Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
Chapter 2.  Turning Home Video into Pro Video

Chapter 2.  Turning Home Video into Pro Video

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

dedicatedtohelpingyouacceptthecamcorderdeficienciesyou

cannotchange,overcomethelimitationsyoucan,andhavethe

wisdomtoknowthedifference.



2.1.Filmvs.Videotape

There'sonlyonecrucialaspectofHollywoodmoviesthatyou

can'tduplicatewithyourDVcamcorderandiMovie:Realmovies

areshotonfilm,notvideo.Film,ofcourse,isalongstripof

celluloidwithsprocketholesontheedges.Itcomesonan

enormousreel,loadedintoanenormouscamera.Afteryou've

shotit,alabmustdevelopitbeforeyoucanseewhatyou've

got.

Videotapeisadifferentballgame.Asyouknow,itcomesona

cartridge,popsintoacompactcamera,anddoesn'thavetobe

developed.ManyTVshows,includingsitcomsandallnews

shows,areshotonvideo.

Visually,thedifferencesaredramatic.Filmandvideotapejust

lookdifferent,forseveralreasons:

Filmgoesthroughmanytransferprocesses(fromoriginal,

topositivemaster,tonegativemaster,toindividual"prints,"

tomoviescreen),soithasasofter,warmerappearance.It

alsohasmicroscopicspecks,flecks,andscratchesthattell

youyou'rewatchingsomethingfilmedonfilm.

Filmhasmuchgreaterresolutionthanvideobillionsofsilver

halidecrystalscoateachframeofthefilm.Asaresult,you

seemuchmoredetailthanvideocanoffer.Ithasasubtle

grainortexturethatyoucanspotimmediately.

Furthermore,thesespecksofcolorareirregularlyshaped,

anddifferentoneveryframe.Acamcorder'ssensors

(CCDs),ontheotherhand,areallthesamesizeand

perfectlyaligned,whichalsoaffectsthelookoftheresulting

image.

Filmisalsofarmoresensitivetocolor,light,andcontrast



thanthesensorsincamcorders,anddifferentkindsoffilm

stockhavedifferentcharacteristics.Hollywooddirectors

choosefilmstockaccordingtotheambiancetheywant:

Onetypeoffilmmightyieldwarmercolors,anothertype

mightoffersharpercontrast,andsoon.

Filmiscomposedof24individualframes(images)per

second,butNTSCvideo(page8)containsmoreflashesof

picturepersecond(30completeframes,shownas60

alternatingsetsofinterlockinghorizontallinespersecond).

Allofthatextravisualinformationcontributestovideo's

hard,sharplookandlendsvisualdifferencesintheway

motionisrecorded.Thisdiscrepancybecomesparticularly

apparenttoexpertswhenfilmistransferredtovideofor

broadcastonTV,forexample.Doingsorequiresthe

transferequipmenttoduplicateaframeoftheoriginalfilm

hereandthere.

Ofcourse,thecontentofthefilmorvideoisalsoatelltalesign

ofwhatyou'rewatching.Ifithasalaughtrackandabrightlylit

set,it'susuallyvideotape;ifit'smorecarefullyanddramatically

lit,withcarefullysynchronizedbackgroundmusic,it'susually

film.



2.2.Film-TechniqueCrashCourse

Thebottomlineisthattwodifferentissuesseparatefilmfrom

video:thetechnologyandthetechnique.Whatyoucan't

changeisthelookofthebasicmedium:You'regoingtobe

recordingontotape,notfilm.



Tip:Ifthegrainandsoftnessassociatedwithfilmarecrucialto

yourproject,you'renotutterlyoutofluck.Withtheadditionofa

320video-processingprogramcalledAdobeAfterEffectsanda

$550softwareadd-oncalledCineLook(fromDigiEffects),you

cangetveryclosetomakingvideolooklikefilm.CineLook

addsthegrain,flecks,andscratchestotapedfootage,and

playswiththecolorpalettetomakeitlookmorelikethatoffilm.

Anotherpopularadd-oncalledCineMotion(fromthesame

company)addssubtleblurprocessingtomakethemotionof

videolookmorelikefilm,simulating24-frames-per-second

playback.(Needlesstosay,fewiMoviefansgotothat

expensiveextreme.)

WhatyoucanchangewithiMoviealone,however,isalmost

everyremainingelementofthepicture.Someoftheadvicein

thischapterrequiresadditionalequipment;somesimply

requiresnewawareness.Overall,however,thetipsinthis

chaptershouldtakeyoualongwayintotheworldof

professionalcinematography.



