Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
Chapter 14. No Slime Allowed: Invasion of the Slugwroths

Chapter 14. No Slime Allowed: Invasion of the Slugwroths

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

WhatItTakestoMakeaRealGame

Tomakeagamethatlooksprofessionalandhasachanceof

sellingwell,youmustcombinetheessentialelementsofa

successfulgameinuniqueandcreativeways.

First,yourgamemusthavedecentgraphics.Thatdoesnot

meanitrequiresphotorealistic3Dimageswithallsortsof

specialeffects.Infact,suchelaborategraphicscanactually

detractfromthegame.Forexample,ifyourgameisfocused

aroundsolvinglogicproblemsorpuzzles,2Dgraphicswillbe

fine.However,theyneedtobedonewell.

Anexampleofinnovative2DgraphicsisthegameYoshi'sStory,

whichwasproducedfortheNintendo64.Althoughthisisa2D

game,thecharactersareallcreatedin3Dandrenderedinto

2D.Thebackgroundsandscenerydisplayawidevarietyof

uniquelooks.Onthefirstlevel,forinstance,thesky,clouds,

andotherscenerylookasifthey'resewnfromdenim.Itlooks

surprisinglygoodandiscompletelyoriginal.

Whenyoudothegraphicsforyourgame,youneedtomakeit

visuallyinteresting.ThedenimlooktopartsofYoshi'sStory

givesthescenerygreatertexture.Ihavefoundinmyown

artworkthatpeopleconsidertexturemorevisuallyengaging

thancolororevenexactshape.Theartworkinoldergames

usedlotsofsolidcolors;itlooksprimitivebytoday'sstandards.

Addingtexturestographicsmakesthemlookmuchmore

engagingandprofessional.

Thesecondessentialgameelementyoumustuseissound.The

mostimportantthingtokeepinmindisthatplayersexpectthe

sonicexperienceofagametobeassophisticatedasthe

graphics.Thedinkitydinksoundofthemusicingamesof

yesteryearisnolongersufficient.



AsImentionedinchapter8,"SoundEffectsandMusic,"you

cangetdecentsoundingmusicoutofbandinaboxstyle

programs.Nevertheless,youmustselectyourmusiccarefully.

Musicmustbeappropriatetotheaction.Aslow,mellowjazz

tuneshouldnotbeusedforalevelinahighspeedarcadegame.

Likewise,youwouldnotexpecthighoctanechasemusicina

gamelikeSimCity.

Agame'smusicmustalsobeappropriatetotheaudience.A

gameforpreschoolersisnottheplaceforyourfavorite

industrialdeathgrungetune.Bythesametoken,a

Bombermanstylearcadegameisprobablynotthebestplacefor

yourfavoriteMozartsonata.

Thethirdessentialelementofagreatgameisthegameplay.

Forfastpacedgames(Icallthem"twitchgames"becausethey

requirefasteyehandcoordination),theplayermustfeelthat

thegamerespondsimmediatelytoinput.Thereisnothingmore

frustratingthanhittingthebuttontofireatanenemyand

experiencingadelay.

Gameplayalsoincludesthedifficultyofthegame.Canthe

averagepersonplaythegamewithminimaltraining?Ordoes

theplayerhavetobereallyexperiencedwiththekindofgame

you'remaking?Playersbecomeupsetiftheydiefastwhenthey

startthegame;theymustfeelthatthey'remakingsome

progressatfirst.

Thefinalessentialelementofahitgameissuperbdesign.This

doesnotrequirethegametobecomplex.Forinstance,a

Rubik'sCubeisasuperblydesigned(noncomputer)game.

However,it'salsoverysimple.Likewise,thegameTetrisisan

outstandingpieceofgamedesign.It'ssimpleinconceptand

takesalmostnotimetolearn.However,peoplehavefoundit

addictivefornearly20years.

