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Modal auxiliaries are “helping” words that give specific meaning to and indicate the tense of the verb. Examples of modal auxiliaries are: PRESENT/FUTURE PAST/INDIRECT SPEECH MODAL PERFECTS Shall*/will would will/would have Can could could have May/might

Modal auxiliaries are “helping” words that give specific meaning to and indicate the tense of the verb. Examples of modal auxiliaries are: PRESENT/FUTURE PAST/INDIRECT SPEECH MODAL PERFECTS Shall*/will would will/would have Can could could have May/might

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*Shall was traditionally used for the

future in British English in the first and

third persons. Nowadays it is being

replaced more and more by will. Shall is

used in both British and American

English in formal speech to make an

offer or a suggestion in the form of a

question: Shall I answer the phone for

you? Shall we take another look at the

budget? It is generally not tested on the

TOEIC.



STRATEGIES FOR MODAL

AUXILIARY ITEMS

ASK YOURSELF THESE

QUESTIONS:



 Is the main verb of the

sentence in the present tense?

If so, is there a modal in a

present form in the

subordinate clause?



INCORRECT

[He is sure he could meet us

there]

CORRECT

He is sure he can meet us

there.



 Is the main verb of the

sentence in the past tense? If

so, is there a modal in a past

form in the subordinate

clause?



INCORRECT

[He thought he will retire

soon.]

CORRECT

He thought he would retire

soon.



 Has the action of the verb in

the subordinate clause

occurred before the action of

the main verb? If so, is there a

modal perfect in the

subordinate clause?



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Modal auxiliaries are “helping” words that give specific meaning to and indicate the tense of the verb. Examples of modal auxiliaries are: PRESENT/FUTURE PAST/INDIRECT SPEECH MODAL PERFECTS Shall*/will would will/would have Can could could have May/might

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