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Chapter 16. Migrating from Windows NT4 to Windows Server 2003

Chapter 16. Migrating from Windows NT4 to Windows Server 2003

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MigrationPathstoWindowsServer2003

Thefirstdecisiontobemadewhenmigratingistodetermine

whichtypeofmigrationstrategybestfitsyourrequirements

andActiveDirectorydesign.Threemigrationpathsareoutlined

inthischapter.Eachmigrationpath,describedinthefollowing

list,isuniqueincharacteristicsandrequiresdifferenttasksto

complete.Therefore,eachmigrationpathshouldbeplannedin

detail,scripted,andtestedbeforeyouactuallyperformany

migrationtasks.

Thefirstmigrationoptionisaninplaceupgrade.This

migrationpathisadirectupgradeoftheWindowsNT4

serveroperatingsystemanddomaintoWindowsServer

2003andActiveDirectory.

ThesecondoptionistomigratetheNT4objectsfroman

existingNT4domaintoabrand-newWindowsServer2003

forestandActiveDirectory.

ThethirdoptionistoconsolidatemultipleexistingWindows

NT4domainsintoasingleActiveDirectorydomain

configuration.

Eachdomainmigrationpathoffersdifferentcharacteristicsand

functionality.Beforeyoucontinue,revieweachmigrationpath

andperformallpreparationtaskstoprepareyourWindowsNT4

environmenttobemigratedtoActiveDirectory.Beginby

determiningthespecificcriteriaforyourmigration,suchasthe

timeframeinwhichtocompletethemigrationandyourfinal

ActiveDirectorydesign.Understandingthesekeyareaswill

assistyouindeterminingwhichmigrationpathisbestforyour

organization.



DeterminingtheBestMigrationPathforYour

Organization

Witheachspecificmigrationpath,therearedifferenttasksand

methodsinwhichtoprepareandcompleteamigration.There

arealsokeybusinessdecisionsandtechnicalfactorsthatcan

determinewhichpathisbestforyourmigration.Eachofthese

pathsandthebenefitsassociatedwiththemareoutlinedinthe

followingsections.



ConductinganInplaceUpgrade

Aninplaceupgradeisveryeffectivefororganizationsthatwant

tomaintaintheirexistingWindowsNT4domainormultidomain

models.Usingthismethodallowsyoutoeffectivelymigrate

fromanexistingdomainordomainstoWindowsServer2003

andActiveDirectorybyupgradingtheNT4domainasitexists

todayintoaWindowsServer2003ActiveDirectorydomain.

Becauseyouareperforminganinplaceupgradeoftheserver

operatingsystem,eachserversystemsettingsuchasdomain

trustsandserviceaccountsispreservedwhentheupgradeis

complete.

Themostcompellingreasonsfororganizationstousethis

methodareasfollows:Aftertheserveroperatingsystemis

upgradedtoWindowsServer2003,theActiveDirectory

InstallationWizardwillalsomigrateandupgradeallexisting

WindowsNT4domainsecurityprinciplessuchasdomainusers,

groups,andpermissionstoActiveDirectory.Thisisconsidered

thesimplestmodelbecausenoadditionaltoolsorthird-party

softwareisrequiredtocompletethemigration.Also,afterthe

inplacemigration,desktopsandlaptopsintheorganizationdo

notneedtobetouchedbecausetheywilleffectivelyremainin

thesameWindowsdomainastheywereinNT4.Thisfactoris

significantfororganizationsthatwanttomigratebutdonot



wanttotoucheverysingledesktopafterthemigration.After

properplanningandtesting,someorganizationshaveactually

conductedanupgradefromWindowsNT4toWindowsServer

2003onaFridaynight,withnodramaticimpactonusersor

operationofthenetwork.



Note

Theinplaceupgrademethodofmigrationfrom

WindowsNT4toWindows2003hasproventobethe

preferredmethodofmigrationformostmigrations

fromNT4.Becausetheinplaceupgrademigration

maintainsuseraccounts,computeraccounts,

securityprinciples,userprofiles,andotherkey

networkinformation,thismigrationmethodhasthe

least(ifany)impactonusers,thusmakingitthe

cleanestmigrationmethod.Inplaceupgradesdonot

requireexistingdomaincontrollerhardwaretobe

upgraded,however,itonlyimpliesthatthedomain

itselfcanbeupgradedinplace.



