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IV. Boron Requirement of Plants

IV. Boron Requirement of Plants

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BORON IN SOILS AND CROPS



337



Stiles (1946) listed the name of the first worker to call definite attention to the favorable effect of boron on the growth of the species concerned. This was given whether the worker regarded boron as essential

for the species or not. Thus, Nakamura in 1903, reported increased

growth of peas and spinach as a result of adding boron to the soil but

i t was not until 1915 that M a d claimed the essential nature of boron

for plant growth.

1, Function of Boron in Plants

Warington (1923) first showed that meristematic activity was markedly affected in the broadbean and that both roots and stem tissues were

abnormal in the absence of boron. Since this work, there have been a

great number of studies on the function of boron in plants. Johnston

and Dore (1929) found t.hat plants grown in a boron deficient nutrient

solution showed four distinct types of injury: (1) death of the terminal

growing point of the stem; (2) breakdown of the conducting tissues of

the stem; (3) a characteristic brittleness of the stem and petiole and

(4)extremely poor growth of roots which develop a brownish unhealthy

color. The total sugars and starches were more abundant in the leaves

and stems of the boron deficient plants while a greater amount of benzene-insoluble matter was found in the leaves of normal plants and in

the stems of boron deficient plants.

Haas and Klotz (1931) concluded that boron is essential to cell division in the meristematic tissues and in the cambium. In the absence

of sufficient boron the cambium and portions of the phloem were observed

to disintegrate and gum up, some of which found its way to the exterior

through a split in the cortex. When there was any xylem disintegration,

the amount was small. A normal accumulation of carbohydrates in the

leaves of boron deficient, plants was observed and ascribed to the disintegration of the phloem with consequent interference with translocation. The addition of boron to the culture solution resulted in a reduction

in the total sugar content of the leaves and a restoration of the vigor

of the plant.

Shive (1941) believed there was considerable experimental evidence

that boron is an important factor in the processes involved in organic

synt.hesis. He found that plants grown in boron deficient regions yielded

strong positive tests for pectins and negative tests for fats. Lohnis

(1940), studying the influence of boron deficiency on the anthers of

several small grains, found the primary effect of boron deficiency to appear in the cell nucleus where division was inhibited in the early stages

of the boron deficiency. Working with alfalfa, Scripture and McHargue

(1943) found that soluble nitrogenous compounds and reducing sugars



338



K.



C.



BERQER



were present in greater proportions in expressed sap from boron deficient

plants than in that from normal plants. Later (1945), working with

radishes they found that direct reducing sugars, sugar hydrolyzed by

invertase, and alcohol-insoluble carbohydrates were all present in excess

amounts in the tops of boron deficient plants. The rook of the radishes

contained less direct reducing sugars but more of the other carbohydrate

fractions than did the normal ones. They concluded that boron must

function in metabolism and translocation of carbohydrates but whether

directly or indirectly through its role in nitrogen metabolism remained

uncertain.

Smith (1944) found that in squash leaf cells approximately 50 per

cent of the boron was immobilized in the cell wall or intracellular substance. Along with the boron, he found 70 per cent of the calcium. He

suggests that boron is of importance in the cytoplasm and in the wall

but not in the chloroplast or vacuole.

From the evidence above it can be seen that boron is very import,ant

in cell division and is apparently a necessary component of the cell wall.

Boron also plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins in the

plant as shown by the fact that in its absence, nitrogen compounds and

sugars accumulate while meristematic tissues die. Further work is necessary before more definite roles can be ascribed.

2. Interrelations with Other Ekments



The relationship of boron to calcium in plant nutrition, as well as the

relationship between boron and numerous other elements, has been the

subject of much study. There have been many conflicting reports as to

the effect of boron on the other elements, particularly on t*he base elements. There have been cases where, because boron was the limiting

factor, the content of other elements in the plant have been increased.

When boron was adequately supplied, the amounts of the other elements

in the plant declined. Under conditions of boron toxicity, the normal

physiology of the plant can be so upset as to cause either abnormal

accumulations, or lowered amounts of both cations and anions.

