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 Cấu trúc câu so sánh bằng (positive form)

 Cấu trúc câu so sánh bằng (positive form)

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Ex:

Water is as cold as ice. (Nước lạnh như đá.)

Is the party as fun as she expected? (Bữa tiệc có vui như cô ấy mong đợi

không?)

Lara is not as charming as he thought. (Lara không quyến rũ như anh ấy nghĩ.)

Trong câu phủ định “so” có thể được dùng thay cho “as”

Ex:

Your dog is not as/so pretty as mine. (Con chó của bạn khơng đẹp bằng con chó

của tơi.)

I can’t draw as/ so beautifully as her. (Tôi không thể vẽ đẹp bằng cô ấy.)

Với cách so sánh bằng tiếng Anh, so sánh bằng nhau cũng có thể được diễn đạt

bằng cấu trúc “the same as”

S + to be + the same + (noun) + as + noun/ pronoun

Ex:

The red book is as expensive as the white one = The red book is the same price

as the white one. (Cuốn sách đỏ có giá bằng với cuốn sách trắng.)

English is as difficult as Chinese = English is the same difficulty as Chinese (Tiếng

Anh với tiếng Trung Quốc có độ khó tương đương nhau.)

* Lưu ý:

Dùng “the same as” chứ không dùng “the same like”.

Ex:

How old are you? – I am the same age as Tom. (không dùng “the same like”)

(Bạn bao nhiêu tuổi? – Tôi bằng tuổi với Tom.)

Less … than = not as/ so … as

Ex:

Today is less cold than yesterday. (Hôm nay không lạnh bằng hôm qua.)

= Today isn’t as/ so cold as yesterday.

This sofa is less comfortable than that one. (Chiếc sofa này không thoải mái bằng

chiếc kia.)

= This sofa isn’t as comfortable as that one.

Khi nói gấp bao nhiêu lần, ta dùng cấu trúc: twice as … as, three times as … as, …

Ex:

Linh types twice as fast as me. (Linh đánh máy nhanh gấp đôi tôi.)



Her book costs three times as much as mine. (Sách của cô ta đắt gấp 3 lần sách

tôi.)

c. Bài tập về cấp so sánh

1. So sánh ngang bằng.

a. Mary/ tall/ her brother.

_______________________________________________

b. A lemon/ not sweet/ an orange.

_______________________________________________

c. A donkey/ not big/ a horse.

_______________________________________________

d. This dress/ pretty/ that one.

_______________________________________________

e. the weather/ not cold/ yesterday.

_______________________________________________

2. So sánh hơn:

a. A rose/ beautiful/ a weed.

_______________________________________________

b. A dog/ intelligent/ a chicken.

_______________________________________________

c. Ba/ friendly/ Nam.

_______________________________________________

d.Your house/ far/ from school / my house.

_______________________________________________

e. A horse/ strong/ a person.

_______________________________________________

3. So sánh nhất:

a. The Nile/ long/ river/ in the world.

_______________________________________________

b. Lan/ tall/ student / in my class.

_______________________________________________

c. English coffee/ bad/ of all.

_______________________________________________

d. Australia/ small/ continent in the world.



_______________________________________________

e. That/ high/ mountain in the world.

_______________________________________________

Bài tập bổ sung

Bài tập 1: Hoàn thành câu bằng dạng so sánh đúng của từ trong ngoặc:

1. Her daughter is................her (beautiful).

2. Summer is....................season of the year (hot)

3. That dog isn't....................it looks (dangerous)

4. In the past, people were....................than today (polite)

5. It is...........today than it was yesterday (cold)

6. Our hotel was..............than all the others in the town (cheap)

7. What's....................river in the world (long)

8. It was an awful day. It was.............day of my life (bad)

9. Everest is...............mountain in the world. It is.........than any other mountain

(high)

10. I prefer this chair to the other one. It's.................. (comfortable)

Bài tập 2: Viết lại các câu sau bắt đầu bằng từ cho trước sao cho nghĩa

không thay đổi.

1. This is the most delicious cake I've ever tasted.

=> I've................................

2. I've never met any more dependable person than George.

=> George is..............................

3. There isn't anybody as kind-hearted as your mother.

=> Your mother is........................

4. There is no better teacher in this school than Mr John.

=> Mr John is...................................

5. Have you got any bigger than that one?

=> Is this.......................................?

ĐÁP ÁN

Bài 1:

1. Her daughter is as beautiful as her.

2. Summer is the hottest season of the year.

3. That dog isn't as dangerous as it looks.



4. In the past, people were more polite than today.

5. It is colder today than it was yesterday.

6. Our hotel was cheaper than all the others in the town.

7. What's the longest river in the world.

8. It was an awful day. It was the worst day of my life.

9. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. It is higher than any other

mountain.

10. I prefer this chair to the other one. It's more comfortable.

Bài 2:

1. This is the most delicious cake I've ever tasted.

=> I've never tasted a more delicious cake than this one.

2. I've never met any more dependable person than George.

=> George is the most dependable person I've ever met.