MigratinganExistingWindowsNT4DomaintoaNew

WindowsServer2003Forest

Asorganizationsgroworbusinessneedschange,many

companiesarelookingforaneffectivemethodofchangingtheir

existingWindowsNT4domainmodel.Migratinganexisting

WindowsNT4domaintoanewWindowsServer2003forest

allowsadministratorstodesignandinstallanewWindows

Server2003ActiveDirectoryforestwithoutinterruptingexisting

WindowsNT4networkconnectivity.



WhenyouusetheActiveDirectoryMigrationTool(ADMT)to

migrateWindowsNT4domainsecurityprinciplesandresources

toActiveDirectory,existingWindowsNT4securityprinciples

canthenbemigratedtoorganizationalunitsandchilddomains

withinthenewlystructuredActiveDirectoryforest,asshownin

Figure16.1.



Figure16.1.Migratingexistingdomainstoanew

WindowsServer2003forest.



BytakingadvantageoftheenhancedfunctionalityofWindows

Server2003,ActiveDirectorycanbeintegratedwithWindows

NT4domainsbyusingdomaintrustsandpermissions.This

functionalitymakesthisoptionveryeffectiveforlarger

organizationsandenablesadministratorstomigratesecurity

principlesincrementallyovertimewhilestillmaintaining

connectivitytothesamesharednetworkresources.Thismeans

usersintheWindowsNT4domaincanaccessthesame

resourcesasuserswhohavebeenmigratedtoActiveDirectory

withoutinterruptiontoday-to-dayoperations.



Thismigrationpathalsoallowsadministratorstofurther

organizeandstructureanewdomainbyallowingobjectstobe

movedbetweenActiveDirectorydomainsandorganizational

unitsaftertheyhavebeenmigrated.Allthesetaskscanbe

completedwhilestillmaintainingconnectivitybetweenWindows

NT4andWindowsServer2003,furtherenhancingyourability

tobuildanewdomainmodelwithouttheneedtocreatenew

usersandcomputeraccountsaswellasnewnetworkresources.



IsaNewForestCleanerthananInplace-UpgradedForest?

OneofthereasonswhyorganizationsputforththeeffortofbuildingabrandnewActiveDirectoryforest(insteadofdoinganinplaceupgradeoftheirexisting

WindowsNT4domain)isthattheybelievethebrand-newforestwillbecleaner

thananinplaceupgrade.AlthoughnooldobjectsaremigratedtothenewActive

Directoryforest,therearewaystocleanupaninplace-upgradeddomainsothat

itendsupbeingjustascleanasabrand-newforest.Thebigadvantageto

performinganinplaceupgradeisthatitminimizestheneedtomanuallycreate

eachuserandcomputerobjectinthenewforest,andeasestheprocessof

ensuringthatuserprofiles,favorites,securitysettings,andotheruniquesettings

arecopiedtothenewforest.

Theprocessofcleaningupaninplace-upgradeddomainsimplyinvolvesdeleting

allunusedmigratedobjects.Theadministratorthenbuildsabrand-newglobal

catalogserverandmovestheFSMOrolestothenewglobalcatalogserver.Only

existingobjectswillbemigratedtothenewserverasoldobjectsarenotmoved.

Thiscreatesanewglobalcatalogserverthathasnolegacyobjects,makingit

justascleanasifaglobalcatalogserverwascreatedfromscratchwithobjects

manuallyaddedtotheserver.

Anotherargumentagainstaninplaceupgradeistheresultantforestname.Many

administratorsincorrectlybelievethatwhentheydoaninplaceupgrade,they

arestuckwiththesameforestnameastheirexistingWindowsNT4domain

name.Whenaninplaceupgradeisconductedonaprimarydomaincontroller,

theadministratorisaskedforafullyqualifiedDNSnameforthenewforest.An

organizationwithaWindowsNT4domainnameofCompanyXcandoaninplace

upgradetoaWindows2003ActiveDirectoryforestnameofsomething

completelydifferent,suchascompanyabc.com.TheoldCompanyXisaNetBIOSname,

whereasforestsinActiveDirectoryuseDNSnames.

