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Based on the social identification theory that when customers identified with the brand, they were ready to repeat purchase (Tukeke et al., 2013).

Based on the social identification theory that when customers identified with the brand, they were ready to repeat purchase (Tukeke et al., 2013).

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From the above arguments, author has hypotheses H2a and

H2b as follows:

H2a: Brand identification has a negative impact on switching

brand intention.

H2b: Brand identification has a positive impact on brand customer relationship quality.

The impact of CSR on switching brand intention, brandcustomer relationship quality, brand identification

Stanaland et al (2011) suggested that CSR encourages

consumers to trust the brand. Garcia de los Salmones et al.

(2005) pointed out that customer trust in a company's products

or services is directly affected by their perception of CSR.

McDonald and Lai (2011) and Pérez and Rodríguez del Bosque

(2015) found a significant positive relationship between CSR

and customer satisfaction. Besides, CSR also affected the

customer’s commitment (Inoue et al, 2017). It means, when

customers trusted through CSR, they tended to bind more

brands, switching brand intention will become rare and the

brand - customer relationship quality will be strengthened.

The attitude of customers would be more positive for

businesses that perform CSR activities than for businesses that

do not implement CSR (Murray and Vogel, 1997) and when

planning or conducting purchases they based on CSR images of

businesses (Vlachos et al., 2009; Choi and Ng, 2011; Du et al,

2011). Obviously, CSR of enterprises affected the decision to

own customers' goods directly and indirectly through customer

identification with enterprises (Pérez et al, 2013). In this view,

many scholars have shown that CSR affects brand identification



11



(Lichtenstein et al., 2004; Marin et al., 2009; He et al., 2011,

Mobin Fatma et al., 2016). From the above analysis, the

hypotheses H3a, H3b, H3c are set as follows:

H3a: CSR has a negative impact on switching brand intention

H3b: CSR has a positive impact on of brand - customer

relationship quality

H3c: CSR has a positive impact on brand identification

Since then, the author has proposed the research model as

follows:

Brand –

H2a

consumer

relationship

quality

Brand

identification



H2b



H3c



Switching brand

intention



H1



H3b



H3a



Corporate social responsibility



Figure 2.5: Recommended theoretical research model

(Source: author)



12



CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design

The study was conducted in two steps: preliminary

research and primary research.

Preliminary research was conducted by qualitative research

and quantitative research. Based on theoretical and hypothetical

frameworks developed in Chapter 2, with in-depth interviewing

techniques for exploration. Then, discussing group to develop,

adjust the measurement scale in accordance with the

characteristics of Vietnam. A quantitative preliminary research

was conducted by direct interviewing with 115 samples through

a detailed questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha reliability and

the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) were used.

Primary study was conducted by quantitative method. It

uses direct interview technique with detailed questionnaire with

regular customers in the retail supermarket in Ho Chi Minh city.

It used convenience sampling with 507 samples. The collected

data was measured by the Cronbach alpha reliability and the

EFA. Then, analyzed the CFA to measure all the research,

measurement scales. Finally, the theoretical model and

hypotheses in the model were tested through the SEM,

Bootstrap models and multi – group analysis .



13



3.2 Measurement

Measure of CSR

The CSR used in this study is a second-order concept

consisting of three responsible components: economic, social

and environmental. They were measured by 20 items based on

Alvarado-Herrera et al. (2017) and qualitative research results.

Table 3.1: Scale of CSR

Cod

e

Economic responsibility

Ec1



Items



I believe brand X tries to maximize profits to

sustain business



I believe brand X tries to build solid

relations with its customers to assure its

long-term economic success

I believe brand X tries to continuously

Ec3

improve the quality of the services that they

offer

I believe brand X tries to have a competitive

Ec4

pricing policy

I believe brand X tries to do its best to be

Ec5

more productive

I believe brand X tries to

Ec6

organize its services: security, car, fire

protection, hygiene to meet customer needs

Social responsibility

I believe brand X tries to sponsor educational

So1

programs

I believe brand X tries to sponsor public

So2

health programs

I believe brand X tries to be highly

So3

committed to well-defined ethical principles.

