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Chapter 16.  Windows File Services

Chapter 16.  Windows File Services

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16.1.ManagingWindowsServices:Server

Admin

GlobaloptionsforWindowsServicescanbemanagedand

monitoredusingServerAdmin,intheWindowssectionofthe

selectedserver.SinceWindowsservices(asidefromhavinga

differentconstituency)servemuchthesamepurposeasAFP,

you'llnoticethatthetwohavesimilaroptions.Displayinga

summarythatissimilartothatofmanyotherservicesinServer

Admin,Overview(seeninFigure16-1)liststhecurrentnumber

ofaccessesandthestatusofbothguestaccessandlogging,

alongwiththeservice'sstarttime.



Figure16-1.TheOverviewpanesuppliesbasic

dataaboutWindowsservices.



ThedataavailableintheOverviewportionofServerAdmin's

SMBmoduleisahappymediumbetweentheserveradmin

utility'sSpartanstatussmbandslightlymoreverbosefullstatus

smbdirectives,asshownhere:



[ace2:~]nadmin%sudoserveradminstatussmb

Password:

smb:command="getState"

smb:state="RUNNING"

[ace2:~]nadmin%sudoserveradminfullstatussmb

smb:command="getState"

smb:guestAccess="NO"

smb:logging="YES"

smb:currentConnections=0

smb:currentThroughput=0

smb:state="RUNNING"

smb:logPaths:fileServiceLog="/var/log/samba/log.smbd"

smb:logPaths:nameServiceLog="/var/log/samba/log.nmbd"

smb:readWriteSettingsVersion=1

smb:setStateVersion=1

smb:startedTime=""



TheLogsinterface,seeninFigure16-2,providesaccesstotwo

logs:WindowsFileServicesLogandWindowsNameServices

Log,storedat/var/logs/samba/log.smbdand

/var/logs/samba/log.nmbd,respectively.You'llprobablybe

mostinterestedintheFileServicesLog.Asisthecasewith

mostotherloggingfeaturesinServerAdmin,thereisno

filteringabilityinthisinterface,anditislimitedbyServer

Admin'sHTTPrequest/responsemodel,sologginginviaSSH

andusingthetailutilitymightprovidebetterresults.

Additionally,notethatSambaiscapableofmorein-depth

loggingthanisexposedintheuserinterface.Fordetails,see

theLoggingsectionofWindowssettings,descibedlaterinthis

chapter.

AbasicviewofestablishedSMBconnectionscanbeseeninthe

Connectionssection(Figure16-3),sortablebyusername,

originatingIPaddress,andconnectiontime.Usersmayalsobe

disconnectedusingtheDisconnectbuttoninthelowerright



corneroftheinterface.

HistoricalstatisticsgatheredfromtheSMBserviceare

consolidatedintotheGraphsinterface,whichgivesagraphical

representationoftheaveragenumberofconnecteduserforany

periodoftimefromonehourtosevendaysinthepast.Thiscan

beseeninFigure16-4.UnliketheAFPService,average

throughputforWindowsservicesarenotavailable.



Figure16-2.LogsfortheWindowsFileand

Namingservicesareavailableinthelogging

portionofServerAdmin'sSMBmodule.



TheSettingssectionofServerAdmin'sWindowsservices

revealsacontextualtabbedinterfaceusedforestablishing

Windowsservices'globalsettings.ItsGeneraltab(Figure16-5)

offersasetofbasicoptions,allofwhichcorrespondto

parametersinSamba'sconfigurationfile(/etc/smb.conf,

discussedinmoredepthlaterinthischapter):



Role:StandaloneServer,DomainMember,orPrimaryDomain

Controller

ThisoptionrelatestohostingWindowsNT-stylelog-inson

anOpenDirectorymaster,andisdiscussedinmoredetailin

Chapter26.



Description

Correspondingtotheserverstringvaluein/etc/smb.conf,

thisisanarbitrarystringusedtodescribetheserver.Thisis

settoMacOSXinanout-of-boxinstall.



Figure16-3.TheWindowsServicesConnections

panedisplayscurrentlyconnectedusers.

Troublesomeusersmaybedisconnected.



ComputerName

Correspondingtothenetbiosnamevaluein/etc/smb.conf,

thisisthenameusedtobrowsefortheserveronWindows

networksorusingWindowsbrowsingtechnologies.Itshould

inmostcasescorrespondtotheunqualifiedportionofthe

server'shostname;thisaidsinconfiguringSambato

supportsinglesign-on,asdocumentedinChapter27.



Workgroup

Correspondingtotheworkgroupvaluein/etc/smb.conf,thisis

thenameoftheNT-styleworkgroupinwhichtheserveris

advertisedforbrowsing.Workgroupsarealoose,voluntary

affiliationusedtoorganizecomputersadvertisingWindows

servicesforbrowsing.Youdonothavetodoanythingto

joinaworkgroupotherthanadvertiseyourselfasapartof

it,andanewworkgroupiscreatedsimplybyconfiguringa

singlecomputertobelongtoit.Thedefaultconfigurationfor

theWorkgroupinMacOSXandMacOSXServeris



WORKGROUP.ThisconfigurationisidenticaltomostWindows



variants.