Organizationsneedtoconsiderwhethertherealbenefitsofbuildinganewforest

outweightheextremecost,effort,time,anduserinterruptionthatacleanforest

buildcreates.Mostargumentsagainstaninplaceupgradecanbeclearedupas

misperceptionsofwhatcanandcannotbedoneintheupgradeprocess,giving

anorganizationbetteroptionsformigratingitsnetworks.



ConsolidatingMultipleWindowsNT4DomainstoActive

Directory



Thethirdmigrationpathallowsanorganizationtomigrateto

WindowsServer2003andActiveDirectoryusingallthe

functionalityandintegrationcapabilitiesofthefirstandsecond

migrationpaths.Whenyouconsolidatedomains,your

organizationcanperformaninplaceupgradewhilemaintaining

selectedexistingWindowsNT4domains.OtherexistingNT

domainscanthenbeconsolidatedintothenewActiveDirectory

domainordomainswithintheforest.Domainscanevenbe

migratedandconsolidatedintoorganizationalunits,allowingfor

moregranularadministration.Whensecurityprinciplesare

migratedusingtheActiveDirectoryMigrationTool,thisoption

allowsorganizationstoconsolidateandmigrateadditional

domainsincrementallywhilemaintainingselectedexisting

domaininfrastructures.

Thisoptioniseffectivefororganizationsthathaveacquired

othercompaniesandtheirnetworksandstillwanttomaintain

theiroriginaldomainmodel.Whenyouconsolidatedomains,

effectivelyyouareupgradingadomainordomainswithinthe

existingdomainmodel.Aftertheupgradesarecompleted,you

canthenbeginconsolidatingandrestructuringdomainsby

migratingsecurityprinciplesintoneworganizationalunitswith

theforestrootorchilddomainsinthenewActiveDirectory

forest.Additionalaccountandresourcedomainscanthenalso

beconsolidatedwithinthenewlystructuredActiveDirectory

forest.







PreparingWindowsNT4DomainstoMigrateto

WindowsServer2003

Nowthatyouhaveanunderstandingofthemigration

requirementsandthepathinwhichyouaregoingtomigrateto

WindowsServer2003andActiveDirectory,thenextstepisto

beginpreparingyourexistingnetworkinfrastructureand

WindowsNT4domaintobemigratedtoWindowsServer2003

andActiveDirectory.

WhetheryouareimplantinganewWindowsServer2003Active

DirectorydomainorupgradingexistingWindowsNT4server

operatingsystemsanddomainstoWindowsServer2003,you

mustconsiderseveralstepsregardinghardwareandsoftware

beforeyoubeginyourmigration.Performingthesestepswill

preventavoidableproblemsinareassuchasmeetingWindows

Server2003familyhardwarerequirements,ensuringWindows

Server2003hardwareandsoftwarecompatibility,andplanning

serverhardwareconfigurationtooptimizeserverperformance.

Thefollowingsectionaddressesthesespecificareasand

identifiesthetoolsavailabletohelpprepareyourserver

hardwareandsoftwareforasuccessfulmigrationtoWindows

Server2003.



HardwareandSoftwareCompatibility

BeforemigratingserverstoWindowsServer2003,youmust

determinewhetheryourWindowsNT4serverhardwareand

WindowsNT4serverbasedapplicationsarecompatiblewiththe

WindowsServer2003familyoperatingsystems.Totesteach

serverforcompatibility,usetheMicrosoftCompatibilityCheck

toolavailableonyourWindowsServer2003installationCDROM.



Note

YoucanalsoreviewtheWindowsServer2003family

hardwareandsoftwarecompatibilitylistonthe

MicrosoftWebsite.Windows2003compatibility

informationcanbefoundat

http://www.microsoft.com/hcl.



