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Object, Subject, Scope and Scientific hypothesis

Object, Subject, Scope and Scientific hypothesis

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education and training, including education and training at military

officers-training colleges in the Vietnam people’s Army. It is based on a

system of views: view of activity; concrete and historical view;

development view.

* Research method

The thesis uses a combination of different methods of psychology

studies in general and military psychology studies in particular:

In terms of theory: Analysing, generalizing some scientific

works related to emotion management skills of cadets at military

officers-training colleges in order to form theory of the thesis.

In terms of practice: Method of observation; Method of

questionnaires; Method of conversation; Method of interview;

Method of experts consult; Method of experiment; Method of

multiple choice.

In terms of maths statistics: Use of software SPSS 20.0 to

calculate the data of survey, investigation, experiment and showing

research results.

5. New contributions of the thesis

* In terms of theory

The thesis generalizes the theory on emotion management

skills and forms some basic concepts: emotion management, skill of

emotion management, emotion management skills of cadets at

military officers-training colleges. It identifies that the signs of

emotion management skills of cadets are shown through 4 component

skills (skill of identifying emotion, skill of controlling emotion, skill

of directing emotion, skill of using emotion) and factors affecting

skill of emotion management of cadets.

* In terms of practice

The thesis points out that the actual situation of emotion

management skills of cadets are shown in 4 skills: skill of identifying

emotion, skill of controlling emotion, skill of directing emotion and

skill of using emotion are of above- average level. The worst is skill

of using emotion; the best is skill of identifying emotion.

Emotion management skills of cadets is affected by 2 groups of

factors: Group of subjective factors and group of objective factors. Of

which, group of subjective factors have more impact than group of

objective factors. The findings of experiment show that skill of

emotion management of cadets at military schools can be promoted by



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the following pedagogic measure: Nurturing skill of using emotion for

cadets at Army N1 Officers-Training College.

6. Theoretical and practical significance of the thesis

* Theoretical significance

The thesis contributes to supplement and develop the theory on

Psychology studies of skill of emotion management and emotion

management skills of cadets at military schools. The thesis identifies the

basic sighs of emotion management skills of cadets at military schools

and points out factors affecting emotion management skills of cadets at

military officers-training colleges.

* Practical significance

The thesis provides the scientific basis for promoting emotion

management skills of cadets, contributing to improve the quality of

cadets at military officers-training colleges. It can also be used as

references for researching on emotion management skills in general

and researching, educating and supervising officers-training cadets at

military officers-training colleges in particular.

7. Structure of the thesis

The thesis includes: Introduction, Overview, The content consists of

4 chapters (11 periods), Conclusion, List of References and Appendixes.

Chapter 1

LITERATURE OVERVIEW OF RESEARCHES RELATED TO

THE THESIS TOPIC

1.1. The foreign works related to the thesis topic

1.1.1. The works on emotion

* The works on emotion as phenomenon of individual psychology

Here are typical authors: Cruchetxki V. A. (1982), Rubinxtein X. L.

(1960), Carrol E. Izard (1992), Vugotxki L. X. (1997), Goderfroid Jo.

(1998), Nicky Hayes (2005), Richard J. Gerrig and Philip Zimbardo G.

(2003), etc. In their works, the authors research on issues of emotion

definition, sign, stable level, appearance and origin of emotion,

classifying emotion and impact of emotion on personal activities.

* The works on emotion as a driving force for individuals in

working and their life

Typical authors: Skinner B. (1953), Maslow A. (1970), Strongman

K.T (1987), Carrol E. Izard (1992), Maurice Reuchlin (1995), Keith Oatley

& Fennifer Jenkins M. (1995), Goderfroid (1998), Freud S. (2002), Nicky

Hayes (2005), Helen Greathead (2007), Daniel Goleman (2002, 2015),



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James L. Gibson (2011), Virender Kapoor (2012), Richard J. Gerrig and

Philip G. Zimbardo (2003), etc. In these above works, emotion is seen as a

driving force for individuals to act. Therefore, how to maintain, satisfy or

strengthen personal emotion is of great importance.

1.1.2. The works on emotion management

In terms of emotional intelligence, which includes the factors

of being conscious and controlling of the self and of others, there are

works on emotion management. Typical works: Fischer, Manstead,

Evers, Timmers & Valk (2004), Wegner and Therriault (1996),

Diamond & Aspinwall (2003); Michelle Sams (2010). The authors

points out the signs of emotions and causes of these emotions.

