Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
GNOME (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)

GNOME (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

GNOME (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



Sawfish and Enlightenment are commonly used window managers and are fully compliant

with the GNOME environment. Other window managers that can be used are IceWM,

WindowMaker, and AfterStep.



15.1. Desktop Overview

Figure 15-1 shows the default GNOME desktop. The left side of the screen contains icons that

are shortcuts to open applications. The top icon is a symbolic link to the user's home folder,

and when double-clicked, opens the GNOME file manager displaying that folder. The other

icons include shortcuts to the floppy drive and CD-ROM and links to web pages. Desktop

icons can be used to launch any program on your system, invoke the appropriate application

for a data file or view a directory or URL.



Figure 15-1. The GNOME desktop

The bar across the bottom of the screen is the GNOME panel. It is your primary means of

finding and opening applications and managing your desktop. The panel contains launcher

buttons for the main menu, help and configuration tools, and the Netscape browser. You can

add buttons to the control panel to launch any application on your system.

The panel also runs two special programs (called applets) that help you get around your

desktop. The Desk Guide applet displays your desktop workspace. Many window managers

allow you to divide your workspace into a number of different screens (called virtual desktops

or viewports). Desk Guide provides a small display of the available desktops and outlines of

the windows they contain. Clicking on an area of the display will switch your desktop view.

The Tasklist applet lets you keep track of open windows. It displays a button on the panel for

file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_01.htm (2 of 4) [15/05/2002 18:13:01]



GNOME (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



each window you have open. Clicking on a button in the tasklist will bring focus to its

window or reopen it if it was minimized.

GNOME allows you an enormous number of configuration options for your desktop

environment. You can right-click on just about anything and get a pop-up menu (called a

context menu) containing specific actions for that item and a way to configure its properties.

General configuration settings are contained in the GNOME Control Center. You can access

this tool in the following ways: click the toolbox button on the panel to open the Control

Center window, or from the main menu, select Settings, then GNOME Control Center

(individual configuration applications also are accessible from this menu).



15.1.1. Adding Desktop Icons

Desktop icons offer you convenient double-click access to your most important files,

applications, and links. The items displayed on your desktop exist as files in the .gnomedesktop directory of your home directory. Anything you add to that directory will appear on

the desktop.

The desktop context menu contains a New submenu that allows you to add different types of

items to your desktop.

To add an icon that launches an application, select New Launcher. This opens the Desktop

Entry Properties dialog box shown in Figure 15-2. Provide the name of the launcher (this will

be the text displayed underneath the icon), a comment (this will be the tooltip that appears

when the pointer is over the icon), and the command used to run the application. After you

click OK, the new launcher icon appears on your desktop.



Figure 15-2. Desktop entry properties



file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_01.htm (3 of 4) [15/05/2002 18:13:01]



GNOME (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



To add a desktop icon that opens a directory, select New Directory from the desktop

context menu. Provide the name of a directory in the dialog box. If you specify a full

pathname, the desktop icon will be created as a symbolic link. If it is not a full pathname, the

new directory will be created in ~/.gnome-desktop.

To add a URL link to the desktop, select New URL Link from the desktop context menu.

This will open a dialog box that asks you for the URL you wish to open and a caption to use

as the icon's text label. Click OK, and the icon appears on your desktop. You also can click

and drag any link displayed in the Netscape browser to the desktop to create a link.

A convenient use of desktop icons is to have shortcuts to frequently used files or folders.

Adding shortcuts is easiest from the file manager (gmc). If you click on an item in the file

manager and drag it to the desktop, you will create a launcher icon for it. This action actually

moves the item to the ~/.gnome-desktop folder. If you press the Ctrl key while selecting and

dragging the item, you will only copy the item to the desktop. If you middle-click or press Alt

while selecting and dragging an item, a small pop-up window will ask you if you want to

move, copy, or link the file. Selecting Link Here will create a symbolic link on the desktop

that points to the original location of the item. For most files and folders, you may find this a

best option.



14.9. Alphabetical Summary

of RCS Commands



15.2. The Panel



Copyright © 2001 O'Reilly & QKFIN. All rights reserved.



file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_01.htm (4 of 4) [15/05/2002 18:13:01]



The Panel (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd

Edition



15.2. The Panel

The GNOME panel can contain several different types of objects. The most obvious are the

buttons for the menu and application launchers. You also can use a button to open a drawer,

which is like a subpanel containing additional launchers. There are a few special types of

buttons used for logging out of the session and locking the screen. Finally, small programs

called applets can be run on the panel. The Desk Guide and the clock are examples of panel

applets.