I believe brand X tries to sponsor cultural

So4

programs

I believe brand X tries to make financial

So5

donations to social causes

Ec2



So6



I believe brand X tries to help to improve

quality of life in the local community



Author



Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et



Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et



Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et



Alvarado-Herrera et

al. (2017)

Alvarado-Herrera et

al. (2017)

author

synthesized

from

discussion

group’s conclusion

Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)

Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)

Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)

Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)

Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et



Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et



et

et

et

et



14

So7



I believe brand X tries to provide products

that meet food hygiene and safety standards,

quality assurance, provenance.



author

synthesized

from

discussion

group’s conclusion



So8



I believe brand X tries to create jobs for local

people



author

synthesized

from

discussion

group’ conclusion



So9



I believe brand X tries to sponsor programs:

Vietnamese people use Vietnamese goods,

gratitude.



author

synthesized

from

discussion

group’s conclusion



Environmental responsibility

I believe brand X tries to sponsor proEn1

environmental programs

I believe brand X tries to allocate resources

En2

to offer services compatible with the

environment

I believe brand X tries to carry out programs

En3

to reduce pollution

I believe brand X tries to recycle its waste

En4

materials properly

I believe brand X tries to use only the

En5

necessary natural resources



Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et



Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et



Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)

Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)

Alvarado-Herrera

al. (2017)



et

et

et



Note: X is the supermarket brand name

((Source: Author's synthesis))



Measure of Brand identification

Some researchers have passed the Mael and Ashforth

(1992) initial organizational identification scales in the context

of the consumer goods brand (He and Li, 2011; Keh and Xie,

2009; Kuenzel and Halliday, 2008, 2010; Zhou et al., 2012) and

the results were good. The brand identification scale of 05 items

was based on the Mael and Ashforth (1992) scale and group

discussion results (table 3.2).

Table 3.2: Scale of brand identification

Cod

e

Bi1



Items



Author



When someone criticizes brand X, it

feels like a personal insult (no

happiness)



Mael and Ashforth

(1992)



15

Bi2



I am very interested in what others

think about brand X



Bi3



X’s successes are my happiness



Bi4



When someone praises brand X, it feels

like a personal compliment



Bi5



When I want to shop, I think of the brand

X



Mael and Ashforth

(1992)

Mael and Ashforth

(1992)

Mael and Ashforth

(1992)

author

synthesized

from

discussion

group’ conclusion



Note: X is the supermarket brand name

(Source: Author's synthesis)



Measure of BRQ

The BRQ scale consists of three components: trust,

satisfaction and commitment. This conceptual scale is based on

the Nyffenegeer et al. (2015) and Lo et al. (2017) scales and

was revised after qualitative research (table 3.3).

Table 3.3: Scale of BRQ

Code

Trust



Items



Tr1



I rely on brand X



Tr2



X is an honest brand



Tr3



X is a safe brand



Tr4



X acts in customers’ best interests

X group makes an effort to know its

Tr5

customers

Satisfation

I am consistently satisfied with my decision to

Sa1

fly with X

Sa2

Sa3

Sa4



I am completely satisfied with X

X offers exactly what I expect from a

supermarket

Brand X always create sympathy with

customer: giving birthday gifts, Tet gifts,



Author

Nyffenegger et

al. (2015)

Nyffenegger et

al. (2015)

Nyffenegger et

al. (2015)

Lo et al. (2017)

Lo et al. (2017)

Nyffenegger et

al. (2015)

Nyffenegger et

al. (2015)

Nyffenegger et

al. (2015)

author

synthesized



16

from discussion

group’

conclusion



programs for loyal customers ...

Commitment

Co1

I am emotionally attached to the hotel group

I am committed to the relationship with

Co2

brand X



Lo et al. (2017)

Lo et al. (2017)



Note: X is the supermarket brand name

(Source: Author's synthesis)



Measure of switching brand intention

After the two groups discussed, switching brand

intention was measured by seven – point Likert on three

item scales, developed by Shin et at. (2008) (see Table

3.4).

Table 3.4: Scale of switching brand intention

Cod

e

Sw1

Sw2

Sw3



Items

I intend to switch supermarket

Next time, I shall buy in another

supermarket

I would not continue to buy at X



Author

Shin et al. (2008)

Shin et al. (2008)

Shin et al. (2008)



Note: X is the supermarket brand name

(Source: Author's synthesis)



3.3 Measurement Validation

Measuring reliability of the scale used the Cronbach alpha.

The results of the analysis showed that the scales of the research

concepts are reliable with Cronbach’s alpha > 0.6 and the itemtotal correlation coefficient > 0.5 following the exclusion these

items scalers: Ec1, Ec6, Bi3, Bi4, So5, So9.