3. There isn't anybody as kind-hearted as your mother.

=> Your mother is more kind-hearted than anyone.

4. There is no better teacher in this school than Mr John.

=> Mr John is the best teacher in this school.

5. Have you got any bigger hat than that one?

=> Is this the smallest hat you've got?

II. Rewrite these sentences, keeping the original meaning:

1. My house is bigger than your house.

=> Your house is......................

2. The black car is cheaper than the red car.

=> The red car_____________

3. This film is more interesting than that one.

=> That film is_____________

4. My kitchen is smaller than yours.

=> Your kitchen________________

5. My grandmother is older than every one in my family.

=> My grandmother is the________

6. No one in my class is as tall as Tam.

=> Tam is the____________________

7. I can't cook as well as my mother.



=> My mother can cook____________

8. He does not play tennis as well as Jack.

=> Jack can___________________

9. I did not spend as much money as you.

=> You spent___________________

10. I don't think this book is expensive as it is.

=> This book is____________

11. He is the tallest boy in his class.

=> No one in_______________

12. This is the most interesting film of all.

=> No other films are_____________

13. No cars in the world are more expensive than Japanese ones.

=> Japanese cars _____

14. This exercise is easier than that one.

=> That exercise is not_________

15. He drives more carefully than Jack does.

=> Jack_____________

16. No one in the group plays better than he.

=> He can___________________

17. No hotel in the city is as comfortable as this.

=> This hotel is the _______

18. Other oceans in the world aren't as large as the Pacific one.

=> The Pacific Ocean is ______

BÀI TẬP VIẾT LẠI CÂU SO SÁNH BÀI SỐ 2

I. Chia đúng từ trong ngoặc:

1. It's..........smaller............. than mine. (small)

2. Yours is.........bigger.............. than mine. (big)

3. It cost.........less.............. than I thought. (little)

4. He's.........more intelligent.............. than he looks. (intelligent)

5. The road is........more narrow............... than the motorway. (narrow)

6. She talks.......quicker................ than I do. (quickly)

7. It's.........worse.............. than it looks. (bad)

8. It's..........better............. than it was. (good)



9. It was........quicker............... than I thought it would be. (quick)

10. I'd like some..........farther............. information about your courses. (far)

II. Dùng các hình thức so sánh với tính từ trong ngoặc:

1. Mary is 10 years old. Julie is 8 years old. Mary is (old)............................Julie.

2. The Alps are very high. They are (high)..........................mountains in Europe.

3. An ocean is (large)................................ a sea.

4. A Rolls Royce costs a lot of money. A Twingo costs less money.

A Rolls Royce is (expensive)...............................a Twingo.

5. John's results were good. Fred's results were very poor. Fred's results were

(bad)................................John's.

6. This exercise is not difficult. It's (easy)...............................I expected.

7. The weather is not good today - it's raining. I hope the weather will be

(good)........................next week.

8. People are not friendly in big cities. They are usually (friendly)......................in

small towns.

9.

In

the

government

of

a

country,

the

President

is

(important).....................person.

10. People say that Chinese is (difficult)...................to learn than English.

11. This test is not (difficult).....................as it was last month.

12. The winter is coming. It is getting (cold)..................and (cold)...................

13. The problem seems to be (serious)..........and............

ĐÁP ÁN

1. older than

2. higher than

3. larger than

4. more expensive

5. worse than

6. easier than

7. better

8. Friendlier

9. the most important

10. more difficult

11. as difficult

12. colder - colder

13. more - more serious

III. Chia dạng đúng của tính từ trong ngoặc:

1. The movie was (interesting)................than the one on TV.

2. We've got (little)............................time than I thought.

3. This shirt is too small. I need a ( large).................one.



4. Lan is (clever).................and (pretty)...................than Lien.

5. She is (nice)...........................than I expected.

6. This was the (big)......................farm I've ever visited.

7. Who between the two workers is the (good).......................?

8. This old machine is (powerful)................than we thought.

9. The farmers have never had a (rich)............ harvest than that.

10. Which is (difficult)........................, English or Math?

11. It is the (expensive).....................of the two cars.

12. Which is the (expensive).....................of these two coats?

13. What is the (long)...................river in Vietnam.

Đáp án:

1. more interesting

2. less

3. larger

4. cleverer - prettier

5. nicer

6. biggest

7. best

8. more powerful

9. richer

10. more difficult

11. most expensive

12. most expensive

13. longest

IV. Viết lại các câu sau sao cho nghĩa không đổi:

1. Her old house is bigger than her new one.

=> Her new house...................................................

2. No one in my class is taller than Peter.

=> Peter.......................................................

3. The black dress is more expensive than the white one.

=> The white dress...................................................

4. According to me, English is easier than Maths.

=> According to me, Maths........................................



5. No one in my group is more intelligent than Mary.

=> Mary................................................................

6. No river in the world is longer than the Nile.

=> The Nile...........................................................

7. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

=> No mountain......................................................

8. This is the first time I have ever met such a pretty girl.

=> She is..............................................................

9. He works much. He feels tired.

=> The more.........................................................

