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Chapter 28. Windows Server 2003 Administration Tools for Desktops

Chapter 28. Windows Server 2003 Administration Tools for Desktops

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beusedtoinstallandmanageMicrosoftWindowsXP

Professionalworkstations.Topicssuchasdeployingdesktops

andkeepingtheoperatingsystemuptodatearecovered.Also,

remoteadministrationandremoteapplicationinstallationare

describedinthischapter.Manyofthetoolsandconceptsused

inthischapterapplytoWindows2000Professional

workstations,butweassumethatthedesktopOSisWindows

XP.







ExaminingDesktopDeploymentOptions

WhenitcomestodeployingworkstationsinaMicrosoft

Windowsnetworkingenvironment,severaloptionsareavailable.

Youcouldloadoperatingsystemsbystartingwithbootdisksor

bystartingtheinstallationfromacrossthenetworkusinga

command-linenetworkclientsuchasMSClient.Someoptions

wereadoptedbylargehardwaredistributors,buttheseoptions

weretoocomplicatedandrequiredmanyhoursoftesting;

therefore,theywereneveradoptedbysmallandmedium-sized

organizationsthatdidnotseethevalueincomplicated

installations.Windows2000andWindowsXPcontinuetofollow

Microsoft'srecordofprovidingseveraldesktopdeployment

methods.



ManualInstallation

InstallingWindowsXPorWindows2000manuallyisalwaysan

optionandprobablythemostfrequentlyusedmethodof

installingtheoperatingsystem.Manyadministratorsand

organizationsconsiderimagingundependableorquestionable.

Asamatteroffact,inpreviousversionsofWindowsoperating

systems,ifamachinewasinstalledusingimagingsoftware,it

wasalwaysquestionableandsometimesblamedforsystem

corruption.Oneoftheadvantagesofmanualinstallationisthat

youalwaysstartwiththecleanbaseoperatingsystemtobuild

upon.

ToinstallWindowsXPmanually,inserttheWindowsXPbootable

mediaandstarttheworkstation.Youmightneedtoenterakey

tobootfromtheCD,butafterthattheinstallationwillstart.

Thestep-by-stepinstallationinstructionsontherootdriveof

theWindowsXPCDareclearandeasytofollow.



UnattendedInstallations

Amoreautomatedmethodofinstallationistheunattended

installation.Thistypeofinstallationispossiblebecausethe

installationquestionsareansweredautomaticallyusing

informationstoredinasetuporanswerfile.

Anadvantageofthisapproachisthattheentireinstallationcan

bescriptedandloadedonaCD.WhenyoubootfromthisCD,

theoperatingsysteminstallationcommences.When

applicationsareassignedusingGroupPolicy,theworkstation

couldbeupandrunningautomaticallywithinashorttime

frame.Thetimetocompletetheunattendedinstallationisclose

tothetimerequiredforamanualinstallation,butusererror

canbereducedandtheinstallationdoesnotneedtobe

watchedtokeeptheinstallationmoving.Theonlyuser

interventionnecessaryisstartingthesystemfromthebootable

CD.

Youcancustomizeanunattendedinstallationtosupportseveral

typesofinstallationsandhardwareconfigurationsbyspecifying

informationintheinstallationconfigurationfiles.



DesktopImaging

Desktopimagesarecopiesoftherunningworkstationinits

currentstate.Onlyafewsoftwarevendorshavedeveloped

softwarethathasbeenusedsuccessfullytodeployWindows

workstationsusingstoredimages.



RemoteInstallationServices

RemoteInstallationServices(RIS)onWindowsServer2003can

beusedtocreateanddeployWindows2000andWindowsXP



desktopimages.Also,startingwithWindowsServer2003,

server-basedimagescanbecreatedanddeployedusingRIS.

RemoteInstallationServicestakesadvantageofafewsystem

preparationtoolstoenableyoutoautomateandstandardize

desktopinstallationsacrosstheenterprise.RISdoeshavesome

client-siderequirementsandlimitations,butevenabasic

installationwithoneimagecouldgreatlysimplifydesktop

deployment.



Third-PartyImagingSoftware

Someoftheadvantagesofusingthird-partyimagingsoftware

arethatyoucancompressdataandcreatebootableimages

thatcanbesplitacrossmultipleCDs.Also,themoreadvanced

versionsprovideone-to-one(Unicast)andmany-to-one

(Multicast)modes.



