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XV. Recent Developments in Disease Control

XV. Recent Developments in Disease Control

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386



ORA SMITH



suitable proportions of zinc in the complex there was better control of

tipburn than was obtained with simple copper chromates or other forms

of copper fungicides, probably due to the control of leafhoppers. Campbell and Pepper (1948) reported the use of Dithane D14 plus zinc sulfate

and lime resulted in the highest yield although not significantly higher

than Zerlate, Parzate and tri-basic copper. P1ot.s sprayed with copper

oxychloride sulfate returned the lowest yield but not significantly lower

than plots sprayed with Bordeaux, Phygon or DDT alone. Thurston

et al. (1948) conclude from field experiments conducted in Pennsylvania,

West Virginia and Ohio that copper zinc chromate is the most promising

new inorganic potato fungicide introduced in recent years. It is effective

against early blight, Alternuria and late blight, Phytophthora and is

compatible with DDT. Dithane applications also resulted in high yields

and alternating application of Parzate and Zerlate ranked next best,

It is very important in the study of virus disease to be able to transmit the symptoms from an infected to a healthy plant. Leafroll is one

of the most important and widespread of the virus diseases which are

insect transmitted. The potato is not. satisfactory as a test plant in

transmission studies of leafroll virus because of the long period of time

required for symptom development. Symptoms developed from current

season infection in New York are often unrecognizable (Kirkpatrick,

1948). To determine infection it is necessary to grow the potatoes to

maturity and to index the tuber progeny. The ideal indicator plant for

transmission studies with an insect-transmitted virus should develop distinct symptoms in a short time whenever inoculated with a single insect.

It should be grown from true seed, useable in the seedling stage and a

food plant for the insect vector.

Physalis floridana, Rydberg, P . angulata L. and Datura 8 t r a ~ o n i u ~

L. have characteristics which make them more favorable than the potato

as test plants for transmission studies with leafroll virus. They develop

symptoms within 15 to 30 days following inoculation. Transmission percentages from single insect feedinge of Myzus persicae Sulzer range from

70 to 100 per cent for P. floridana (Kirkpatrick, 1948).

REFERENCES



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POTATO PRODUCTION



387



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Brown, B. A. 1943. Conn. Vegetable Growers’ Assoc., Proc. 30, 51-52.

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Agron. 34, 894-901.

Collins, E. R., and Skinner, J. J. 1942. J. Am. SOC.

Cook, H. T., and Houghland, G. V . C. 1942. Am. Potato J . 19, 201-208.

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Cordner, H. B. 1943. Okla. Agr. ExptSta. Tech. Bull. T-18.

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Cox, T. R., and Odland, T. E. 1940. Am. Potato J. 17, 105-113.

Daines, R. H., and Martin, W. H. 1940. Hints to Potato Growers N.J . 20, 1-6.

Davidson, R. S., and Rich, A. E. 1947. Am. Potato J. 24, 35-39.

Davies, R. O., and Fagan, T. W. 1944. Emp. J. Expt. Agr. 12, 54-60.

Dimond, A. E., Heuberger, J. W., and Horsfall, J. G. 1943. Phytopath. 33,1095-1097.

Dostal, R. 1947. Shornik Ceskoslov. Akab. Zemedelake 19, 32-39.

Ennis, W. B. Jr., Swanson, C. P., Allard, R. W., and Boyd, F. T. 1946. Botan. Gaz.

107, 568-575.



Fernow, K. H., and Smith, 0. 1944. Cornell Univ. Agr. Ext. Bull. 653.

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Findlay, D. H., and Sykes, E. T. 1937. Gt. Britain J . Ministry Agr. 44, 546-552.



388



ORA SMITH



Granovsky, A. A. 1944. Am. Potato J . 21, 89-91.

Gray, S. D. 1944. Better Crops with Plant Food 28(2), 24-26, 42-43.

Greenwood, D. E. 1947. J. Econ. Entomol. 40, 724-727.

Gyrisko, G. G. 1948. J. Econ. Entomol. 39, 262-263.

Gyrisko, G. G., Wene, G. P., and Rawlins, W. A. 1946. .I. Econ. Entomol. 39, 205208.



Hawkes, J. C. 1945. Emp. J. Expt. Agr. 13, 11-40.

Hawkins, A. 1945. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. Proc. 10, 252-256.

Hawkins, A. 1946. J. Am. SOC.Agron. 38, 667-681.

Hawkins, A., Chucka, J. A., and Brown, B. E. 1941. Am. Potato J . 19, 234-239.

Hawkins, A. 1942. E. I . du Pant de Nemourn & Co., Pub. Relations Dept. Agr.

News Letter 10, 13-17.

Heuberger, J. W., and Manns, T. F. 1913. Phytopath. 33, 1113.

Heuberger, J. W., and Steams, L. A. 1946. J . Econ. Entomol. 39, 287-268.

Hibbard, A. D. 1943. Mo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 464.

Hill, H., and Cannon, H. B. 1948. Sci. Agr. 28, 185-199.

Horsfall, J. G I and Turner, T. 1947. Am. Potato J . 24, 103-110.

Houghland, G. V. C., and Parker, M. M. 1948. Am. Potato J. 25, 393-406.

Hoyman, W. G. 1947. Am. Potato J . 24, 110-118.

Jacob, K. D., and Armiger, W. H. 1944. J. Am. SOC.Agron. 36, 281-286.

Jones, J. O., and Plant, W. 1942. Ann. Rept. Agr. Hort. Research Sta., Long Ashton, Bristol, 44-45.