1.1.3. The works on emotion management skills

* The works on emotion management skills as one basic factor

and component in emotional intellect

Emotion intelligence is a recent psychological phenomenon

appeared in the end of the 20 th century. The appearance of emotion

intelligence has changed the traditional concept of emotion

intelligence and has widely affected several fields of life. The

research on emotion intelligence started in America with such experts

as: Bar-On R, Salovey and Mayer in 2007, Goleman, etc. Generally

speaking, there are three representatives researching emotion

intelligence in different ways: Bar-On R. touched upon emotion

intelligence under the perspective of personal manner; Salovey and

Mayer under the perspective of consciousness; Daniel Goleman under

the perspective of the work efficiency. In this thesis, we touch upon

emotion intelligence according to the view of Daniel Goleman.

* The works on emotion management skills as a

communicative skill

Soviet psychologists have made an important contribution

researching in communication in general and communicative skill in

particular, especially pedagogical communication. Typical authors:

Cubanova, Dakharo, Leonchiev, etc. In psychology studies in

America, there are a number of authors researching in art of

communication, communicative skill in management and business

such as: Allan Pease (1994), Torrington and his fellows (2004).

* The works on building measurement to identify skill of

emotion management

Here are typical works: Emotion control questionnaires

(ECQ2) by Roger D. and Najarian B. (1989). These questionnaires



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consist of 56 items, divided into 4 categories (14 items in each

category) with 4 areas. Emotional Quotiet Inventory, 1997. This

measures stress control and management. Nowadays, another

measurement is widely used in research in TTCX, that is MEIS by

Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2000) designed to measure 4 factors

making up EI, with the ability to control emotion (item 4). However,

these measurements are focused on identifying the general skill of

emotion control, not on specific emotion.

1.2. The domestic works related to the thesis topic

1.2.1. The works on emotion

Emotion is researched by several psychologists in Vietnam,

typically: Vu Dung (2008), Do Manh Ton (2006), Nguyen Quang Uan

(2004), Ngo Cong Hoan (2003), Nguyen Huy Tu (2003), Nguyen Khac

Vien (2003), Nguyen Ngoc Phu (1998), Nguyen Dinh Sang (2015),

etc. These authors believe that emotion is the indispensible product of

the process of satisfying human’s basic necessity. Emotion is the

feeling shown when being affected by other factors.

1.2.2. The works on emotion management skills

* The works on skill of emotion control as a component of

emotional intelligence

The term “Emotional intelligence” was officially mentioned at

the conference of Social Science at the State level KX-07 by Pham Minh

Hac (chief editor) in 2001. Emotional intelligence - essence and ways

of measurement” by Nguyen Huy Tu (2003). The work at the State

level, code KX-05-06 in the 2001 - 2005 period by Tran Kieu and

Vietnamese psychologists and educationists of Institution of Strategy

and education Program. Emotional intelligence is seen as one of three

factors of intelligence. This serves as a favourable condition for the

author to do research on skill of emotion management of cadets.

* The works on emotion management skills as basic

communicative skills

There are a number of works on communicative skills on

different objects and areas such as: pedagogic communication;

communication and negotiation in leadership; art of communication

in tourist business; communication of military doctors with patients;

communication of political instructors in the Vietnam People’s

Army, etc. Typical authors: Hoang Anh (1993), Nguyen Van Thac

(1992), Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha (2000), Nhu Van Thao (2012), etc.

Generally, these authors indicate that the skills of controlling



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communicative process (manage and control personal emotion) is

one components of communicative skill.

* The works on emotion management skills as a kind of life skill

In recent years, emotion management skills is considered as one

kind of life skill, one field of educating life skill for pupils and

students at schools and students support centre. Typically: Nguyen

Quang Uan, Huynh Van Son, Nguyen Thanh Binh, Kim Ngoc Dai, etc. The

contents of education and training contain emotion management skills or

skills of controlling personal emotion and is considered as one life skill

needs educating so as for people to perfect themselves, meeting the demand

of social development and international integration.

* The works related to emotion management skills of cadets at

military officers-training colleges

In Vietnam, there are limited numbers of works on emotion

management skills, focusing on emotion management skills of cadets,

students at pedagogic universities, typical authors: Huynh Van Son, Tran Thi

Thu Mai, Nguyen Thi Hai, Nguyen Ba Phu, Ta Quang Đam, etc. There are

some works on this field but limited to emotion management skills. These

authors present skill of emotion self-management, assessing the actual

situation and factors affecting thoroughly and completely.

1.3. Generalization of the research results of published

scientific works and the focussed issues of the thesis

1.3.1. Generalization of the research results of published

scientific works

For emotion, there have been many studies of domestic and

foreign researchers on emotion approached from different angles and

on different subjects and objects. At the same time, domestic and

foreign researchers show different schools and opinions in their

studies. For emotion management, emotion management skills,

foreign researchers have many studies on emotion management,

emotion management skills, and their way to study is very clear and

coherent. Domestic studies on emotion management skills are limited

in number and the studies are mainly through TTCX and living skills.

In the field of military operations, there have been some studies on

the emotion management skills and emotion control of lecturer

training cadets and cadets at military officer training colleges. The

results of the mentioned studies on emotion management skills are

very valuable and various sources that the author can exploit and

refer to and inherit in order to fulfil this thesis.