Oddlyenough,theWorkgroupvaluebecomes

importantwhenintegratingwithActive

Directory(AD).TheWorkgroupvaluemustbe

changed,then,toreflecttheNT-styledomain

emulatedbythatActiveDirectory'sPDC

emulatoreachAD,eveninnativemode,

emulatesanNT4PrimaryDomainController

forbackwardscompatibility.Thisstepalso

aidsinsupportingSingleSign-onfromActive

Directoryclients.



Figure16-4.Historicaldataconcerningthe

numberofsimultaneouslyconnectedusersis

availableintheSMBmodule'sGraphsinterface.



TheAccesstabsimilartoitscousininAFPcontrolstwosettings

relatedtoaccessingtheservice(seeFigure16-6).Guestaccess

maybeenabledhere(itisdisabledinadefaultconfiguration)

andthenumberofclientconnectionscanbelimited.Ten-user

MacOSXServerlicensesarelimitedtotensimultaneousSMB

connections,nomatterwhatthisnumberissetto.Guestaccess

isimplementedusingsmb.conf'smap-to-guestparameter.A

valueofNever(thedefault)meansthatunrecognizedusers

suchasguestareneverallowedtologin.WhenGuestis

enabled,map-to-guestisgivenavalueofBadUser,which

(confusingly)meansthatunrecognizeduserslikeguestare

mappedtotheaccountspecifiedintheguestaccount

parameter.InMacOSXandMacOSXServer,thisistheuser

calledunknown(seeExample16-1).



Figure16-5.BasicSMBsettingsmaybe

configuredintheGeneralpaneoftheServer

AdminSMBmodule'sSettingsinterface.



Example16-1.GuestconnectionsinSamba,when

they'reenabled,aremappedtotheuser

unknown.Sambauseslookupdtoidentifyusers.

g5:~ladmin$lookupd-quser-anameunknown



_writers_passwd:unknown

change:0

expire:0

gid:99

home:/var/empty

name:unknown



passwd:*

realname:UnknownUser

shell:/usr/bin/false

uid:99



Clientconnectionlimitationsareimplementedusingsmb.conf's

maxsmbdprocessesdirective,whichissetto0(which

ironicallyequatestounlimited)inanout-of-boxinstall.

AminimalinterfacetoSamba'sloggingcapabilitiesisavailable

intheLoggingtab,allowingtheadministratortochooseLow,

Medium,orHighlogging,asshowninFigure16-7.This

correspondstosmb.conf"loglevel"settingsof0,1,and2,

respectively(describedinTable16-1).Theseloglevels,

however,provideadepressingandlimitedviewofSamba'srich

loggingcapabilities.OtherSambaloglevelsofferanamazing

amountofdata.



Figure16-6.TheAccesspaneessentiallycontrols

guestaccessandlimitssimultaneous

connections.



Figure16-7.ServerAdmin'sSMBlogging

capabilitiesignorethegreatdepthofdatamade

availablebytheSambapackage.



Table16-1.LoglevelsthatareavailablegraphicallyusingServer

Admin.

Log

level



smb.conflog

Description

levelsetting



Low



0



Logserrorsandwarningsonly.Nofile-accesseventsarelogged.



Medium 1



Logsservicestartandstop,authenticationfailures,warningsand

errormessages,andbrowsernameregistrationevents.



High



Logsfile-accessevents,startandstop,authenticationfailures,

warningsanderrormessages,andbrowsernameregistration

events.



2



Inthecourseoftroubleshootingorinitiallysettingupwindows

services,I'vefoundloglevelsupto5veryuseful,especially

whenintegratingSambawithActiveDirectoryorNTdomains.



Totemporarilysupportthesehigherloglevels,edit

/etc/smb.conf'sloglevelparameterto3,4,or5andrestart

SMBusingtheServerAdminapplicationortheserveradmin

utility.Keepinmind,though,thatthenexttimeaconfiguration

changeissavedinServerAdmin,smb.confisrewrittenandthe

changeswillnotberespected.



InJaguar,allchangestosmb.confcouldpotentiallybeoverwrittenany

timetheconfigurationwaschangedoranytimeSMBserviceswere

startedusingServerSettings(ServerAdmin'spredecessor).This

situationwasextremelyfrustratingtoexperiencedSamba

administratorsandApplecustomersseekingtogetmoreoutof

Windowsservicesthanwasofferedinthegraphicalinterface.

InPanthersmb.confisstilloverwritten.However,manychangesthat

donotaffectgraphicallyconfiguredoptionsarepreservedasof10.3.3.

Commentsarenotpreserved,andtheorganizationofthefilesoptions

mightbechangedagainfrustratingexperiencedadministrators,

accustomedtowellmanagedandneatlycommentedconfigurationfiles.

Butfunctionallythefilemayusuallybemodified,andthose

modificationswillbeconsistentlyusedtochangethebehaviorof

Windowsservices.



TheAdvancedpaneofServerAdmin'sWindowssettings(Figure

16-8),exposesavarietyof(mostlyunrelated)options.



Figure16-8.TheSMBservice'sAdvancedsettings

panecontainsavarietyofmostlyunrelated(and

notterriblyadvanced)functions.



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Chapter 16.  Windows File Services

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