), 278,

283, 286 (see Smith)

Dayton, W. A., 78, 164

Dean, L. A., 181, 195 (see also McAuliffe), 201, 203 (see McAuliffe),

393, 394 (see McAuliffe, Ballard),

395, 396, 398, 403, 404, 406 (see McAuliffe), 407, 410 (see also Ballard),

$11 (see McAulXe)

Debye, P., 184, 186, 201

Decker, G. C., 385, 388

Decker, P., 384 (see Wolfenbarger), 390

(see Wolfenbarger)

De France, J. A., 311, 317

Deherain, P. P., 279,283



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