I n other cases if an element such as phosphorus is limitsing, the boron

content of the plant might be high due to a stunting because of a lack

of phosphorus for normal growth. I n such a case, if the phosphorus

supply is adequate the amount of boron in the plant will probably decline

due to the greater growth of the plant when supplied with phosphorus.

The same relationship could hold true of any of the other nutrient elements.

When the effects of various bases are studied, it should be remembered that on a chemical equivalent basis plants tend to maintain R



BORON IN SOILS AND CROPS



339



constant amount of bases. Therefore, if the supply of potassium is

increased in a plant, the amount of calcium or other bases will probably

he lower. It should also be remembered that plants require a certain

balance of one nutrient element to another for normal growth and if

the balance is greatly upset the plant will be abnormal. Thus if the

calcium supply was increased three or four-fold above normal, the result

could be magnesium deficiency even though the amount of magnesium

present would be sufficient under normal conditions. It is important,

therefore, when studying the relationship of boron to some of the bases,

to keep this fact in mind.

I n nearly all experiments, it has been found that the amount of boron

in the plant tissue increases with the amount supplied to the plant

whether the plant is growing in soil or nutrient solution. This is true

even when the amounts of boron are supplied in toxic concentrations.

This build-up in the pIant can be as much as ten-fold or more, as shown

by Parks, et al. (1944).

The following are some of the factors that. should be taken into consideration when relationship between boron and the other nutritive elements are studied.



a. Calcium-Boron Ratios. .Much of the work on calcium-boron ratios

has already been discussed under Section II-2-b. The relationship betweeen calcium and boron apparently is a very real one and, as shown

by Reeve and Shive (1944), when plants have access t o increasing

amounts of calcium they require more boron to prevent deficiency. With

high amounts of calcium, plants are able to withstand larger amounts

of boron without it becoming toxic. They found t>hata t high boron levels

there is a marked decrease in both total and soluble boron in the plant

tissue with increase in the calcium concentrations in the nutrient solut.ion.

The calcium accumulation in the tissues is largely determined by the

calcium concentration in the growing medium and appears to be independent of boron. This is in line with observations by other workers.

Not only is a certain definite amount of boron needed with calcium in

the plant to build cell walls, as well as for the other functions of boron

in the plant, but it appears that excess of boron above t,hese needs combines with calcium to form compounds no longer toxic to the plant.

Because the symptoms of boron deficiency and of calcium deficiency

which appear in the growing point are very similar, i t appears logical

that these two elements are related in their function in plant growth.

Further evidence that their function is related was given by Smith

(1944), who found 50 per cent of the boron and 70 per cent of the calcium

immobilized in the cell wall or intracellular spaces.



340



K . C. BERGER



b. Potassium-Boron Ratios. The main work on potassium-boron

ratio has been done by Reeve and Shive (1944). Along with their work

on calcinm-boron ratios, they grew tomato plants in water culture solutions with five different potassium levels and four different boron levels.

They found that the external symptoms of boron toxicity a t high boron

levels and the deficiency symptoms a t low boron levels were progressively

accentuated with increasing potassium concentrations in the nutrient

solution. Increasing t.he potassium concentration had the effect of increasing the boron content of the plants especially a t the higher boron

levels. They found that calcium and potassium were similar in their

capacity to accentuate the symptoms of boron deficiency with increasing

concentrations of these cations in the nutrient solution, but they found

boron toxicity at the high boron levels decreased markedly with increasing concentrations of calcium but not with potassium. This might largely

be due to the constant ion effect in plants which is now well known,

whereby, on the equivalent basis, t.here tends to remain for any given

species a rather constant total amount of cations in the plant. When one

of the cations is increased in the plant it does so a t the expense of some

other. I n this case increasing the potassium content would have the

effect of reducing the amount of calcium in the plant. and thus the effect

of high potassium would be the same as that of low calcium. The results

seem to agree with this.