MulticastImagingSoftware

Multicasttechnologyprovidestheabilitytosendcompressed

andsometimesencrypteddatatoseveralclientsusingonlya

singlestreamofinformation.Thetechnologyitselfisoptimized

andrequireslessnetworkbandwidththanifthesamenumber

ofclientswereaccessingthedatastreamindividually.Multicast

serverandworkstationimagingsoftwareallowsadministrators

totakeadvantageofthistechnologytodeployimagestoa

handfulorhundredsofworkstationsonthelocalnetworkor

acrosstheentireenterprise.Theonlycatchisthateachofthe

multicastclientsmustremainidleuntilalltheclientshave

attachedandarereadytoreceivetheimage.Afterallthe

clientsareconnected,theimagecanbepusheddownonallthe

workstationssimultaneously.



UsingRemoteInstallationServicestoDeploy

SystemImages

WindowsServer2003includesaserverandworkstation

imaging-deploymentproductcalledRemoteInstallationServices

(RIS).FirstintroducedinWindows2000,theRISdeployment

toolsweresomewhatlimitedandcouldbeusedonlytodeploy

Windows2000Professionalworkstations.StartingwithWindows

Server2003,serverimagescanalsobesavedanddeployed

acrosstheenterprise.Thisallowsadministratorstoconfigure

bothserveranddesktopstandardimagestobeusedacrossthe

enterprise.RemoteInstallationServicesishandy,butbefore

youdeploydesktopsusingthisproduct,youshoulddosome

testingandplanning.



PlanningRISDeployments

InstallingRISonaWindowsServer2003systemisafairly

simpleprocess,butplanninghowtheRISserverwillbeused

canhelpensureasuccessfulimplementation.Considerationsfor

RISincludedecidinghowmanysystemstheRISservershould

deliverinstallationimagestosimultaneously.Also,RISclient

computersmustsupportremotebooteitherwithabootupdisk

orusingpre-bootexecution(PXE)oncompatiblesystems.

BecauseRISserverstrytodelivertheimagetoclientsasfast

asthenetworkcanhandle,youmustlimitRISserveraccessto

LANclientstoavoidhavingtheRISserversaturateWANlinks

whileimagingclientcomputers.

Storageisalwaysabigconcernforimagingservers,andthirdpartyimagingsoftwarestoreseachimageinaseparatefile,

whichcantakeupalotofstoragespace.Althoughtheseimage

filesoftencompressfairlywell,RISstoresimagesintheirnative

fileformatsandreplacesduplicatefileswithfilepointersorlinks



tosavestoragespace.Thetechnologyusedtooptimizestorage

spacebyrecognizingfilesusedindifferentimagesisSingle

InstanceStorage(SIS).SISworksbyreplacingactualduplicate

fileswithjunctionpointswithintheRISimagestoragelocations.

ThisreducestheoverallstoragerequirementsoftheRISserver,

allowingforthecreationofseveralcustomimages,including

savinguserdesktopimagestotheRISserverasameansof

recovery.Tooptimizeperformance,youshouldinstallRISand

RISimagesonseparatephysicaldisksthantheoperating

systemtoimprovesystemimageaccess.



InstallingRIS

AnadministratorwithLocalAdministratoraccesscanquickly

installRIS.TheRISservermustalsobepartofanActive

Directorydomain,andaDHCPservermustbeavailableonthe

network.ToinstallRIS,performthefollowingsteps:

1. LogontotheRISserverusinganaccountwithatleastLocal

ifnotDomainAdministratoraccess.

2. ChooseStart,ControlPanel.

3. SelectAdd/RemovePrograms.

4. SelectAdd/RemoveWindowsComponents.

5. ScrolldownthelistandcheckRemoteInstallationServices.

6. ClickNexttoinstallRISandclickFinishaftertheinstallation

iscomplete.

7. Closetheremainingopenwindowsandreboottheserveras

instructed.



ConfiguringRIS

AftertheRISserverreboots,theservicecanbeconfigured.

Upontheinitialconfiguration,youneedtospecifythestorage

locationoftheRISserverandchoosesomesimpleinstallation

options.Also,duringthisprocess,thefirstinstallationimageis

created.ThisimageisbasedonacleanOSinstallationofthe

particularoperatingsystemversion.Forexample,aWindows

2000ProfessionalCDcouldbeusedforthefirstimageona

WindowsServer2003RISserver.ToconfigureRIS,followthese

steps:

1. LogontotheRISserverusinganaccountwithatleastLocal

ifnotDomainAdministratoraccess.

2. ChooseStart,AllPrograms,AdministrativeTools,Remote

InstallationServicesSetup.

3. ReadtheinformationontheRISWizardwelcomescreento

ensurethattheRISrequirementswillbemetfora

successfulimplementation.ThenclickNexttocontinue.