Settings for the panel are found in the Panel menu on the main menu or by right-clicking on

the panel. This menu offers options to add new launchers or applets to the panel; adjust the

style, size, and display of the panel; or create new panels on the desktop.



15.2.1. Additional Panels

You can create more than one panel on your desktop. This is useful if you have different sets

of applications used for specific but common tasks. For example, if you do a lot of work on

graphics, you can dedicate a panel to launch your favorite graphics tools. To create a new

panel, right-click on the default panel and select Add New Panel. Or from the main menu,

select Panel Add New Panel. There are five different types of panels available from the

submenu:

edge panel

The style of the default panel. It stretches across one entire edge of the screen. Arrow

buttons on each end of the panel are used to collapse the panel to the side of a screen.

Clicking on the remaining visible arrow button of a collapsed panel will cause the

panel to appear again in full.

aligned panel

A similar panel that is effectively anchored to one corner of the screen and extends just

enough to fit the buttons and applets it contains. An aligned panel can be hidden by

clicking the arrow button that is at the edge of the screen. The arrow button farthest

from the edge will anchor an aligned panel on the opposite side of the screen.

file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_02.htm (1 of 3) [15/05/2002 18:13:05]



The Panel (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



sliding panel

Like an aligned panel except that it can be placed anywhere along the edge of the

screen. It is not anchored to a corner.

floating panel

As you'd suspect, a panel that can be placed anywhere on the screen.

menu panel

A special type of panel that stretches along the top of the screen. It is a thin bar that

contains drop-down menus for the Programs, Favorites, Settings, and Desktop menus

found in the main menu.

All of the panels except the menu panel can be moved by middle-clicking (or clicking the left

and right buttons simultaneously) and dragging the panel to another part of the screen where it

can be placed.

Each panel can be configured individually from the Panel menu in its context (right-click)

menu. Right-click and select Panel Properties. Here you can choose from several different

menu options. The Type submenu changes the panel's type (although a menu panel cannot be

changed to another type of panel). The Hiding Policy submenu has settings for Explicit Hide,

where you click one of the arrow buttons to collapse the panel to the side of the screen; or

Auto Hide, where the panel automatically reduces when not in use. The Hide Buttons

submenu allows you to show or hide the arrow and hide buttons of a panel. The Size submenu

sets the size of the panel from tiny to huge. The Background Type submenu lets you set the

background of a panel to either a color or a pixmap image.

To access all of the panel's properties in one dialog, select All Properties from this menu.

Global property settings are found in the GNOME Control Center. They are described later in

this chapter.



15.2.2. Adding an Application Launcher to the Panel

One of the conveniences of the panel is creating launcher icons that allow you one-click

access to frequently used applications. To add an application, right-click the panel and select

Add New Launcher. You also can right-click on an application in the main menu and choose

Add This Launcher to Panel.

In each case, the Create Launcher Applet dialog will appear. Provide a name for the

application, a comment to be used as a tooltip, and the command used to open the application.

Click on the icon button to select the image to be used for the button on the panel. If the



file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_02.htm (2 of 3) [15/05/2002 18:13:05]



The Panel (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



application is to be run in a Terminal, click the Run in Terminal button.

The drag-and-drop functionality of GNOME allows you to place applications on the panel in a

number of ways. For example, you can click on an application file in the file manager and

drag it to the panel. This will open the Add New Launcher dialog and create a new launcher

button on the panel. You also can drag a desktop icon to the panel.

You can configure a launcher's properties by right-clicking it and selecting Properties. This

opens the Launcher Properties window, where you can change the name, comment, command,

application type, and icon used for the launcher.

Launcher buttons can be placed in any position and order you want on the panel. To move a

launcher button, right-click it and select Move. The mouse pointer will change, allowing you

to drag the button to another position. Click to set the new position of the button.



15. GNOME



15.3. The Main Menu



Copyright © 2001 O'Reilly & QKFIN. All rights reserved.



file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_02.htm (3 of 3) [15/05/2002 18:13:05]



The Main Menu (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd

Edition



15.3. The Main Menu

By default, the GNOME panel contains one menu -- the main menu. It is displayed using the

first button on the right with the GNOME foot icon on it (sometimes it is called the foot

menu). The default main menu offers a number of items and submenus divided into sections:





















The System menu contains items for installed GNOME applications and utilities,

separated into additional submenus by categories, such as Graphics, Utilities, Internet,

and so on. Two items are included at the bottom of the System menu: Help opens the

GNOME help browser, and Run Command opens the single command-line prompt

window. The System menu can be changed only by a user with root access, and this

action will change it for all users.

