Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
Chapter 1. Windows Server 2003 Technology Primer

Chapter 1. Windows Server 2003 Technology Primer

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

WindowsServer2003Defined

Morethanthreeyearsafteritsreleasedate,andwelloverfive

yearsfromthetimeearlyadopterswereputtingitoutin

productionenvironments,WindowsServer2003hasproven

itselftobethemoststableandreliableserveroperatingsystem

Microsofthasevershipped.ManyhavecalledWindowsServer

2003amajorServicePackforWindows2000fortheeaseof

theupgradesfromWindows2000toWindows2003.However,

manyconsiderthenewsecurity,faulttolerance,add-ontools,

andoverallfunctionalimprovementstobethelong-awaited

rewriteoftheWindowsoperatingsystem.

Tothecasualobserver,WindowsServer2003lookslikenothing

morethantheWindowsXPgraphicaluserinterfaceontopof

theoldWindows2000serveroperatingsystem,withafew

addedutilities.However,nowthatorganizationshavebeenable

todeployWindows2003throughouttheirenterprises,whenyou

lookunderthehood,WindowsServer2003isamajorrewriteof

theWindows2000operatingsystem,withsignificantchangesto

thekernelthatmakesWindowsServer2003achievethe

reliability,faulttolerance,andscalabilitythatmajor

organizationshavebeendemandingoftheirnetworkoperating

systemforyears.

Thischapterintroducesthesignificantenhancementsand

diversecapabilitiesoftheWindowsServer2003operating

system,andreferencesthechaptersthroughthebalanceofthis

bookthatdetailtheseimprovements.Thedifferencesthat

WindowsServer2003addstoanetworkingenvironment,along

withbestpracticeslearnedfromenterpriseimplementationof

Windows2003,requireare-educationsothatdesignand

implementationdecisionsmadewithpreviousversionsof

WindowsarehandleddifferentlywithWindowsServer2003to

takeadvantageoftheenhancedoperatingsystemcapabilities.



Note

ThiseditionofMicrosoftWindowsServer2003

UnleashedcoversthebaseWindows2003operating

systemaswellastheWindows2003R2update.

Throughoutthischapterandthisbook,references

willbemadetofeaturesstandardtothebase

configurationofWindows2003,aswellaswhathas

beenincrementallyaddedtotheWindows2003R2

update.



Windows.NETFrameworkVersusWindows

Server2003

Whenwe'retalkingaboutWindowsServer2003,oneofthefirst

pointsthatfrequentlyneedstobeclarifiedisthedifference

betweentheWindowsServer2003operatingsystemandthe

Windows.NETFramework.Thesetwotermsarefrequently(and

improperly)usedinterchangeably;however,theyare

completelydifferent.

TheWindows.NETFrameworkwasannouncedfirst,formally

duringthesummerof2001,inreferencetoacompletelynew

applicationdevelopmentenvironmentbyMicrosoft.Whenwe

refertoWindowsServer2003,itisanactualnetworkoperating

systemproductinwhichsoftwareisinstalledonaserverand

applicationsareexecuted.WindowsServer2003isapartofthe

Windows.NETFramework.



UnderstandingtheWindows.NETFramework



TheWindows.NETFrameworkistheapplicationdevelopment

environmentinwhichacommonlanguageruntime,framework

classes,andanapplicationdevelopmentprocessaredefined.

UntiltheintroductionoftheWindows.NETFramework,some

organizationsdevelopedapplicationsusingVisualBasic;some

organizations,usingVisualC;someorganizations,usingActive

ServerPagestechnologyforaWebserver;andsome

organizations,usinganOpenDatabaseConnectivity(ODBC)

front-endapplicationtoMicrosoftSQLorMicrosoftAccess.

NowwiththeWindows.NETFramework,adefaultprogramming

modelcalledASP.NETisdefined.ASP.NETmakesbuildingrealworldWebapplicationsmucheasier.Ithasaseriesofbuilt-in

frameworkclassesthatallowadevelopertocallabuilt-in

applicationfunctioninsteadofhavingtocodethefunctionline

byline.Thiscapabilitygreatlyminimizestheamountof

programmingnecessarytocreateaWebapplicationsimilarto

thosecreatedinthepast.