Another effect of potassium in the plant might, be that of increasing

the permeability of the roots. The fact that boron concentrations in the

plant are increased with increasing amount8 of potassium would seem to

substantiate this.

If, when the potassium concentrations was increased, greater growth

resulted, boron deficiency symptoms would be accentuated a t low boron

levels because of t,he increased growth of the plant. This probably is a

factor in some cases in the field, where potassium deficiency and potassium responses often occur.

Chapman et al. (1940) suggested a reciprocal relationship of calcium

and potassium when they found that lemon plants grown in potassium

deficient cultures supplied with boron a t the rate of 1 p.p.m. developed

symptoms of boron toxicity. Normal lemon leaves contained 20 to 40

p.p.m. of boron in the dry matter but in these plants the boron concentration was nearly 200 p.p.m.

It appears that the relationship between potassium and boron in the

plant is of much less importance than that of calcium and boron. In

many cases probably the effect of potassium on boron in plants is an

indirect one, where adding potassium to the plant decreases the uptake

of calciiim, thus upsetking the calcium-boron ratio in the plant.



BORON IN SOILS AND CROPS



341



c. Nitrogen-Boron Relatiomhip. Because the region of the meristem

is one of the first to be affected when boron deficiency exists, it seems

likely that boron not only is an important factor in cell wall formation

but also that it might be tied up with protein formation in the protoplasm. There is considerable evidence in the literature to show that

when boron is deficient, there is an accumulation of nitrogen compounds

and simple carbohydrate compounds in the plant. This would indicate

an inability of the plant to complete protein synthesis in the absence

of boron.

Schropp and Arene (1942) in a study of the nitrogen content and

metabolism in plants found more nitrogen and a smaller proportion of

protein-nit,rogen in boron deficient plants than in normal plants. Baumeister (1941) working with Phaseolus vulgaris in water cultures, with

and without boron, found that when the plants were grown with only a

small amount of calcium sulfate present, the nitrogen being supplied by

the cotyledons only, the plants accumulated excess nitrogen in shoots,

leaves, and roots, in comparison with the parallel series in which boron

was also supplied. When nitrogen was supplied to the nutrient solution,

disturbances in the nitrogen content and metabolism of boron deficient

plants were seen earlier in the stems and roots than in the leaves.

Scripture and McHargue (1943-1945), working wit,h alfalfa, radishes,

and spinach, found that soluble nitrogenous compounds and reducing

sugars were present in greater proportions in the expressed sap from

boron deficient alfalfa and radishes than in that from normal plants.

The radish roots from deficient plants contained less direct reducing

sugars but more of the other oarbohydrate fractions than did those from

normal plants. Further support for the theory t.hat boron is used in

protein formation is found in their work on, spinach. The proportion of

protein-nitrogen to alcohol-soluble-nitrogen in spinach leaves increased

with increasing boron supplies.

Working with nasturtiums, Briggs (1943) found a progressive decrease

in nitrate absorption in boron deficient plants as compared with that of

normal plants. Ammonia-nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, and carbohydrates accumulated in such plants. In plants showing boron toxicity,

the amount of protein nitrogen was increased and the amount of soluble

nitrogen lowered.

d . Other Elements. Parks et al. (1944) studied the relationship of

boron to a number of other elements. Their data show that differences

between the content of various elements as affected by the boron supply

could not be correlated with the type of ion (cation or anion), the valence

of the ions, or the total growth of the plant. This is probably due to the



342



K. C. BERQER



fact that most of their treatments contained toxic quantities of boron.

I n their paper, they list conflicting reports as to the effect of the boron

supply on the magnesium, phosphorus, and iron contents of various

plants. As has been previoiisly stated, many of these results have been

obtained due to abnormalities in tlie physiological functions of the plant

due to exheme deficiencies or excesses of boron in the plant, or have been

clue to the fact that some one of the nutrient elements has been limiting

plant growth, thus causing accumulation of other elements.

I n the normal physiological functions of the plant it appears to be

established that there is a direct relationship between calcium and boron

and between nitrogen and boron. Although other elements have been

considered to have an effect on boron in the plant it seems t,hat under

normal conditions their effect is mostly indirect by influencing the uptake

of either calcium or nitrogen.