10. This computer works better than that one.

=> That computer.....................................................

11. The apartment is big. The rent is high.

=> The bigger..........................................................

12. We set off soon. We will arrive soon.

=> The sooner............................................................

13. The joke is good. The laughter is loud.

=> The better...............................................................

14. She gets fat. She feels tired.

=> The fatter................................................................

15. As he gets older, he wants to travel less.

=> The older................................................................

16. The children are excited with the difficult games.

=> The more................................................................

17. People dive fast. Many accidents happen.

=> The faster................................................................

18. I meet him much. I hate him much

=> The more................................................................

19. My boss works better when he is pressed for time,

=> The less...................................................................

20. As he has much money, he wants to spend much.

=> The more...................................................................

21. If you read many books, you will have much knowledge.



=> The more.....................................................................

22. He speaks too much and people feel bored.

=> The more.....................................................................

23. The growth in the economy makes people's living condition better.

=> The more.......................................................................

24. People learn a lot of things as they travel far.

=> The farther......................................................................

Đáp án:

1. Her new house isn't so/ as big as her old one.

2. Peter is the tallest in my class.

3. The white dress isn't so/ as expensive as the black one.

4. According to me, Maths isn't so/ as easy as English.

5. Mary is the most intelligent in my group.

6. The Nile is the longest river in the world.

7. No mountain in the world is higher than Mount Everest.

8. She is the prettiest girl I have ever met.

9. The more he works, the more tired he feels.

10. That computer doesn't work so/ as well as that one.

11. The bigger the apartment is, the higher the rent is.

12.The better the joke is, the louder the laughter is.

14. The fatter she gets, the more tired she feels.

15. The older he gets, the less he want to travel.

16. The more difficult the games are, the more excited the children are.

17. The faster people drive, the more accidents happen.

18.The more I meet him, the more I hate him.

19. The less time my boss has, the better he works.

20. The more money he has, the more he wants to spend.

21. The more books you read, the more knowledge you will have.

22.The more he speaks, the more bored people feel.

23.The more the economy grows, the better people's living condition is.

24. The farther people travel, the more the learn.

CHƯƠNG XII : DẠNG ĐỘNG TỪ



BÀI 28 : DẠNG ĐỘNG TỪ



a. .Đặc điểm riêng giữa động từ V-ing và V-infinitive trong tiếng Anh



Động từ V-infinitive



Động từ V-ing



Cách dùng To-infinitive:

1.Verb + to V

Những động từ sau được theo

sau trực tiếp bởi to-infinitive:

agree, appear, arrange,

attempt, ask, decide,

determine, fail, endeavour,

happen, hope, learn, manage,

offer, plan, prepare, promise,

prove, refuse, seem, tend,

threaten, try, volunteer,

expect, want,...

Ex:

- She agreed to pay $50.

- Two men failed to return

from the expedition.

- The remnants refused to

leave.

- She volunteered to help the

disabled.

- He learnt to look after

himself.



1.Chức năng

-Là chủ ngữ của câu: dancing

bored him.

-Bổ ngữ của động từ: her hobby is

painting.

-Là bổ ngữ: Seeing is believing.

-Sau giới từ: He was accused of

smuggling.

-Sau một vài động từ: avoid,

mind, enjoy,...

2. Một số cách dùng đặc biệt



*Những động từ sau được theo

sau bởi V-ing: admit, avoid,

delay, enjoy, excuse, consider,

deny, finish, imagine, forgive,

keep, mind, miss, postpone,

practise, resist, risk, propose,

detest, dread, resent, pardon,

try, fancy, recommed, quit, put

off, suggest…

2. Verb + how/ what/ when/ Ex:

where/ which/ why + to V

- He admitted taking the money.

Những động từ sử dụng công - Would you consider selling the

thức này là:

property?



ask, decide, discover, find out, - He kept complaining.

forget, know, learn, remember, - He didn't want to risk getting

see, show, think, understand, wet.

want to know, wonder...

Ex:

*Verbs + prepositions: apologize

- He discovered how to open for, accuse of, insist on, feel like,

the safe.

congratulate on, suspect of, look

- I found out where to buy fruit forward to, dream of, succeed in,

cheaply.

object to, approve/disapprove

- She couldn't think what to

of...

say.

- I showed her which button to *V-ing cũng theo sau những cụm

press.

từ như:

- It's no use / It's no good...

3. Verb + Object + to V

- There's no point ( in)...

Những động từ theo công thức - It's ( not) worth ...

này là:

- Have difficult ( in) ...

advise, allow, enable,

- It's a waste of time/ money ...

encourage, forbid, force, hear, - Spend/ waste time/money ...

instruct, invite, order, permit, - Be/ get used to ...

persuade, request, remind,

- Be/ get accustomed to ...

train, urge, want, tempt...

- Do/ Would you mind ... ?

Ex:

- be busy doing something

- These glasses will enable you - What about ... ? How about ...?

to see in the dark.

- Go + V-ing ( go shopping, go

- She encouraged me to try

swimming... )

again.

- They forbade her to leave the

house.

- They persuaded us to go with

them.



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