Anexampleofamorecomplexgamethathasoutstanding

designisMyst.Thisisanoldergame,butonethatIthinkevery



gamedevelopershouldplaythrough.Mysthasacomplexstory

thatisveryfreeform.Youcanplaythegameinanyorderyou

want.Youcanwanderaround,examineeverythingyoufind,

andlearntheobjectofthegameasyougo.Mystusesavery

nonlinearstyletotellastory.

OtherexamplesofexcellentgamedesignareMicrosoft'sHalo,

Oblivion'sTheElderScrolls,Blizzard'sWarcraft,andElectronic

Arts'TheSims.Theyallprovidearichgameexperience.None

ofthemrequiretheplayertobeahardcoregamertobe

successful.Eachhasitsowninnovativedesignelementsthat

mapwelltoitsstyle.Forexample,Haloputstheplayerina

worldofconstantlyshiftingalliances.TheElderScrollsprovides

oneofthemostfreeformuniversesyou'lleversee.Warcraft

combinesfastpacedfightingwithstrategicplanningand

allocationofresources.TheSimsgivestheplayersurprisingly

engagingsocialsimulations.

Thepointisthatwhenyoudesignagame,yourgamedesign

mustbeinnovativeanddistinct.Youcan'tjustcrankouta

slightlybetterversionofsomeoneelse'sgame.

Sayingthatyou'vegottobeinnovativeisallwellandgood,but

howdoyoumakethathappen?Tofindout,thenextsectionof

thischapterexaminesthedesignprocessinmoredetail.



Note

I'vementionedthisbefore:abigclueishowyou

describeyourgame.Ifyousay,"It'slikeQuakeonly

better,"don'tbothermakingit.Youneedtobemore

innovativethanthat.Ifyoucandescribeyourgame

as,"It'slikeacrossbetweenTheSimsandAtomic

Bomberman,"youmighthavesomething

worthwhile.Thosearesuchradicallydifferentgames

thatcombiningtheirgameplaystylesmightjustgive

yousomethingunique.







EssentialGameDesign

Designinggamesrequiresunderstandingtheelementsofgood

gamedesign.Youalsohavetoknowtheprocessmost

professionalsusetodesigngames.Creatingagoodgame

beginswithusingtheelementsofgoodgamedesignwithinthe

gamedesignprocess.



ElementsofGoodGameDesign

Todesigngoodgames,therearecertaintechniquesthatyou

needtouse:

Trainingtheplayerduringgameplay

Keepingitfreshwithnewchallenges

Keepingchallengesappropriate

Incorporatingpowerupsforplayerrelief

Decidingwhentouseaboss



TrainingthePlayerDuringGameplay

Whateverelseyoudoinyourgame,don'tjustthrowanew

playerintothemiddleofanintensebattleorchallengewithout

someinitialinstructions.Ingeneral,playerswillnotreadthe

game'sinstructions.Sotypingupanicehelpfileabouthowto

playthegameisusuallynotsufficient.Youtypicallyhaveto

traintheplayerinthefirstlevelorsoofthegame.Therearea



numberofwaystoaccomplishthis.

First,youcanhavealevelthatisfornothingbuttraining.The

settingofthelevelisactuallyatrainingschoolwhereyouhave

topassallavailablecoursesbeforemovingintothegameitself.

Severalofthefirstpersonshootersdothiswhenyoubegin

playingthem.It'sabittedious,butiftherearealotof

weapons,movementtechniques,andsoforththattheplayer

needstoknowbeforetheygetintothegame,playerswill

generallyputupwithatraininglevel.Often,thegamefeatures

somesortofnarrator'svoicegivinginstructions.

Anothertechniqueistohavealevelthatissimplebutthatis

actuallypartoftheoverallplotormissionofthegame.Inthis

simplelevel,theplayercanbecomefamiliarwithmovingthe

characterorusingtheweapons,orbeginlearningtherulesof

thegame.Theremaybeanarratorforthistypeoflevelaswell.