The User menu is empty by default. Individual users can add their own items to the

User menu section.

If other packages, like KDE or AnotherLevel, are installed on your system, their

default menus also may be included in the main menu.

The Panel menu contains actions and configuration shortcuts for the panel. The items

in this menu also are found in the pop-up menu accessed by right-clicking on the panel.

The four items at the bottom of the menu allow you to lock the screen (requiring the

user's password to reenter the desktop), view version information for the panel, and log

out.



You will notice that the top entry for each menu section and each submenu is not an

actionable item. It is the titlebar for the menu. Right-clicking a titlebar opens a pop-up menu

containing a couple of options:

Add this as drawer to panel

Takes the current submenu and converts it to a drawer on the panel.

Add this as menu to panel

file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_03.htm (1 of 4) [15/05/2002 18:13:08]



The Main Menu (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



Copies the menu to a new menu launcher on the panel. Keep in mind that the submenu

from the main menu and the menu on the panel are the same. You can edit the

submenu in the menu editor, and the changes will occur in the Panel menu.

Add this to personal menu

Copies the menu to the User menu.

The default configuration of the main menu makes it a bit difficult to customize. Since the

System menus are set and cannot be altered (unless you are root), you can initially configure

only the User menu section.

The best way to make a fully customizable main menu (other than being root all the time) is

to copy the desired parts of the System menu to your User menu. Once you have done this,

you can edit the User menu in the menu editor to your liking.



15.3.1. Menu Display Properties

You can choose which menus are displayed by using the menu properties. Right-click the

menu button and choose Properties to open this dialog. The Menu Properties window contains

display settings for the System menu, User menu, and any other default menus you have

installed. You can choose to display each menu as either fully listed, in a submenu, or not

displayed at all.



15.3.2. Editing the Menu

The Menu Editor, shown in Figure 15-3, lets you add and remove items from your menu and

move them around. To open the menu editor, select Settings, then Menu Editor from the main

menu.



file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_03.htm (2 of 4) [15/05/2002 18:13:08]



The Main Menu (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



Figure 15-3. The Menu Editor

The menu editor is divided into two sections: the left window displays the hierarchy of the

User and System menus and the items they contain. You can reorder menu items or move

them to other submenus by clicking and dragging them in the left window. The right window

shows the properties of an item selected in the left window.

The buttons on the toolbar provide you with the following actions on a selected menu item:

add a new submenu, add a new item, delete the selection, move it up or down, and sort a

submenu.

To add a new submenu, select the menu in which you want to place it in the menu tree and

click the New Submenu button. Provide the name of the submenu in the right window and

click OK.

To add a new item to the menu, select its location in the menu tree and click the New Item

button. The right window displays the properties settings for the item. Type in the name for

the item, a comment for the tooltip, the command to launch the item, and its application type.

Click OK to add the item to the menu.



file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_03.htm (3 of 4) [15/05/2002 18:13:08]



The Main Menu (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



15.2. The Panel



15.4. The GNOME Control

Center



Copyright © 2001 O'Reilly & QKFIN. All rights reserved.



file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_03.htm (4 of 4) [15/05/2002 18:13:08]



The GNOME Control Center (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)



Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd

Edition



15.4. The GNOME Control Center

The GNOME Control Center (Figure 15-4) is where most customization and configuration of

your desktop environment takes place. Open the Control Center using the toolbox button on

the panel, or from Utilities on the main menu. The Control Center contains a number of

configuration applications, called capplets, that allow you to change various GNOME

settings. The capplets are listed in the left pane of the Control Center window, and clicking on

a name opens the capplet in the right pane.



Figure 15-4. GNOME Control Center



15.4.1. Desktop Settings

These sections provide settings for the overall look of your desktop by letting you choose the

background, screensaver, theme, and window manager.

file:///E|/O'Reilly/O'Reilly%20-%20Linux%20in%20a%20Nutshell,%203rd%20Edition/Pages/ch15_04.htm (1 of 19) [15/05/2002 18:13:14]



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

GNOME (Linux in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition)

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×