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1.3.2. The focused issues of the thesis

In this thesis, the author will continue to study and solve some of

the problems as follows: For emotion management skills, domestic and

foreign psychologists have different opinions. However, the tendency to

consider emotion management skill as a type of living skills, the

complex skill was chosen and studied to justify and make clear this

opinion in studying emotion management skills of the cadets.

Psychologists have different approaches to the emotion

management skills and they have pointed out different skills of

emotion management skills. Based on the studying and training

activities of the cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges, the

author considered the cadets’ emotion management skill a process

to identify the component skills of the cadets’ emotion

management skill. The objectives of the thesis is focus on

clarifying the expressions of the emotion management skills of the

cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges; identifying the

evaluating criteria and the factors affecting the emotion

management skills of the cadets to make the foundation for the

reality survey and evaluation.

Developing the emotion management skill of the cadets, the

objectives of the thesis is not only clarifying the theories but also

studying, surveying the reality, and evaluating the reality of this

skill. The emotion management skill of the cadets is affected by

many objective and subjective factors. Therefore, it is necessary to

study and analyse the factors affecting the cadets’ emotion

management skill. At the same time, to check the effect of the

suggested measures, the study needs to carry out experimental

testing on a measure in random to prove its impact on developing

the cadets’ emotion management skill at Military Officer Training

Colleges in the Vietnam People’s Army.

Summary of chapter 1

By generalizing domestic and foreign studies relating to the

topic of the thesis, the author assumed that the emotion management

skill of the cadets at officers’ schools has not received adequate

attention from the researchers both on the aspects of theory and

practice. With the special characteristics of studying, training, and

living, the relationships at Military Officer Training Colleges in the

Army require the higher and higher standard of physical strength, the



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intense psychology, which is one of the main causes of the bad

emotions among the cadets. Thus, the topic of the thesis is of great

practicality and significance.

Emotion management skill is approached from different angles.

However, there have not been many studies on emotion management

skill in general, and on emotion management skill of cadets at military

officer training colleges in particular. The results of these studied are

diverse and useful sources that the author can exploit, refer to, and

inherit in order to fulfil the thesis.

Chapter 2

THEORIES ABOUT EMOTION MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF

DIVISION-OFFICER TRAINING CADETS AT OFFICER

TRAINING COLLEGES IN THE VIETNAM PEOPLE’S

ARMY

2.1. Emotion management skill

2.1.1. Emotion

* Definition of emotion:

Emotion is the vibration that shows people’s attitudes toward

things and phenomena related to their needs and motives.

* Classification of emotion

Focus on analysing the 6 basic types of emotion as follows:

happy, miserable, fearful, angry, surprised, and scornful.

2.1.2. Skill

Skill is the application of the available knowledge and

experience to the reality to achieve an identified goal.

2.1.3. Emotion management skill

2.1.3.1. Emotion management

* Definition of emotion management

Emotion management is the process of identifying, controlling,

directing, and using our emotions affected by the situation in order to

help individuals master their own emotion.

* Distinction between emotion management and emotion

intelligence

Emotion management and emotional intelligence are similar in

the way that they both refer to the appearance of emotion; people can

identify, control, direct, and use it. The content of these two concepts

has something in common.



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However, there are still differences between emotion

management and emotional intelligence: emotional intelligence has a

wider range; it is a very popular psychological phenomenon like a

quality, a character, ability in everyday activities and communication

of human. Emotional intelligence is always present in individuals.

Emotion management is a process and it can be present or not.

2.1.3.2. Emotion management skill

* Definition of emotion management skill

Emotion management skill is the use of the available

knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct, and use

individual emotion when there is an impact to master our own

emotion in real activities.

* Component skills of emotion management skill

Based on the results of the above-mentioned studies, the

definition of emotion management skill, the author assumes that

emotion management skill consists of the following component

skills: emotion identifying skill; emotion controlling skill; emotion

directing skill; emotion using skill.

2.2. Emotion management skill of division-officer training

cadets Military Officer Training Colleges

2.2.1. An overview of Military Officer Training Colleges and the

characteristics of division-officer training cadets at Military Officer

Training Colleges

2.2.1.1. An overview of Military Officer Training Colleges in

the Vietnam People’s Army

2.2.1.2. The characteristics of division-officer training cadets at

Military Officer Training Colleges

* Cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges

* The characteristics of cadets at Military Officer Training

Colleges

- The bio-psychological characteristics.

- The socio-psychological characteristics.

* The characteristic features of the studying and training of

cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges

- Cadets are carefully selected based on the entrance exam result,

and they study and train in a pedagogical and military environment in

accordance with the regulations and disciplines in the Army.



