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Chapter 2. Planning, Prototyping, Migrating, and Deploying Windows Server 2003 Best Practices

Chapter 2. Planning, Prototyping, Migrating, and Deploying Windows Server 2003 Best Practices

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theimplementation'sbenefitscanjeopardizefundingoffuture

projectsandaffectthesatisfactionoftheusercommunity.

Thischapterexamineshowastructuredfour-stepprocessfor

migratingtotheWindowsServer2003environmentcan

enhancethesuccessoftheproject.Consistingofdiscovery,

design,testing,andimplementationphases,thismethodology

canbescaledtomeettheneedsofthewidevarietyof

organizationsandbusinessesthatuseMicrosofttechnologies.

Theresultsofthismethodologyarethreeveryimportant

documentscreatedtomapouttheimplementationprocess:the

designdocument,themigrationdocument,andthemigration

plan.

Theexamplesusedinthischapterassumethatthe

environmentsbeingmigratedareprimarilyNT4orWindows

2000based,buttheconceptsandprocesscancertainlyapply

tootherenvironments.



DeterminingtheScopeofYourProject

Asoutlinedintheprecedingchapter,theWindowsServer2003

platformcontainssuchawealthoffeaturesthatplanninga

migrationtoitcanseemquitedauntingatfirst.Thischapter

providessomeguidanceandbestpracticesthatcanassistwith

theprocessandassistorganizationsincreatingawell-thoughtoutandstructuredimplementationplan.

Ratherthanforgingaheadwithnoplanorgoalsandsimply

buildingnewservers,loadingapplicationsoftware,andinserting

themintoanexistingnetworkenvironment,amoreorganized

processwillcontroltherisksinvolvedanddefineindetailwhat

theendstatewilllooklike.

Thefirststepsinvolvegettingabettersenseofthescopeofthe

project,inessencewritingtheexecutivesummaryofyour

designdocument.Thescopeshoulddefinefromahighlevel

whattheprojectconsistsofandwhytheorganizationis

devotingtime,energy,andresourcestoitscompletion.

Creatingthisscopeofworkrequiresanunderstandingofthe

differentgoalsoftheorganization,aswellasthepiecesofthe

puzzlethatneedtofittogethertomeetthecompany'sstated

goalsfortheproject.ForWindowsServer2003,theprimary

piecesareserversthathandlekeynetworkfunctionality,

serversthathandleandmanagethedata,serversthatcontrol

orprovideaccesstotheinformation,andserversthathandle

specificapplications.



IdentifyingtheBusinessGoalsandObjectivesto

ImplementWindowsServer2003

Itisimportanttoestablishathoroughunderstandingofthe

goalsandobjectivesofacompanythatguideanddirectthe

effortsofthedifferentcomponentsoftheorganization,tohelp

ensurethesuccessoftheWindowsServer2003project.Itmay

seemcounterintuitivetostartatthisveryhighlevelandkeep

awayfromthebits-andbytes-leveldetails,buttimespentin

thisareawillclarifythepurposesoftheprojectandstartto

generateproductivediscussions.

Asanexampleofthevalueofsettinghigh-levelbusinessgoals

andobjectives,anorganizationcanidentifythedesireforzero

downtimeonfileaccess;thisdowntimecouldbefacilitated

throughtheimplementationoftheDistributedFileSystem

(DFS)technologyortheWindowsServer2003VolumeShadow

Copytechnology.Sostartingwiththebroadgoalsand

objectiveswillcreateanoutlineforatechnicalsolutionthatwill

meetallthecriteriatheorganizationwants,atalowercost,and

withaneasiermanagedsolution.

Ineveryorganizationavarietyofdifferentgoalsandobjectives

needtobeidentifiedandmetforaprojecttobeconsidered

successful.Thesegoalsandobjectivesrepresentasnapshotof

theendstatethatthecompanyororganizationisseekingto

create.Forasmallercompany,thisprocessmightbecompleted

inafewbrainstormingsessions,whereaslargercompaniesmay

requiremoreextensivediscussionsandassistancefrom

externalresourcesorfirms.



High-LevelBusinessGoals

Tostarttheorganizationalprocess,itishelpfultobreakup



businessgoalsandobjectivesintodifferentlevels,orvantage

points.Mostorganizationshavehigh-levelbusinessgoals,often

referredtoasthe"visionofthecompany,"whicharetypically

shapedbythekeydecisionmakersintheorganization(suchas

theCEO,CFO,CIO,andsoon);thesegoalsarecommonly

calledthe"50,000-footview."Businessunitordepartmental

goals,orthe"10,000-footview,"aretypicallyshapedbythe

keyexecutivesandmanagersintheorganization(suchasthe

VPofSales,HRDirector,SiteFacilitiesManager,andsoon).