3. Symptoms of Boron Deficiency



Visual symptoms of boron deficiency have been the subject of much

investigation and have been summarized recently in useful form by Dennis and O’Brien (1937), Dennis and Dennis (1943) , Dennis (1948) , and

McMurtrey (1948). One striking thing about boron deficiency is that

invariably it affects the terminal growth which indicates that boron is

not translocated in the plant., but is fixed in insoluble compounds, and

that it is needed in cell division. McMurtrey (1948) lists the visual

symptoms of a number of crops and in nearly all of them, the main

visual symptom of boron deficiency is that terminal growth ceases, internodes become shortened, and the plant in many cases acquires a rosetted

appearance. These symptoms are nearly alike in such widely divergent

species as apple, beet, and alfalfa. Of course, because the terminal

growth dies, flowers are often blasted and fruit and seeds frequently fail

to form.

Calcium deficiency symptoms in most plants are much like those of

boron deficiency in that the terminal growth is commonly affected first,

and yet are usually differentiated by different types of chlorosis of the

leaves.

It is essential to remember that with boron, as with phosphorus and

other plant nutrient elements, deficiency may be present long before

visual deficiency symptoms occur, and increases in yield may be obtained

t.hrough the application of borax. This was shown to be true by Berger

and Truog (194413). They worked with red beets and sugar beets and

obtained statistically significant increases in yield in 5 out of 6 trials in

which boron deficiency symptoms were absent. I n only 1 of the 6 trials

were boron deficiency symptoms present when an increase in yield was



BORON I N SOILS A N D CROPS



343



obtained. Significant increases in yield were only obtained when tlie soil

had less than 1 p.p.m. of available boron.

As is true with other deficiency symptoms in any given plant, a number of different visual symptoms of boron deficiency occur, depending

upon the severity of deficiency. The first of these symptoms is internal,

as shown by Walker (1944), who found that when boron deficiency of

garden beet and cabbage is brought about gradually in sand cultures the

progressive effects on the histology of the plant can be studied in successive tertiary rings and that long before any external symptoms develop,

various profound histological changes occur.

Probably the next stage of boron deficiency in most species is a

necrosis of terminal gr0wt.h and shortening of the apical internodes. As

the deficiency becomes more severe chlorosis often appears, flowers blast

and fruit fails to form. Finally the entire plant dies, Thus there are

a whole series of boron deficiency symptoms with the mildest manifested

only by reduced growth and certain chemical changes, the second st.age

by cellular changes, and next a series of microscopic changes leading to

premature death of the entire plant.

It is interesting to know that some boron deficiency symptoms were

thought to be diseases and were named and described as such long before

their causes were understood. Thus, in 1924, Foster and Weber described a nonparasitic disease of celery which they named “cracked stem”

and ascribed as its probable cause a combination of climatic factors, use

of an unbalanced fertilizer, and excessive use of lime. It was not until

1935 that Purvis and Ruprecht t,raced the cause of these symptoms to

a deficiency of boron. It is interesting, however, that Foster and Weber

(1924) exactly described the conditions which caused the boron deficiency. In some cases a great many years elapsed between the recognition of the disease and the final discovery that it is caused by boron

deficiency. This is what Atwater (1941) refers to as the “ancient history

of boron deficiency symptoms.’) A considerable number of these socalled nonparasitic diseases associated with boron deficiehcy have been

reported and described. Among them are top sickness of tobacco, heart

rot of beet, cork disease of apple, brown rot of cauliflower, cracked stem

of celery, “raan” of swedes, and many others.

Along with boron deficiency symptoms, a great deal of work has been

done on boron toxicity. This was summarized recently by Eaton (1944)

who has grouped plants into t.hree classes : sensitive, semi-tolerant, and

tolerant. It is interesting to note from tables in this publication that

sensitive plants, in general, contain high amounts of boron when grown

in a solution containing 5 p.p.m. of boron. Semi-tolerant plants, grown

in the same solution, contain an intermediate amount of boron, while



344



K . C. BERQER



the lowest amount of boron is found, in general, in the tolerant plants.