The EFA outcomes showed that there are total eight factors

is extracted at 67.858> 60%, Eigenvalue = 1.093. This proves



17



that these scales will explains the research concepts. In other

words, the EFA model is appropriate and the research concepts

are of distinct value. The factor loadings of the items are in the

range of 0.583 to 0.911, all > 0.5, practical significance.



18



CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH RESULTS

4.1 Characteristics of samples

Statistical sampling included 396 females, accounting for

78.1%; 111 males accounted for 21.9%. The number of

respondents aged 25-34 is the majority, 205 people make up

40.4%; Next is the group of people aged 35-44 with 105 people,

accounting for 20.7%. Most of them have college degrees 476

(93.9%). In terms of income, the prevailing income is 10-20

million VND / month, 181 people make up 37.5%; Next is from

5-10 million per month, 127 people make up 25%.

4.2 The reliability and exploratory factor analysis

Results of Cronbach's alpha analysis showed that 33 items

had the item – total correlation coeffiencey > 0.5 and a high

Cronbach's alpha coefficient > 0.6, ranging from 0.813 to 0.897.

So that, all 33 items of scales were tested the exploratory factor

analysis.

There were eight factors extracted at 61.092> 60%,

Eigenvalue = 1.018. Thus, the concepts were well explained, or

in other words, the EFA model is appropriate and the research

concepts are worth distinguishing. The factor loadings of the

items were > 0.5, practical significance.

4.3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

CFA performed in the following order: CFA CSR

concept; CFA brand relationship quality concept; and CFA

the final measurement model. The results showed that the

scales are both valid and relevant to the market statistics

(Table 4.1).



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Table 4.1: The final measurement model testing



Factor



Scaler



CSR



Number

observe

d

variable

s



Co

de



The reliability

Cronba

ch

alpha



Genera

l



Average

Variance

Extracte

d



Factor

Loading



Economical

responsibility



Ec



4



0.813



0.8142



0.5229



0.7230



Social

responsibility



So



7



0.890



0.8904



0.5373



0.7327



Environment

responsibility



En



5



0.845



0.8444



0.5206



0.7212



Bi



3



0.862



0.8618



0.6755



0.8213



Brand Identification

Trust



Tr



5



0.896



0.8961



0.6334



0.7950



Satisfaction



Sa



4



0.897



0.8973



0.6861



0.8280



Commitment



Co



2



0.881



0.8820



0.7892



0.8880



Switching brand intention



Sw



3



0.830



0.8313



0.6217



0.7883



BRQ



Agreeme

nt

Agreement

Agreement



Agreement

Agreement



Agreement

Agreement

Agreement



Agreemen t



(Source: Research results)



4.4 Theoretical Model Testing

.57



.79



.75



BRQ

.83



-.14



BI

.79



.20

.85



.78



-.41



.29



.71



SW

-.38



CSR

.78



.91

.77



.76

.89



Figure 4.1: SEM results (standardized)

(Source: Research results)



20



The model showed in Fig. 4.1 with 484 degrees of

freedom, in accordance with the set of survey data. Because,

it has a chi-square value = 667.378 (p = 0.000), Chi-square /

df = 1.379. TLI = 0.978, CFI = 0.980, GFI = 0.929 and

RMSEA = 0.027 are all satisfactory. The unnormalized

estimation result of the parameters is shown in Table 4.1.

With the value of p <0.05, these hypotheses relationships are

meaningful, valuable and concepts in the model are

concluded to be strongly connected with the theories. The

correlations indicate that: CSR directly affected on positive

brand identification, BRQ; indirectly impacted on switching

brand intention. BI directly affected negatively on switching

brand intention; directly and positively affected on the BRQ.

BRQ directly influences negatively on switching brand

intention. The estimate SEM model showed that the

correlations in model range have the P-value from 0.000 to

0.038. In conclusion, the hypotheses H1, H2a, H2b, H3a,

H3b, and H3c were supported by the market statistics (Table

4.1)

Table 4.1: Results of test relationship between concepts in

the research model (unstandardized)

The relationship

between the research

concepts



Estimat

e



SE



CR



CSR



->



Bi



0.901



0.063



14.356



Bi



->



BRQ



0.198



0.059



3.343



CSR



->



BRQ



0.171



0.076



2.241



Bi



->



Sw



-0.134



0.065



-2.071



CSR

BR

Q



->



Sw



-0.451



0.084



-5.347



->



Sw



-0.574



0.082



-6.962



P-value

0,000**

*

0,000**

*

0.025

0.038

0,000**

0,000***

*



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