Insteadofhavinglevelsdesignedfortraining,somegamesuse

popupdialogboxeswithinstructions.Whentheplayer

encountersacertainobject,instructionspopupexplaininghow

touseit.Instructionsmightcoversuchtopicsasrunning,

jumping,usingweapons,ordrivingvehicles.

Howeveryoudecidetoapproachthistask,besuretoprovide

playerswithaninteractivemethodofgettingtraining.



Warning

Ifyouusepopupinstructions,youmusteither

disabletheinstructionsaftertheplayerhasseen

themorprovidetheplayerwithamanualwayto

bypassthem.Playersdonotwanttoencounteraset

ofinstructionsabouthowtouseapistoleverytime

theypickupapistol.



KeepingitFreshwithNewChallenges

Monotonyisthedeathofanygame.Itisimportantthatthe

gamegraduallygetsharderastheplayermovestohigher

levels.Themoretheplayerbecomesproficientatthegame,the

harderthegameshouldget.Eachlevelshouldpresentslightly

differentandslightlymoreunusualchallenges.Also,the

trainingthatyoustartedatthebeginningofthegameshould

continueasthechallengesgetharder.



KeepingChallengesAppropriate

Thechallengesthatyoupresentaplayerwithmustalwaysbe

appropriatetotheplayer'sskill.Asaresult,itmakessensethat

yourgameshouldbeeasieratfirstandgrowmoredifficult

later.However,that'snotalwaystrue.

Forexample,ifyougivetheplayeranespeciallychallenging

leveltoovercome,thenextlevelshouldbeslightlyeasier.That

providestheplayerwithsomereliefandlowershisorher

frustrationlevel.Also,itprovidesyouwithanopportunityto

givetheplayernewabilities,weapons,orothertoolswithinthe

game.Playerscanspendtimeinaslightlyeasierlevellearning

thenewtoolsortechniques.Theycanthenmoveontomore

difficultlevelsafterbecomingproficientwiththenewstuff.

Tokeepchallengesappropriate,haveaspecificgoalinmindfor

eachlevel.Thegoalcanbenothingmorethanyouwantthe

playertokilllotsofmonsters.Oritmightbethatyouwant

playerstolearnanewstrategythatthey'llneedlater.Either

way,focusthechallengesonthegoal.



Tip

Youplayyourgamealotwhileyou'redevelopingit.

Asyoumightexpect,yougetverygoodatit.Your

ownskillatplayingthegamemakesitdifficultfor

youtoevaluatehowchallengingeachlevelisforthe

player.Tomoreaccuratelyknowhowchallenging

eachlevelis,haveapersonplayyourgameduring

developmentwhohasneverplayeditbefore.Inthe

gameindustry,thisiscalledfocustesting.Askthem

whattheythink.Writedownwhattheysay.Give

themsomepizza!



IncorporatingPower-UpsforPlayerRelief

Playersmusthavesomesortofreliefmechanism.Theseusually

taketheformofpowerups.Eventheoldestandsimplestgames

usedthistechnique.Forinstance,oneofthefirstgamesafter

PongwasSpaceInvaders.Inthisgame,theplayerwas

expectedtoshootrowsofinvadingaliens.Theplayerstarted

thegamewiththreelives.Afterattainingacertainscore,the

playerwasgivenanotherlife.Everynowandthen,analien

spacecraftwoulddriftacrossthetopofthescreen.Iftheplayer

shotit,thegameawardedextrapoints.Thishelpedtheplayer

getanewlifefaster.

Althoughyouhavetobecarefulnottoprovidetoomany

powerups,itisimportanttooffertheplayersomemethodof

relief.Thishelpskeeppeople'sfrustrationlevelsdownand

enjoymentup.Also,gettingapowerupasarewardhelpsbring

asenseofaccomplishmentasthegameprogresses.



DecidingWhentoUseaBoss

Manygameshaveabigmonster,orsomeotherkindofmajor

challenge,attheendofeachlevel.Thismonsterorchallengeis

usuallyreferredtoastheboss.Youmustdecidewhetheryour

levelswillhavebossesornot.Theyarenotalwaysappropriate.