ASP.NETdoesnotrequireanysingleapplicationdevelopment

tool;infact,itsupportsdozensofstandardprogramming

languagesavailabletoday,suchasVBScript,JScript,Visual

Basic.NET,C#,VisualBasic,andthelike.

OthersignificantimprovementsinASP.NETincludeadynamic

codecompilationthatautomaticallydetectschangesand

compilesthecodesothatitisreadytorunatanytime.The

Windows.NETFrameworkisadistributedapplication

environmentallowingforcodetobedistributedacrossmultiple

systemswithinaWebfarm.

Inaddition,todeployaWindows.NETFrameworkapplication

foraccesswithinanorganizationortothegeneralpublic,allthe

developerneedstodoiscopythefilestoaWindows.NET

Frameworkserver.Thereisnoneedtorunregsrv32toregister

componentsontheserverbecauseconfigurationsettingsare

storedinanXMLdatafilewithintheapplication.



FororganizationslookingtodevelopWeb-basedapplications,

theWindows.NETFrameworkgreatlysimplifiesapplication

development.TheWindows.NETFrameworkhascreateda

powerfuldevelopmentenvironmentthathasaseriesofbuilt-in

routinesthatdecreaseapplicationcodingtimeandeffort,while

providingthesupportforexistingstandardsforapplication

programminglanguages.

Asserveradd-onsarecreatedforaWindowsServer2003

environment,suchasOutlookWebAccessforExchange2003

andSharePoint2003,orevenadd-ontoolsliketheDirectory

ServicesMark-upLanguage(DSML),the.NETFrameworkis

leveragedmoreandmoreindevelopingcoreapplicationsand

FeaturePacks.



UnderstandingtheCoreWindowsServer2003

OperatingSystem

WhereastheWindows.NETFrameworkisthesetoftoolsand

technologiesusedforapplicationdevelopment,theWindows

Server2003productisafullnetworkoperatingsystem.Asa

traditionalnetworkoperatingsystem,WindowsServer2003can

serveinthefollowingroles:

FileandprintserverAsafileandprintserver,the

WindowsServer2003systemcanprovidenetworkusers

withcentralizedaccesstodatafilesorcanactasaprint

queueservertohostmultipleprinters.Several

improvementshavebeenmadeinWindowsServer2003for

filesecurity(coveredinChapter12,"Server-Level

Security"),fileserverfaulttolerance(coveredinChapter

30,"FileSystemFaultTolerance"),andtheconfigurationof

redundantprintservices(coveredinChapter3,"Installing

WindowsServer2003").



WebserverInWindowsServer2003,Webserverstakeon

amuchmoreexpandedrolethantheydidwithearly

WindowsNTorevenWindows2000Webenvironments.

RatherthanjusthostingstaticHTMLWebpages,Windows

Server2003participatesinWebfarmsthatdistribute

dynamicWebcontentwithnetworkloadbalancing(covered

inChapter31,"System-LevelFaultTolerance

[Clustering/NetworkLoadBalancing]").

ApplicationserverWiththereleaseoftheWindows

Server2003operatingsystem,ongoingupdatestothe

applicationsthatrunontheWindowsServer2003system

willbereleasedregularly.Someoftheapplicationsthat

comewithWindowsServer2003includeWindowsTerminal

Servicesforthinclientcomputingaccess(coveredin

Chapter27,"TerminalServices"),WindowsMediaServerfor

videoandaudiohostingandbroadcasting(coveredin

Chapter37,"WindowsMediaServices"),andutilityserver

servicessuchasDNSandDHCP(coveredinChapters9,

"DomainNameSystem,"and10,"DHCP/WINS/Domain

Controllers").Add-onstoWindowsServer2003include

WindowsServer2003editionsofMicrosoftExchangeServer

2003,SharePointPortalServer2003,BizTalkServer2004,

andISAServer2004.

Windows.NETapplicationhostNewtoWindowsServer

2003isthecapabilityfortheservertoactasahostsystem

fortheexecutionofWindows.NETFrameworkapplications.

Withbuilt-inInternetInformationServerversion6(covered

inChapter11,"InternetInformationServices"),Windows

.NETapplicationscanbecopiedstraighttotheWindows

Server2003forexecution.