2.2.1.TheVeryBasics

Ifyou'reusingacamcorderforthefirsttime,it'simportantto

understandthedifferencebetweenitstwofunctions:asa



cameraandasaVCR.

Themostobviousknoborswitchoneverycamcorderletsyou

switchbetweenthesetwomodes(plusathirdoneknownas

Off).Thesetwooperating-switchpositionsmaybelabeled

CameraandVTR(forVideoTapeRecorder),CameraandVCR,or

RecordandPlay.

Butthepointisalwaysthesame:Whenyou'reinCamera

mode,youcanrecordtheworld;thelensandthemicrophone

areactivated.Whenyou'reinVTRmode,thelensandthemike

areshutdown;nowyourcamcorderisaVCR,completewith

Play,Rewind,andFast-Forwardbuttons(whichoftenlightupin

VTRmode).Whenyouwanttofilmamovie,useCameramode;

towatchthemovieyou'verecorded,putthecamcorderinto

VTRmode.(You'llalsohavetoputthecamerainVTRmode

whenitcomestimetorecordyourfinishediMoviecreation,or

whenyouwanttocopyvideotoorfromanothercamcorderor

VCR.)

Here,then,istheusualsequenceforfilming:

1. Preparethemicrophone,lighting,angle,andcamera

settingsasdescribedinthischapter.

Thisisthemoment,inotherwords,toplaydirectorand

cinematographer,tosetuptheshot.Youcanreadaboutall

theseimportanttechniquesintherestofthischapter.

They'reextremelyimportanttechniques,atthat:Iftheraw

footagehasbadsound,badlighting,orthewrongcamera

settings,noamountofiMoviemanipulationcanmakeit

better.

2. TurnthemainknoborswitchtoCamera(orRecord)

mode.

You'vejustturnedthepoweron.Thecamera'snowin

standbymodeon,butnotplayingorrecordinganything.



(SeeFigure2-1.)



Figure

2-1.The

main

buttonon

every

camcorder

letsyou

turnthe

cameraon

by

switching

itinto

Cameraor

VTRmode

(left).The

red

Record

buttonis

thetrigger

that

makesthe

taperoll

(right).



3. Takeoffthelenscap.

Thelenscapusuallydanglesfromashortblackstringthat

you'veloopedaroundacorrespondingholeonthefrontof



thecamera(orhooksontothehandstrap),unlessyou're

luckyenoughtohaveacamcorderwithabuilt-in,autoopeninglenscap.

4. Frameyourshot(aimthecamera).

DosoeitherbylookingattheLCDscreenorbylooking

throughtheeyepiece.Adjustthezoomcontrolsuntilthe

subjectnicelyfillstheframe.Getyourperformersready(if

they'reevenawarethatthey'rebeingfilmed,thatis).

5. PresstheRecordbutton.

It'susuallybrightredandlocatednexttoyourrightthumb.

(Theleft-handers'lobbyhasgottenabsolutelynowherewith

camcordermanufacturers.)

SomecamcordershaveanadditionalRecordbuttononthe

toporside,plusanotheroneontheremotecontrol,foruse

whenyou'refilmingyourselforholdingthecamcorderdown

atbellylevel.

Inanycase,nowyou'rerolling.

6. Filmtheactionasdescribedinthischapter.When

you'vefilmedenoughofthescenewhenyou'vegot

theshotpresstheRecordbuttonasecondtimeto

stoprolling.

Atthispoint,thecamcorderisbackinstandbymode.It's

usingupitsbatteryfasterthanwhenit'sturnedoff.

Therefore,ifyoudon'texpecttobefilminganythingelse

withinthenextfewminutes,pushtheprimaryswitchback

toitsOffposition.(Ifyouforget,nobigdeal;most

camcordersturnoffautomaticallyafterfiveminutesorso

sinceyourlastactivity.)

Nowyou,likethousandsbeforeyou,knowthebasics.Therest

ofthischapterisdesignedtoelevateyourartfromthatof



cameraoperatortocinematographer/director.



2.3.GettheShot

RuleNo.1:Gettheshot.

Ifyouandthecamcorderaren'treadywhensomethinggreat

happenswhetheryou'retryingtocreateaHollywood-style

moviewithscriptedactorsorjusttryingtocatchthedog's

standoffwithasquirreltheneverythingelseinthisbook,andin

yournewhobby,arefornaught.

FREQUENTLYASKEDQUESTION

TheSlate:Lights,LensCap,Action!