Mostorganizationsalsohavewell-defined"1,000-footview"

goalsthataretypicallyverytacticalinnature,implementedby

ITstaffandtechnicalspecialists.

Itiswellworththetimetoperformsomeresearchandaskthe

rightquestionstohelpensurethatthenetworkingsystem

implementationwillbesuccessful.Togetspecificinformation

andclarificationoftheobjectivesofthedifferentbusinessunits,

makesurethegoalsofatechnologyimplementationorupgrade

areinlinewiththesebusinessgoals.

Althoughmostorganizationshavestatedcompanyvisionsand

goals,andaquickvisittothecompany'sWebsiteorintranet

canprovidethisinformation,itisworthtakingthetimeto

gathermoreinformationonwhatthekeystakeholdersfeelto

betheirprimaryobjectives.Oftenthistaskstartswithasking

therightquestionsoftherightpeopleandthenopening

discussiongroupsonthetopic.Ofcourse,italsomatterswho

asksthequestions,becausetheanswersmayvaryaccordingly,

andemployeesmaybemoreforthcomingwhenspeakingwith

externalconsultantsasopposedtoco-workers.Oftenthe

publiclystatedvisionandgoalsare"thetipoftheiceberg"and

mayevenbeincontrasttointernalcompanygoals,ambitions,

orinitiatives.

High-levelbusinessgoalsandvisionscanvarygreatlybetween

differentorganizations,butgenerallytheybracketandguide

thegoalsoftheunitsthatmakeupthecompany.Forexample,

acorporationmightbeinterestedinofferingthe"best"product



initsclass,andthisrequirescorrespondinggoalsforthesales,

engineering,marketing,finance,andmanufacturing

departments.Additionalconceptstolookforarewhetherthe

highest-levelgoalsembracechangeandnewideasand

processes,orwanttorefinetheexistingpracticesandmethods.

High-levelbusinessgoalsofacompanycanalsochangerapidly,

whetherinresponsetochangingeconomicconditionsoras

affectedbyanewkeystakeholderorleaderinthecompany.So,

itisalsoimportanttogetasenseofthetimelineinvolvedfor

meetingthesehigh-levelgoals.



Note

Anexampleofsomehigh-levelbusinessgoals

includeadesiretohavenodowntime,accesstothe

networkfromanyoftheorganization'soffices

aroundtheworld,andsecuredcommunications

whenusersaccessthenetworkfromhomeora

remotelocation.



BusinessUnitorDepartmentalGoals

Whenthe"vision"or"50,000-footview"isdefined,additional

discussionsshouldrevealthegoalsofthedifferentdepartments

andtheexecutiveswhorunthem.Theoretically,theyshould

"addup"tothehighest-levelgoals,butthefindingsmaybe

surprising.Whateverthecaseturnsouttobe,theresultswill

starttorevealthecomplexityoftheorganizationandthe

primaryconcernsofthedifferentstakeholders.

Thehigh-levelgoalsoftheorganizationalsostarttopaintthe



pictureofwhichdepartmentscarrythemostweightinthe

organization,andwillmostlikelygetbudgetsapproved,and

whichwillassistinthedesignprocess.Logically,thegoalsof

theITdepartmentwillplayaveryimportantroleinanetwork

operatingsystem(NOS)migrationproject,buttheotherkey

departmentsshouldn'tbeforgotten.

Asanexampleofthebusinessunitordepartmentalgoalsforan

organization,anHRdepartmentmaytypicallyinfluencethe

decisionforright-to-privacyaccesstocorepersonnelrecords.

Oralegaldepartmentmaytypicallyinfluencesecurityaccesson

informationstoragerightsandstorageretention.

Ifthedepartment'sgoalsarenotalignedwiththeoverallvision

ofthecompany,ordon'ttakeintoaccounttheneedsofthekey

stakeholders,theresultoftheprojectmaynotbeappreciated.

"Technologyfortechnology'ssake"doesnotalwaysfulfillthe

needsoftheorganizationandinthelongrunisviewedasa

wastefulexpenditureoforganizationalfunds.

Intheprocessofclarifyingthesegoals,thefeaturesofthe

networkoperatingsystemandnetworkapplicationsthatare

mostimportanttothedifferentdepartmentsandexecutives

shouldbecomeapparent.Itissafetoassumethataccessto

companydataintheformofdocumentsordatabase

information,andtocommunicationstoolssuchasemail,faxing,

andInternetaccess,andtotheverticalmarketsoftware

applicationsthatthecompanyreliesuponwillaffectthe

company'sabilitytomeetitsvariousbusinessgoals.