ThisbookfocusesontheWindowsServer2003operating

systemandtheplanning,migration,security,administration,

andsupportoftheoperatingsystem.WindowsServer2003is



alsothebasenetworkoperatingsystemontopofwhichall

futureWindowsserverapplicationswillbebuilt.







ChoosingtoImplementWindowsServer2003

WindowsServer2003isaversatileoperatingsystem,onethat

meetstheneedsofvariousbusinessfunctions.Likeearlier

networkoperatingsystemssuchasNovellNetWareorWindows

NTthatwereknownbestforfile/printservers,WindowsServer

2003canprovideallthatfunctionalityandalotmore.

BecauseWindowsServer2003providesmanydifferent

functions,anorganizationneedstochoosehowtobest

implementWindowsServer2003andthevariousnetworking

featuresthatmeetitsneeds.Insmallnetworkenvironments

withfewerthan20to30users,anorganizationmaychooseto

implementalltheWindowsServer2003featuresonasingle

server.However,inlargerenvironments,multipleserversmay

beimplementedtoimprovesystemperformanceaswellas

providefaulttoleranceandredundancy.

Asmentionedintheprecedingsection,WindowsServer2003

canactasthecoreoperatingsystemtohostapplicationssuch

asutilityservices,fileservices,printservices,orWeb-based

services.Someoftheothermajornetworkingservicesprovided

byWindowsServer2003includerunningtheoperatingsystem

asthecoretoanActiveDirectoryenvironment,asabuilt-in

Windowsapplicationserver,orasanadd-onapplicationserver.



WindowsServer2003CoretoanActive

DirectoryEnvironment

Oneofthemajoradditionstothenetworkoperatingsystem

roleintroducedwiththereleaseoftheWindows2000operating

systemwastheActiveDirectory.ActiveDirectoryismorethana

simplelistofusersandpasswordsforauthenticationintoa

network,butratheradirectorythatextendstootherbusiness



applications.Whenfullyleveraged,anorganizationcanhaveits

HumanResources(HR)departmentaddanemployeetothe

organization'sHRsoftware.TheHRsoftwareautomatically

createsauserintheActiveDirectory,generatinganetwork

logon,anemailaccount,avoicemailaccount,andremote

accesscapabilities,andthenlinkspagerandmobilephone

informationtotheemployee.Likewise,ifanemployeeis

terminated,asinglechangeintheHRsoftwarecanissue

automatedcommandstodisabletheindividual'snetwork,

email,remotelogon,andothernetworkfunctions.

WindowsServer2003extendsthecapabilitiesoftheActive

Directorybycreatingbettermanagementtools,providesfor

morerobustdirectoryreplicationacrossaglobalenterprise,and

allowsforbetterscalabilityandredundancytoimprove

directoryoperations.WindowsServer2003effectivelyaddsin

morereliability,fasterperformance,andbettermanagement

toolstoasystemthatcanbeleveragedasatrueenterprise

directoryprovisioning,resourcetracking,andresource

managementtool.BecauseoftheimportanceoftheActive

DirectorytotheWindowsServer2003operatingsystem,plus

thebreadthofcapabilitiesthatActiveDirectorycanfacilitate,

fivechaptersinPartIIofthisbookarededicatedtoActive

Directory.



WindowsServer2003RunningBuilt-in

ApplicationServerFunctions

WindowsServer2003comeswithseveralprogramsandutilities

toproviderobustnetworkingcapabilities.Inadditiontothe

basicfileandprintcapabilitiescoveredearlierinthischapter,

WindowsServer2003canprovidenameresolutionforthe

networkandenablehighavailabilitythroughclusteringand

faulttolerance,mobilecommunicationsfordial-upandvirtual

privatenetworkconnections,Webservicesfunctions,and



dozensofotherapplicationserverfunctions.

WhenplanningtheimplementationofWindowsServer2003,a

networkarchitectneedstoconsiderwhichoftheserverservices

aredesired,howtheywillbecombinedonservers,andhow

theywillbemaderedundantacrossmultipleserversfor

businesscontinuityfailover.Forasmallorganization,thechoice

tocombineseveralserverfunctionstoasinglesystemortojust

afewsystemsisoneofeconomics.However,anorganization

mightdistributeserverservicestomultipleserverstoimprove

performance(coveredinChapter35,"CapacityAnalysisand

PerformanceOptimization"),distributeadministration(covered

inChapter19,"WindowsServer2003Administration"),create

redundancy(coveredinChapter33,"Recoveringfroma

Disaster"),enablesecurity(coveredinChapter12),orto

serviceusersacrossadiversegeographicarea(coveredin

Chapter5,"DesigningaWindowsServer2003Active

Directory").