TheCompatibilityChecktoolcanberunfromtheWindows

Server2003setupCD-ROM.Itdoesnotrequireyoutobegin

installingorupgradingtheserveroperatingsystemtorunthe

tool.

YoucanchoosefromtwomethodstoruntheCompatibility

Checktool.Youcanusetheautorunfeaturebuiltintoyour

serversystemtolaunchtheWindowsServer2003Setup

screen.Ifyourserversystemdoesnotsupporttheautorun

feature,orithasbeendisabled,youcanruntheutilityfroma

commandpromptorWindowsRunoption.Torunthe

CompatibilityChecktoolattheprompt,type

d:\i386\winnt32/checkupgradeonly,whered:representstheCD-ROM

driveletter.

EachmethodallowsyoutolaunchtheWindowsServer2003

CompatibilityChecktool.Besuretorunthistoolbefore

upgradingorinstallingWindowsServer2003andActive

Directory.Replaceanyincompatiblehardwareandupgradeany

softwareasrequiredtoensureproperfunctionalitywhenyour

migrationiscomplete.



ReviewingHardwareandSoftware

Requirements



Oneofthemostimportantstepsbeforemigratingistoensure

thattheexistingserverhardwareandserveroperatingsystems

thatyouplantomigratemeettheminimumrequirementsfor

installingtheWindowsServer2003familyproducts.Ensuring

thattheserverhardwaremeetstheserequirementsand

planningfortheadditionofserverhardwareresourcessuchas

memorycanassistyouinensuringthatserverperformancewill

beadequatewhenyourmigrationiscomplete.Thefollowing

sectionslisttheminimumrequirementsandrecommended

hardwareandsoftwarerequirementsforperforminganupgrade

orcleaninstallationofWindowsServer2003familyproducts.



OperatingSystemRequirements

MostWindowsNT4networkinstallationscontainmultiple

versionsoftheNT4operatingsystem.Eachoperatingsystem

typemustmeettheminimumrequirementsforupgradingor

migratingtotheWindowsServer2003family.

Theserveroperatingsystemrequirementsincludethe

following:

WindowsNT4.0ServicePack5orhigher

WindowsNT4.0TerminalServerEditionwithServicePack5

orhigher

WindowsNT4.0EnterpriseEditionwithServicePack5or

higher



ServerHardwareRequirements

BeforeyouinstallWindowsServer2003,reviewyourexisting

serverhardwaretoensureeachsystemmeetstheminimum



requirementsforinstallingtheWindowsServer2003family

serveroperatingsystem.Also,planyourserverhardware

configurationsandupgradesbasedonserverroles.Besureto

planforadequatehardwareresourcestoensureoptimal

performancebasedoneachserverrole:

Forx86-basedsystemsWindowsServer2003supports

Intel'sPentiumandCeleron,AMDK6,Athlon,andDuron

processorsat133MHzandhigher.Forbestperformance,

Microsoftrecommendsaminimumspeedof550MHz.The

minimumsupportedmemoryforinstallingWindowsServer

2003is128MBofRAM.Revieweachserverroleandplan

memoryrequirementstoensurebestperformance.

Microsoftrecommends256MBofmemory.

ForItanium-basedsystemsAminimumprocessorspeed

of733MHzisrecommended,asisaminimumof1GBof

RAM.



MigratingWindowsNT4Volumes,Mirrors,and

StripeSets

OftenwhenWindowsNT4serverswereinstalledwithout

hardwarefault-tolerantequipment,theWindowsNT4Disk

Managerwasusedtocreatevolumesets,mirroredsets,stripe

sets,andstripesetswithparity.BecausetheWindowsServer

2003operatingsystemdoesnotsupportWindowsNT4Disk

Managerconfigurations,youmustmodifysoftware-baseddisk

configurationsbeforeperforminganinplaceupgradeto

WindowsServer2003.Performthetasksdescribedinthe

followingsectionsforeachconfigurationbeforecontinuingto

upgradeanyWindowsNTservers.



MirroredVolumes



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Chapter 16. Migrating from Windows NT4 to Windows Server 2003

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