For the most part tolerant plants not only have a high boron requirement, but also a high calcium requirement.



4. Boron Requirements of Plants

Although there has been a tremendous amount of work done on boron

fertilization of crops in the field, it is still difficult t o classify many orops

according to their boron requirement. I n order to do this properly, it is

necessary to have knowledge of the boron content of the crop when

grown in a normal soil, the response obtained with the crop on boron

deficient soils, and the extent of the deficiency found in various parts

of the country. When the boron content of the growing medium is high,

there is no relationship between boron needs and boron content of the

plant. When the boron content of the medium is similar to that in which

the plants normally grow however, the boron content of plants grown in

such a medium is an indication of t.he boron need of the crop. Crops

with a low boron content will have a low requirement for boron, and in

general, the crops with a high content of boron will have a relatively

TABLE I

Amounts of Boron Found in Topa of Plants Grown in Two Soils

Kind of

plant

Barley

Rye

Leek

Wheat

Corn

Spinach

Black nightshade

Endive

Pea

White mustard

Plantain

Carrot

Tobacco

Sainfain

Cabbage

Soy bean

Lentil



Boron content

of dry matter

p.p.m.

2.3'

3.1"

3.1"

33'

5.0"

10.4"

11.O'

13.1"

21.7"

222"

225'

25.0'

26 .on

362'

37.1'

373'

41.4'



Kind of

plant

Kidney bean

Turnip

Black mustard

Radish

Beet

Dandelion

Spurge

POPPY

Meadow grass

Onion

Flax

Celery

Mallow

Potato

Broad bean

Tomato

Alfalfa



Data of Bertrand and De Weals (1936).

Data of Bertrand and Silherstsin (1937)



Boron content

of dry matter

p.p.m.

43.0'

49.2'

53.3"

645"

75 6

'

80.0'

93.0'

94.7'

3.2b

4Ab

7.1b

11.Qb

13.7b

139b

15.4b

15.0b

25 .Oh



--___



345



BORON IN SOILS AND CROPS



high requirement for boron. In Table I are given the boron content of

plants grown in one soil by Bertrand and De Waals (1936) and in another Foil by Bertrand and Silberstein (1937). As can be seen, the boron

content vrtried from 2.3 p.p.m. in barley to 94.7 p.p.m. in poppy. The

results given in this table are representative of boron contents found in

plants grown in humid region soils in various other parts of the world.

In Table I1 an attempt is made to arrange plants according t o their

boron requirement. The information from which this listing was made

TABLE I1

Boron Requirement of Some Common Field and Vegetable Crop Plants

Probable available boron content of soils (p.p.m.1 required for

optimum growth

Plants with high

requirement

> 0.5 p.p.m.



Plants with medium

requirements

0.1 to 0.5 p.p.m.



Plants with low

requirement

<0.1 p.p.m.



Apple

Alfalfa

Red clover

Crimson clover

White clover

Sweet clover

Red beets

Sugar beets

Mangolds

Turnips

Cabbage

Broccoli

Cauliflower

Asparagus

Sunflower

Radish

Brussels sprouts

Celery

Rutabaga

Burr clover



Tobacco

Tomato

1,etture

PWch

Cherry

Olirc

Pecan

Cotton

Sweet potato

Peanut

Carrot

Walnut

Filbert

Onion

Pear



Wheat

Oats

Rye

Barley

Buckwheat

Corn

Soybeans

Peas

Green beans

Lima beans

Navy beans

Strawberry

Citrus

Raspberry

White potato

Blue grass

Brome grasa

Other grasses

Flax



was obtained not only from the boron contents of the plants but also

from the field experience of a great number of workers in various parts

of the world. It is impossible in a paper of this kind to list all the

sources. There will probably be changes in this classification, not only

from one category to another, but also by addition and deletion as more

information is obtained. An attempt is also made to give an approxi-



K. C. BEBGEB



346



mation of the available boron content of soils required for the optimum

growth of the various crops. It is realized of course that this will vary

considerably from area to area, will change with soil and weather conditions, and that it is only ti rough approximation. It should be remembered that in a soil producing half of a normal crop, because of a lack

of water or plant food elements, the amount of boron needed for normal

growth will also be only about one-half of the normal. Furthermore, to

obtain maximum growth of the plants, it will be necessary to have more

boron in a soil high in available calcium than in one low in calcium.