I'mgettingtiredofseeingthat"clapper"boardit'stheiMovieicon,it'sthepicture

thatshowsupwhenyouchooseiMovie

AboutiMovie,it'stheiconofevery

iMoviedocument.It'spracticallytheworld'smostoverusedsymbol.Everybody

usesittosymbolizefilmmaking.Whattheheckisthatthing?

It'scalledtheslateorclapstick,andtheyreallydouseitwhentheymake

commercialmovies.Usingadry-erasemarker,anassistantwritesthemovie's

name,scenenumber,anddateontothisplasticwhiteboard(nobodyuseschalk

onslateanymore).Assoonasthecameraisrolling,theslateisheldinfrontof

thelensandtheclapstickontopisslammedshut.Thecameraphotographsthe

time-codereadout(whichisgeneratedbythesound-recordingequipment)inthe

toppartoftheclapper.Onlythendoesthedirectorshout,"And,action!"

Thepurposeofthisexerciseistomakeeditingeasierlater.Althoughyour

camcorderrecordssoundandvideosimultaneously,hesoundtrackforfilmis

actuallyrecordedonadifferentmachine.Whenediting,techniciancanpluginthe

time-codenumbercapturedonfilmtocueuptheaudiotrackquicklyand

efficiently.

Andifthatsync-upcircuitryfailsforsomereason,editorscansynchronizethe

soundandpicturemanually,justastheydidintheolddays:byaligningtheloud,

crispsoundwiththevisualmomentwhentheclapstickcloses.



Bothhumanandmechanicalobstaclesmayconspiretoprevent

youfromcapturingtheperfectfootage.Herearesome

examples:



2.3.1.IstheCameraReady?

Yourcamcorderisonlyreadywhenitsbatteryischargedand

it'sgotfreshtapeinside.MiniDVcassettesthesedayscost

about$4apiece(from,forexample,www.bhphoto.comor

warehousediscountclubslikeCostco),soyouhavenoexcuse

nottohaveastackofblanks,atleastacoupleofwhichshould

liveinyourcamcordercarryingcaseforemergencypurposes.If

youbitethebulletandbuyaboxoftenorfifty,you'llsaveeven

moremoney,youwon'thavetobuyanymoreforquiteawhile,

andyou'llbeabletokeepacoupleofspareswiththecamera.



Tip:Professionalbroadcastjournalistsnevergoanywhere

withoutfullychargedbatteriesandblanktapeinthecamera.

Evenifyou'renotapro,havingenoughtapeandpoweratall

timescanpayoff,sinceyoucanmakegoodmoneysellingyour

videotonewsshowsbecauseyoucaughtsomethinggoodon

tape.

Thesamegoesforbatterypower.Thebatterythatcomeswith

thecamcorderisadequateasastarterbattery,butbuyinga

secondoneespeciallyifit'soneofthefat,heavy,longercapacitybatteriesisfurtherinsurancethatsomeprecious

shootingopportunitywon'tbeshutdownorlostbyequipment

failure.

Remember,too,thattoday'slithium-ionbatteriesare

extraordinarilysophisticated.Buteventhoughthey're



rechargeable,they'renotimmortal;mostcanberechargedonly

afewhundredtimesbeforeyoustarttonoticeadecreasein

capacity.Inotherwords,usethepowercordwheneverit's

practical.



Tip:Camcorderbatteriesarefarmorefragilethantheyappear.

Keepthemdryatallcosts.Ifonegetsdamporwet,youmayas

wellthrowitaway.



2.3.2.AreYouReady?

There'sahumanelementtobeingready,too.Forexample,

rememberthatfromthemomentyouswitchonthepower,your

camcordertakesabouteightsecondstowarmup,loadalittle

bitoftape,andprepareforfilming.It'sagoodideatoflipthe

poweron,therefore,evenasyou'rerunningtothesceneofthe

accident,earthquake,oramazingchildbehavior.



2.3.3.IstheCameraActuallyRecording?

Everyday,somewhereintheworld,afamilysitsdowninfront

oftheTV,expectingtowatchsomeexcitinghomemovies,and

insteadwatches20minutesofthegroundbumpingalong

beneaththecamcorderowner'shand.

Asyoubegintoshoot,alwaysglanceattheviewfinderto

confirmthattheRecordindicatorusuallyareddot,ortheword

RECorRECORDhasappeared.Makeitarigidandautomatic

habit.That'stheonlywayyou'llavoidthesickeningrealization

laterthatyoupunchedtheRecordbuttononetoomanytimes,

thusturningthecameraonwhenyouthoughtitwasoff,and

viceversa.



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Chapter 2.  Turning Home Video into Pro Video

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×