TheSalesdepartmentwillmostlikelyhavegoalsthatrequirea

specificclientrelationshipmanagement(CRM)applicationas

wellasaccesstokeycompanydataandcommunicationstools.

Likewise,theFinancedepartmentwillhaveapplicationsthat

trackspecificARandAPinformationandthatmostlikelytieinto

applicationsusedbyotherdepartments.TheITdepartmentwill

haveitskeytechnologiesthatsupporttheapplicationsinuse,

storeandmaintainthecompany'sdata,andmanagekey



serversandnetworkdevices.

Itisalsoworthlookingforthe"holes"inthegoalsand

objectivespresented.Someofthelessglamorousobjectives,

suchasastablenetwork,datarecoveryabilities,orprotection

fromthehostileoutsideworld,areoftenneglected.

Aby-productofthesediscussionswillideallybeasenseof

excitementoverthepossibilitiespresentedbythenew

technologiesthatwillbeintroduced,andwillconveytothe

executivesandkeystakeholdersthattheyareinvolvedin

helpingtodefineandcraftasolutionthattakesintoaccountthe

variedneedsofthecompany.Manyexecutiveslookforthis

high-levelstrategy,thinking,anddiscussionstorevealthe

maturityoftheplanningandimplementationprocessinaction.



Note

Anexampleofsomedepartmentalgoalsincludea

desiretohavesecuredstorageofhumanresource

andpersonnelinformation,30-minuteresponsetime

tohelpdeskquestionsduringbusinesshours,24hoursupportforsalesexecutiveswhentheyare

traveling,andeasylookuptofilesstoredonservers

throughouttheorganization.







IdentifyingtheTechnicalGoalsandObjectives

toImplementWindowsServer2003

AlthoughanoperatingsystemupgradeWindowsServer2003

maynotinitiallyseemintegraltothehighest-levelcompany

goals,itsimportancewillbecomeclearerasthegoalsgetclose

tothe"1,000-footview."Whenthebusinessgoalsaresketched

out,thetechnicalgoalsshouldfallintoplacequitenaturally.

Atthispointintheprocess,questionsshouldfocusonwhich

componentsandcapabilitiesofthenetworkaremostimportant,

andhowtheycontributetoorhinderthegoalsexpressedbythe

differentunits.

Aswithbusinessgoals,thetechnicalgoalsoftheprojectshould

beclarifiedondifferentlevels(50,000-foot,10,000-foot,1,000foot,andsoon).Atthehighestlevel,thetechnicalgoalsmight

bequitevague,suchas"nodowntime"or"accesstodatafrom

anywhere."Butasthegoalsareclarifiedonadepartmentaland

individuallevel,theyshouldbecomespecificandmeasurable.

Forexample,ratherthanidentifyingagoalas"nodowntime,"

ferretingoutthedetailsmightresultinamorespecificgoalof

"99.99%uptimeduringbusinesshours,andnomorethanfourhourdowntimeduringnonbusinesshoursscheduledatleasttwo

daysinadvance."Insteadofstatingagoalof"accesstodata

fromanywhere,"amorespecificgoalof"high-speedremote

logonfromanycorporateregionalofficearoundtheworldand

dial-uporVPNaccessfromthehomeofficesofthe

organization'sseniormanagers"canmorereasonablybe

attained.

Partoftheartofdefiningtechnicalgoalsandobjectivesalso

residesinlimitingthem.Datacanbeaccessedinmanydifferent

ways,andthecomplexityofthenetworkenvironmentcan

boggleeventheveteranITmanager'smind.So,forexample,



ratherthansettingagoalof"remoteaccesstoallemployees,"

amorefocusedgoalsuchas"accesstoemailforallemployees,

remoteaccesstoemailandtheaccountingsoftwareforthe

Financedepartment,andremoteaccesstoemailandtheclient

relationshipmanagementsoftwareforsalesexecutives"ismore

actionable.

Departmentaltechnicalgoalscaninclude"1,000-foot"itemsfor

example,implementinganewsoftwareapplicationorsetof

functionsthatrequireothernetworkchanges,suchasan

operatingsystemupgradeWindowsServer2003.TheMarketing

departmentmayrequiresomeoftheadvancedfeaturesofthe

latestversionofExchange,aswellasenhancedWebsite

capabilitiesthatnecessitatetheimplementationofWindows

Server2003andthe.NETfamily.OrtheSalesdepartmentmay

requirebetterremoteaccesstothecompany'sdatathrough

mobiledevicesandtheInternet,andasolutionwasalready

chosenthatinvolvestheWindows.NETplatform.