Someofthebuilt-inapplicationserverfunctionsinWindows

Server2003includethefollowing:

DomaincontrollerLikeinpreviousversionsofthe

MicrosoftWindowsoperatingsystem,thedomaincontroller

allowsuserstoauthenticatetotheserverforaccessto

networkresources.

GlobalcatalogserverTheglobalcatalogserverstoresa

copyoftheuserlistoftheActiveDirectorynetwork.When

aninternalorexternaluserwithappropriatesecurityrights

wantstolookatalistofActiveDirectoryusers,theglobal

catalogserverprovidesthelist.

DNSserverThedomainnameservice(DNS)isalistof

networkserversandsystems,soaDNSserverprovides

informationaboutthedevicesconnectedtothenetwork.



DHCPserverTheDynamicHostConfigurationProtocol

(DHCP)assignsnetworkaddressestodevicesonthe

network.WindowsServer2003providestheservice

functiontofacilitateDHCPaddressestonetworkdevices.

ClusterserverWhenfaulttoleranceisimportanttoan

organization,clusteringprovidesfailoverfromonesystem

toanother.WindowsServer2003providestheabilitytolink

systemstogethersothatwhenonesystemfails,another

systemtakesover.

TerminalserverInsteadofhavingafulldesktoporlaptop

computerforeachuseronthenetwork,organizationshave

theoptionofsettingupsimple,low-costterminalsforusers

togainaccesstonetworkresources.WindowsServer2003

TerminalServicesallowsasingleservertohostnetwork

systemaccessfordozensofusers.

RemoteaccessserverWhenaremoteuserhasadesktop

orlaptopsystemandneedsaccesstonetworkservices,

WindowsServer2003providesremoteaccessservicesthat

allowtheremotesystemstoestablishasecureremote

connection.

WebserverAsmoreandmoretechnologiesbecomeWebawareandarehostedonWebservers,WindowsServer

2003providesthetechnologytohosttheseapplicationsfor

browser-basedaccess.

MediaserverWithinformationextendingbeyondtextbasedwordprocessingdocumentsandspreadsheetsinto

richmediasuchasvideoandaudio,WindowsServer2003

providesasourceforhostingandpublishingvideoand

audiocontent.



DistributedFileSystem(DFS)serverForthepast

decade,datafileshavebeenstoredonfileserversall

aroundanorganization.WindowsServer2003provides

DistributedFileSystemsthatallowanorganizationtotake

controlofdistributedfilesintoacommonlookupfile

directory.

Theseplusseveralotherfunctionsproviderobustnetworking

servicesthathelporganizationsleveragetheWindowsServer

2003technologiesintosolutionsthatsolvebusinessneeds.



WindowsServer2003RunningAdd-in

ApplicationsServerFunctions

Inadditiontothebuilt-inserverapplicationfunctionssuchas

DNS,DHCP,GlobalCatalog,TerminalServices,andthelike

notedintheprecedingsection,WindowsServer2003also

providesthebasisfromwhichadd-inapplicationscanbe

purchasedandimplementedontheWindowsservers.Someof

theseadd-inapplicationscomefromMicrosoft,suchasthe

WindowsServer2003versionsoftheMicrosoftExchange

messagingsystemorMicrosoftSQLdatabasesystem.Other

add-instoWindowsServer2003arefurnishedbycompanies

thatprovidehumanresourcemanagementapplications;

accountingsoftware;documentmanagementtools;faxor

voicemailadd-ins;orotherbusiness,industry,oruser

productivitycapabilities.

InearlierWindowsserveroperatingsystems,thecoreoperating

systemprovidedsimplelogonandnetworkconnectivity

functions;however,withWindowsServer2003,theoperating

systemincludesmanycorecapabilitiesbuiltintotheWindows

Server2003operatingenvironment.Withintegratedfault

tolerance,datarecovery,serversecurity,remoteaccess

connectivity,Webaccesstechnologies,andsimilarcapabilities,



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Chapter 1. Windows Server 2003 Technology Primer

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×