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- The studying and training activities of the cadets are intense

in the aspects of the mentality and physicality due to the strict

requirements of the future career.

- The studying and training activities of the cadets at Military

Officer Training Colleges are well organized in a pedagogical and

military environment.

2.2.2. Emotion management of division-officer training

cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges

* Emotion of division-officer training cadets

Emotion of division-officer training cadets is the vibrations

that show their attitudes to things and phenomena related to their

needs and motives.

* Definition of emotion management of division-officer

training cadets

Emotion management of division-officer training cadets is the

process of identifying, controlling, directing, and using their emotions to

help them master their own emotions during the studying process and

meet the communicative goal, and the school requirements.

2.2.3. Emotion management skill of division-officer training

cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges

2.2.3.1. Definition of emotion management skill of divisionofficer training cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges

Emotion management skill of cadets at Military Officer Training

Colleges is the use their knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct

and use their own emotion when being affected in order to help them master

their own emotions during the process of studying, training, living and

communicating to meet the training goal and requirement of the schools.

2.2.3.2. Expression of the emotion management skill of the

division-officer training cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges

- The emotion identifying skill of the cadets

- The emotion controlling skill of the cadets

- The emotion monitoring skill of the cadets

- The emotion using skill of the cadets

2.3.

Factors

affecting

the

emotion

management skill of division-offi cer training

cadets at Military Offi cer Training Colleges

2.3.1. Objective factors: The impact of socio-economic

condition; The cultural pedagogical military environment; The aims,



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the requirements and the content of the training programme; The

qualities, the abilities, the methods, the styles of cadres and lecturers;

The pressure of the study and examination.

2.3.2. Subjective factors: The knowledge and experience of the

cadets; the temper of the cadets; the health and the spirit of the

cadets; the methods of studying and training of the cadets; the

military career tendency of the cadets.

Summary of chapter 2

In this thesis, emotion management skill of the cadets at

Military Officer Training Colleges is defined as the use of their

knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct, and use their

emotion when being affected to help cadets master their own emotion

during the process of learning, training, living, communicating to

meet the training goal and requirement of the schools.

Emotion management skill of the cadets at Military Officer

Training Colleges in the Vietnam People’s Army consists of four

component skills: emotion identifying skill; emotion controlling skill;

emotion monitoring skill; emotion using skill. Many factors, including

subjective factors as well as objective factors, affect emotion management

skill of the cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges. The effects of

these factors on the emotion management skill of the cadets at Military

Officer Training Colleges are different from each other.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH ORGANIZING AND METHODOLOGY

3.1. Research organizing

3.1.1. Research units

The research was carried out in 4 units: The Army OfficersTraining College No1, The Political Officers-Training College, The

Engineering Officers-Training College, and The Military OfficersTraining College of Telecommunication from 2015 to 2018.

3.1.2. The object of the study

The object of the study consists of 396 cadets, 127 cadres and

lecturers.

3.1.3. The content of the study

Study the reasoning problems about emotion management skill

in general and the emotion management skill of cadets in particular.

Survey, evaluate the real situation of the emotion management

skill of the cadets at military officer training colleges today. Based on



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the results of the study, propose some pedagogical-psychological

measures to develop the emotion management skill for cadets at

military officer training colleges.

Test the effect of the measures developing the degree of the emotional

management skill of the cadets at military officer training colleges.

3.1.4. The stages of the study

Stage 1: Study the theories and do a preliminary survey,

complete the detailed thesis proposal. Stage 2: Survey the situation,

conduct impact experiments, and write the contents of the thesis.

Stage 3: Check the survey statistics and continue to supplement the

thesis content. Stage 4: Complete the thesis.

3.2. Criteria for evaluating the degree of emotion

management skill of cadets at military officer training colleges

Criteria for evaluating the degree of emotion management skill

of cadets are based on the expressions of the component skills of

emotion management skill of the cadets.

3.3. Research methodology

In this thesis, the author has combined different methodologies

to study as follows: document study, survey questionnaire,

observation, in-depth interview, group discussion, experimental

method, expert method and the data analysis method by using SPSS

20,0 software: analysis using descriptive statistics, analysis using

inference statistics, and factor analysis.

Summary of chapter 3

To study the situation of emotion management skill of

cadets at military officer training colleges in the Army, the author

carefully prepared the studying process and used various studying

instruments. Therefore, during the process of surveying the

situation and conducting the experiment, a lot of difficulties arisen

subjectively or objectively were limited. A smooth combination of

different study methodologies promoted their effect, helping to

measure the situation of emotion management skill of cadets

accurately. The findings were qualitatively authentic, valuable,

help to make clear the quantitative findings collected and analysed

by using SPSS 20.0 software. The measurements used in the thesis

have been adapted to the civilian environment and are now applied

to the military environment, these measurements have been

supplemented with the characteristics of the cadets at military



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