Twokeycomponentsshouldalsobeincludedinthese

discussions:budgetandtimeline.Ahugeamountoftimeinthe

designphasecanbesavedifthesecomponentsareclarified

(andagreedupon)earlyintheprocess.Someprojectshaveto

happen"yesterday,"whereasotherscanhappenoveraperiod

ofquartersorevenyears.Inmostcases,thebudgetwillvary

withthetimeframeinvolved,becauselongertimelinesenable

organizationstotrainresourcesinternallyandmigrateina

moregradualfashion.Evenifafirmbudgetortimelineisn't

available,orderofmagnituderangescanbeestablished.If

$500,000istoomuch,howabout$250,000?$100,000to

$250,000?Ifayearistoolong,butbudgetwon'tbeavailable

forfourmonths,thetimeframebecomesbetterclarified.



DefiningtheScopeoftheWork

Bynow,thelistofgoalsandobjectivesmaybegettingquite



long.Butwhenthemyriadofbusinessandtechnicalobjectives

aswellastheoverallprioritiesstarttobecomeclear,thescope

ofworkstartstotakeshape.Akeyquestiontoaskatthispoint,

tohomeinonthescopeoftheproject,iswhetherthemigration

isprimarilyanoperatingsystemupgradeoranapplication

upgrade.Oftentheanswertothisquestionseemsclearatfirst

butbecomesmorecomplexasthedifferentgoalsofthe

businessunitsarediscussed,sothescopeofworkthatis

createdmaybequitedifferentthanitappearedatfirst.

Specifically,adecisionneedstobemadewhethertheentire

networkoperatingsystem(NOS)needstobeupgradedoronly

asubsetofit,andwhatotherinfrastructurecomponentsneed

tobechangedorreplaced.Thissectionfocusesontheserver

components,butlaterchapterswillfocusonotherhardware

andsoftwareareasthatshouldbereviewed.

Upgradingtothelatestversionofakeynetworkapplication

(CRMsolution,documentmanagementsystem,orremote

accesssolution)mayrequireanetworkoperatingsystem

upgrade,butitmayneedtoinvolveonlyalimitedportionofthe

network(perhapsonlyoneserver).Yetifthisapplicationneeds

tobeaccessedbyeverymemberoftheorganization,inseveral

offices,andrequiresupgradestodatastoragesolutions,tape

backupsoftware,antivirussoftware,remoteaccess,and

connectivitybetweenoffices,afullNOSupgrademaymake

moresense.AnupgradeWindowsServer2003enterprisewide

canallowcentralizationofresources,consolidationofservers,

enhancedmanagementtools,andotherfeaturesthatmay

makealargerprojectmoreattractive.

Itisimportanttoalsoexaminehowthebusinessand

technologygoalsfitintothisplan.Ifoneofthegoalsofthe

organizationis99.99%uptimeduringbusinesshours,thismay

wellaffectthemigrationprocessandlimitchangestothe

networktoweekendsorafterhours.Oragoalthatinvolvesa

dramaticallyshorttimelinemaylikewiseaffectthestrategyand

requireapartialNOSupgrade.



Questionsraisedatthispointmayrequirefurtherdiscussion

andevenresearch.Thesection,"TheDiscoveryPhase:

UnderstandingtheExistingEnvironment"laterinthischapter

examinessomeareasthatgenerallyneedreview.Butwitha

solidunderstandingofthedifferentdepartmentaland

companywidegoalsfortheproject,youcansketchoutabasic

outlineoftherequiredconfiguration.

Youneedtogetanswerstothesesamplequestions:

Howmanyserversneedtobeupgraded?

Wheredotheseserversreside?

Whatcorebusinessapplicationsneedtobeupgraded?

Whatadditionalapplicationsanddevicesneedtobe

upgradedormodifiedtosupportthenewserversand

applications?

Howwillthisaffectthedesktopconfigurations?

Basedonthegoalsandobjectivesfortheprojectandthe

answerstothesetypesofquestions,thehigh-levelscopeofthe

workbeginstotakeshape.Herearesomegeneralrulesto

consider:

Keepitassimpleaspossible.

Breakuptheprojectintologicalsegments.

Don'tforgetthatthestaffandusercommunitywillneedto

learnnewskillstobeproductive.



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Chapter 2. Planning, Prototyping, Migrating, and Deploying Windows Server 2003 Best Practices

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