Ifyouuseaboss,don'tdoitjusttohaveaboss.Putinthe

bossforapurpose.Inthebestgames,fightingthebosstrains

theplayerforthegame'sfinalchallenge.Puttinginabossis,in

away,theoppositeofputtinginpowerups.Youaddbossesto

levelstoincreasethechallengeanddifficulty.Used

appropriately,thishelpsgivetheplayerasenseof

accomplishment.



TheGameDesignProcess

Nowyou'rereadytolearnthegamedesignprocess.Keepin

mindthattheprocessyouseehereisagenericone.Itdiffers

fordifferenttypesofgames.Forgamesthatarestronglydriven

byastoryline,thegamedesignprocesscanbeverymuchlike

makingamovie.Morefreeformgamesuseaprocesssimilarto

theoneshownhere.

Thebasicstepsfordesigningagameareasfollows:

1. Startwithabrainstormingsession.

2. Createthegoalforthegame.

3. Selecttheemotionalexperienceforthegame.

4. Choosetherightlook.



5. Setthehook.

6. Createadesigndocument.

7. Letitsimmerawhile.

8. Revisethedesigndocument.

9. Createaprototypeandplayit.

10. Iterateasnecessary.



Thefirstninestepsneedtobecompletedbeforeyoustart

writinganyC++code.It'simportanttofinisheachstep.Ifyou

skipany,you'relikelytounderminethequalityofyourgame.



StartwithaBrainstormingSession

Thegoalofthisstepistocomeupwithauniqueandunusual

ideaforagame.It'sbesttohavemultiplebrainstorming

sessionsoveraperiodoftime.

Foreachgameideayoucomeupwith,writeabriefsummaryof

whatthegameisabout.Thesummaryshouldnotbelonger

thanabout35sentences.

Whenyouhavealistofgoodideas,gothroughthelistandrate

themonascaleof0to100.Assignthescoresbasedon

originality,potentialaudience,howfunyouthinkitis,andhow

harditistoimplement.Giveupto25pointsforeachcategory.

Forinstance,youmightthinkyourideaisextremelyuniqueand

assignitascoreof25pointsfororiginality.However,ifonly

malesbetweentheagesof14and24aregoingtolikeyour



game,itspotentialaudienceissmallerthanitmightotherwise

be.Therefore,itshouldgetalowscoreforthatcategory.

Whenyouassignthescoreforhowfunyourideais,becareful.

Youmightthinkyourgameisfunbecauseyou'reinthetarget

audience.Buthowfunisitforeveryoneelse?Youcanassign

yourgameagoodfunratingifithitsitstargetaudiencewell.

However,ifthere'sawaytotweaktheideasothatitappealsto

abroaderaudience,youcangiveitbothahigheraudience

scoreandhigherfunscore.

Thelastcategoryyoushouldassignpointsforisdifficultyof

implementation.Elaborategamesmaybeverycool,butifyour

ideatakesyoufiveorsixyearstoprogramup,youmaywantto

thinktwicebeforedivingintoit.Beginninggameprogrammers

shouldstartwithgamesthatareeasiertoimplement.Thereare

alotofgoodgamesthatfitintothiscategory.Forexample,

manypuzzleandlogicgamesarenotdifficulttowrite.Thisis

especiallytrueifyouuseLlamaWorks2D.



Tip

It'sbettertostayawayfromelaborate3D

firstpersonshootersuntilyoufeelmoreproficientas

aprogrammer.



CreatetheGoalfortheGame

Everygamehasagoal.Formostfirstpersonshooters,thegoal

istomaximizecarnageandviolence.Thegoalofmostpuzzle

andlogicgamesistopresentbrainteasers.Othergoalsfor

gamesmightbetellingastory,buildingcivilizations,forming



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Chapter 14. No Slime Allowed: Invasion of the Slugwroths

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×