There is also a difference in ability of various plants to feed on boron

which is strikingly shown up in the difference between red beets and

sugar beets. When grown in the same soil both of them have about the

same content of boron in the leaves although it is necessary to have more

available boron in the soil for red beets to prevent boron deficiency than

it is for sugar beets simply because of the smaller root system of the

red beets.

When plants become deficient in boron, they contain a certain amount

of the element. Death of the plant will occur before this amount will be

lowered. There has probably been more work done on alfalfa than on

any other crop to determine the amounts of boron needed for normal

growth and methods for detecting boron deficiency. Rogers (1947) has

TABLE I11

Critical value for the boron content of alfalfa plants as reported

by various investigators '

Investigators



Amount of boron reported in deficient

plants or plants with need for boron

p.p.m.



McLarty, Wilcox, and Woodhridgr

Rprger and Truog

Haddock and Vandrcavryr

Powers

Dregne and Powers

Jordan and Powers

Dunklee and Midgley

Brown, Munsell, and King

Whetstone, Robinson, and Byws



Dawson and Gustafson

Munsell and Brown

Rogers (1947).



6.9

8.0

10.0

10.0

7.0 to 11.5 (normal plants 12.0

to 22.5 p.p.rn. B)

12.0

15.0

17.0 (Also 17.0 with no response

to B)

13.0 to 17.0 response to boron

12 to 19

No response

20

23 in leaves, yellows



BORON IN SOILS AND CROPS



347



listed the amount of boron found by various investigators in deficient

plants or in plants with a need for boron. These are given in Table I11

and it can be seen that there is considerable discrepancy. Rogers states

that, if alfalfa, crimson clover, or burr clover contain less than 10 p.p.m.,

boron response to additions of borax is indicated on the coarse textured

red and yellow podzolic soils of Alabama. The same limiting amount

has been found to be true with alfalfa in Washington, Oregon and Wisconsin.

There undoubtedly is a certain critical minimum boron content in

plants as there is a certain maximum boron content above which toxicity

symptoms appear. As stated previously, these symptoms vary with

species and various growing conditions. With the exception of alfalfa,

little work has been done on this problem.



V. SUMMARY

Although borax has been in use for about 4 centuries, it was only

about 90 years ago when it was first discovered in plants and only a

little over 30 years ago when it was first claimed to be essential for

plant growth. The largest share of the work on boron has been accomplished in the last 15 years. Very satisfactory chemical methods are now

available for the determinat.ion of boron in plant tissues and for the

determination of total and available boron in soils.

The amount of available boron in soils can also be determined by

growing plants in soils and comparing the growth with those grown in

nutrient cultures with known amounts of boron. This method is fairly

accurate but is slow, requiring two to eight weeks for completion of a test.

Boron availability and fixation have been the subject of much recent

work. Because available boron is lost from soil most rapidly by leaching, problems of boron deficiency are largely found in soils of the humid

regions. I n arid regions, soils not leached are usually high in available

boron and irrigation waters often contain considerable quantities of this

element.

The available soil boron is apparently in two foriris, organic and

inorganic, ant1 these are in equilibriiim with the fixed forins of boron.

Boron is supplied to the soil largely from tourmaline but the rate of

decomposition is slow. In heavily cropped soils, boron is often depleted

through crop removal.

Free calcium in soils tends to hold boron from leaching and in alkaline soils, in the presence of free calcium, boron is fixed in a temporarily

unavailable form, partially by organic matter : m l partially by soil

minerals, the activity of which predominates in the clay fraction.



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