4. Inthenextwindow,specifythelocalpathwheretheRIS

imageswillbestored.Thefoldercannotbeonthesystem

driveandmustsupportenoughspacetostoreallthe

images.Theinstallationpathcannotbeonthebootpartition

orthepartitionwiththeoperatingsystemloadedonit.After

youspecifythefolderlocation,clickNexttocontinue.

5. TheinitialsettingswindowallowstheRISservertobegin

respondingtoclientrequestsimmediately.Thisoptionis

disabledbydefault,buttoallowtheRISservertostart

acceptingclientconnections,checktheRespondtoClient

ComputersRequestingServiceboxandclickNextto



continue.

6. Nowyoumustspecifythelocationofthefirstimagesource

files.Thisinformationwillbeusedtocreatethefirstimage

ontheserver.Ifyou'reusingaWindowsCD,specifyeither

therootoftheCDorspecifytheI386directoryoftheCDfor

Intel-basedsysteminstallations.

7. Inthenextwindow,youspecifytheimagefolderlocation.

Thedefaultisthenameofthesystemrootfolderofthe

particularoperatingsystem,suchasWINNTorWINDOWS.

ClickNexttocontinue.Inthenextwindow,typeina

FriendlyDescriptivenameandanyHelpTextfortheimage

folderandclickNexttocontinue.

8. Inthelastwindow,reviewthespecifiedsettings,asshown

inFigure28.1,andclickFinishtocreatetheimage.



Figure28.1.CreatinganRISimage.

[Viewfullsizeimage]



AfteryouclickFinish,theRISinstallationfinishesandcopies

thefirstimageinstallationfilestotheserver.Duringthis

process,theunattendedanswerfilemustbecreatedtoallow

theRISservertoautomatepart,ifnotall,oftheinstallation.

Afterthisprocessiscomplete,youneedtoaddtwoDHCP

serverscopeoptionsforclientstolocatetheRISserver.



ConfiguringDHCPforRISClients

AfteryoucompletetheRISserverinstallation,youmustadd

twoDHCPscopeoptionsforclientstolocatetheRISserver.

Thesesettingsincludeoptionnumbers066and067;these

optionsarethebootserverhostnameandthebootfilename.

ThebootserverhostnamevalueisafullyqualifiedDNSname,

andthebootfilenameissimplyStartrom.exe.Toaddthese

options,performthefollowingsteps:



1. LogontotheDHCPserverwithDomainAdministrator

access.

2. ChooseStart,AllPrograms,AdministrativeTools,DHCP.

3. ExpandtheLocalDHCPServerentryandselectthe

appropriatescope.

4. ExpandthescopeandselectScopeOptions.Ifmultiple

scopesareusedonthisDHCPserverandtheRISoptions

needtobeaddedtoallscopes,selectScopeOptionstohold

theobjects.

5. Right-clickScopeOptionsandselectConfigureOptions.

6. ScrolldownintheAvailableOptionswindowtonumber066,

checktheoptionnamedBootServerHostName,andenter

thefullyqualifieddomainnameoftheRISserver.

7. Scrolldownandcheckthenextsetting,067BootfileName,

andenterRemoteInstall\Admin\I386\Startrom.comtocompletethe

DHCPupdatesforRIS.ClickOKtoclosetheScopeoptions.



EstablishingClientRequirements

ForaremoteclienttoaccessanRISserver,itmustbeableto

accessthenetworkbeforeitcanlocatetheRISserver.RIS

serversrequireclientcomputerstosupportprebootexecution

(PXE)ornetworkboot.Manyworkstationshavethisoption,but

youmightneedtoenablethisoptionorchooseitatbootup

beforeitcanbeused.Forclientworkstationsthatdonot

supportit,youcanusetheRemoteBootFloppyGenerator

(Rbfg.exe)tocreateanetworkbootfloppydisk.Rbfg.exeis



loadedonanRISserverandcanbeaccessedinthe

%systemroot%\System32\Reminstfolder.Tocreateabootdisk,

performthefollowingsteps:

1. LogintotheRISserverusinganaccountwithAdministrator

access.

2. InsertablankformattedfloppyintheRISserver'sfloppy

drive.

3. OpenWindowsExplorerandbrowsetothe

c:\windows\system32\reminstfoldertolocatetheRbfg.exe

file.Ifthefileisnotthere,eitherthisisnottheRISserver

orRIShasnotyetbeeninstalled.IfRIShasnotbeen

installed,skiptothe"InstallingRIS"sectionandcomplete

thestepstherebeforereturninghere.

4. WhentheMicrosoftWindowsRemoteBootDiskGenerator

opens,clicktheCreateDiskbuttontocreateabootfloppy.

Asthebootfloppyisbeingcreated,you'llseesomething

similartowhatisshowninFigure28.2.



Figure28.2.CreatingabootdiskforRIS.



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