Katalymov, M. V. 1946. Compt. rend. acad. sci. U.R.S.S. 53, 821-825.

Keese, H. 1942. Bodenk. PfZErniihr. 27,116-134.

Kirkpatrick, H. C. 1948. Am. Potato J . 25, 283-290.

Krants, F. A., and Eide, C. J. 1948. Am. Potato J. 25, 294-300.

Kraus, J. E. 1944. Idaho Agr. Expt. 9ta. Circ. 88.

Kunkel, R., Edmundson, W. C., and Binkley, A. M. 1948. Am. Potato 3. 25, 371378.



Linn, M. B., Apple, J. W., and Arnold, C. Y. 1948. Am. Potafo J . 25, 315-328.

Lorens, 0. A. 1944. Am. Potato J. 21, 179-192.

Lorens, 0. A. 1947. Am. Potato J . 24, 281-293.

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Pepper, B. B., Wilson, C. A., and Campbell, J. C. 1947. J. Econ. Entomol. 40, 727730.



POTATO PRODUCTION



389



Post, R. L., Colberg, W. J., and Munro, J. A. 1948. Am. Potato J. 25, 334-339.

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&a. Bull. 324.

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Thurston, H. W. Jr., Leach, J. G., and Wilson, J. D. 1948. Am. Potato J . 25, 406409.

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390



ORA SMITH



Wilson, J. D., and Sleesman, J. P. 1945. Proc. Ohio Vegetable Potato Growers’ AsSOC.



31, 193-208.



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Winters, E. 1946. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 10, 162-167.

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Fixation of Soil Phosphorus

L. A. DEAN

U . S. Department. of Agricultuw. Beltsuille, Maryland

CONWANTS



Page

391

392

111. Phosphorus Fixation by Soils, Clay Minerals, and Hydrous Oxidcfi . . . 393

IV. Chemically Precipitated Phosphorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

1. Acid Soil Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

2. Calcium-Soil Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

V. Fixation of Phosphorus by Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . 400

1. Adsorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 400

2. Metathetical Reactions and Anion Exchange . . . . . . . . . . 402

. . 406

VI. Biological Fixation of Phosphorus in Soils . . . . . . . . .

1. Distribution of Organic Phosphorus in Soil . . . . . . . . . 406

2. Identification of the Organic Phosphorus Compounds in Soils . . . 407

a. Nucleic Acids and Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

b. Phytin and Inositol Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

. . . 409

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .

11. Accumulation of Phosphorus in Soils



. . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .



~



I. INTRODUCTION

The term phosphorus fixation is a general one which usually implies

the conversion of phosphorus to a more insoluble form. I n some instances,

however, this term has been used to designate a change in the degree of

availability* of soil phosphorus. Changes in availability are not sufficiently specific to warrant quantitative interpretation. It does not

necessarily follow that a change in solubility will mean a change in availability. For the purposes of this discussion, fixed phosphorus will be

defined as the soil phosphorus which has become attached t o the solid

phase of soils. Thus a n example of phosphate fixation would be the

disappearance of phosphate ions from a solution placed in contact with

soil.

*Available phosphorus pertains to those forms of phosphorus in soils which are

usable by plants. Usually thought of in relative terms such as readily or slowly

available.

391



L. A. DEAN



392



11. ACCUMULATION

OF PHOSPHORUS

IN SOILS

In many soils fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the phosphorus which is available for plant absorption. In parent materials such

as igneous rocks the phosphorus exists primarily as apatite and as inclusions in many silicate minerals. During t.he processes of soil formation

this phosphorus enters the soil solution and is subsequently converted

into fixed phosphorus or absorbed by plants and eventually deposited on

the soil surface as plant or animal residues. Thus as a soil matures t.he

phosphorus accumulates in the surface layers and in the clay fraction.

This point is demonstrated by the data presented in Table I.

TABLE 1.

Accumulation of Phosphorus at the Surface and in the Clay Fraction



Horizon



A1

A,



BI

C



Chester loam

Percent PPOS

Depth

Whole

Colloid

inches

soil

only

0-2

2-10

10-34

34-60



0.16

0.09

0.12

0.10



0.53

0.26

0.15

0.20



Appling sandy loam

Percent PnOs

Depth

Whole

Colloid

Horizon

inches

soil

only

A,

A2



BI



B*

C



0-1

1-9

9-14

14-28

28-60



0.09

0.05

0.04

0.09

0.03



0.45

025

0.18

0.26

0.15



_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~

~~

_~

_ _ _ _ ~



“Brown and Byers (1938).



In addition to the changes in soil phosphorus during the soil genesis,

extensive changes have been brought about in cultivated soils through the

long continued use of fertilizers and manures. Cummings (1945) discussed the use of phosphatic fertilizers in the United States and presents

a table showing that in 1943 farmers in 22 states applied more phosphorus

as fertilizer than was removed by harvested crops. I n 12 states more

than three times as much phosphorus was applied than was removed by

crops. Soil studies have shown the extent of the increase of total and

soluble phosphorus in soils resulting from this intensive use of phosphatic

fertilizers (Anderson et al., 1927; Blair and Prince, 1936; Bryan, 1933;

Hester, 1937; Peech, 1939, 1945). As much 8s fivefold increases in the

amounts of total phosphorus in soils are reported.

Soil properties have been shown to influence the forms of phosphorus

that persist in soils. Bray and Dickman (1941) measured the effect of

additions of superphosphate and rock phosphate on t.he amounts of acid

soluble and neutral ammonium fluoride soluble phosphorus in Illinois



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