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Modeling the Extraction Process of Sage (Salvia Officinalis L.) with Supercritical CO2 at Different ...

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The Possibilities of the Cadastral Land Use Assessment


classes of the land classification prior to the accuracy assessment. All land use data are

thus classified into an object-oriented classification classes (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. The land use classification results of the WorldView-2 multispectral image



The results obtained in this study reveal that the overall accuracy of land use data in the

cadastral register is around 50%. This indicates a large disagreement between the situa‐

tion in the field and the situation in the cadastral records. The interpretation of satellite

imagery brings many significant improvements compared to classical methods of data

collection and processing. A very good accuracy of spatial data is often obtained through

satellite imagery interpretation, which enables the process of updating the land use

information to be performed in a timely and cost-effective manner. Remotely gathered

data still don’t have the level of detail comparable to the data directly collected on the

ground. However, due to obsolete data in cadastral records, image processing and anal‐

ysis techniques can have a great importance for land registers.

Land use classification accuracy was over 85% for high-resolution satellite imagery.

It clearly indicates the necessity for remote sensing methods application in a land use

determination. The classification usually produces land-use and land-cover maps, which

are suitable for urban design, physical and spatial planning, landscape design, efficient

forest and agricultural asset management, real estate mass appraisal, expropriation and

land consolidation, topographic map updating etc. The accuracy of the classification

depends on the quality of the input satellite image. High-resolution multispectral satellite

imagery is a good choice for object-oriented classification algorithms. Correct

processing of these images requires that the temporal, spectral, spatial and radiometric

resolution must be considered, as well as the technical specifications of a particular


A. Mulahusić et al.

image, such as cloud amounts, sun elevation angle, etc. A qualitative and well-defined

geospatial data, derived from satellite imagery, provide a strong foundation for various

operations and data integration in GIS environment.


1. Ting, L., Williamson, I.P.: Cadastral trends: a synthesis. Aust. Surv. 4(1), 46–54 (1999)

2. Begić, M.: Geodetska služba Bosne i Hercegovine 1880–2012. Geodetski glasnik 42, 53–105


3. Steiniger, S., Bocher, E.: An overview on current free and open source desktop GIS

developments. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 23(10), 1345–1370 (2009)

4. Ali, Z., Tuladhar, A., Zevenbergen, J.A.: An integrated approach for updating cadastral maps

in Pakistan using satellite remote sensing data. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 18, 386–398


5. Mulahusić, A., Topoljak, J., Tuno, N.: Geodezija za građevinske inžinjere. Univerzitet u Zenici


6. Oštir, K., Mulahusić, A.: Daljinska istraživanja. Građevinski fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu


7. Roić, M.: Upravljanje zemljišnim informacijama – katastar. Geodetski fakultet Sveučilišta u

Zagrebu (2012)

8. Congalton, R.G., Green, K.: Assessing the Accuracy of Remotely Sensed Data: Principles and

Practices. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2009)

Analysis of the Energy Potential of Organic

Bioradable Part of Municipal Waste

Mahmut Jukić ✉ and Ifet Šišić



University of Bihac, 77000 Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina

mahmut.jukic@gmail.com, sisic_btf@yahoo.com

Abstract. Sustainable waste management, and especially its biodegradable part

at the European Union level, is becoming one of the priorities, not only because

of the necessity of conserving soil and reducing waste, but also the possibility of

using significant energy potentials of this type of waste. This is particularly true,

bearing in mind that about 90 million tons of biowaste is produced annually in

the EU, 40% of which is still disposed of in landfills.

Considering the composition of biodegradable municipal waste (food waste,

garden waste, agricultural waste, etc.), as well as a high percentage of moisture

in it, the process of anaerobic digestion is the most appropriate way of converting

biodegradable municipal waste into renewable energy. This process is carried out

using biogas plants that use biodegradable municipal waste as a raw material for

producing biogas as an energy product for energy production.

Therefore, the use of biodegradable municipal waste for the purpose of biogas

production has two important beneficial aspects: environmental protection

through the avoidance of waste disposal on non-sanitary landfills, and the produc‐

tion of energy from renewable sources.

Keywords: Biodegradable waste · Biogas · Anaerobic digestion · Digestate

Compost · Cogeneration



Sustainable waste management and especially its biodegradable part is becoming one

of the priorities at the European Union level, not only because of the necessity of

conserving soil and reducing waste, but also the possibility of using significant energy

potentials of this type of waste. This is especially true, bearing in mind that about 90

million tons of bio-waste are produced annually in the EU, 40% of which is still disposed

of in landfills (2006/12/EC; EC 2010).

According to the available data of the Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism

from 2011, the total amount of collected waste in the Federation of B&H annually

amounted to 735 051 t/year, while in Una-Canton Canton the amount of collected waste

according to these data amounted to 100 840 t/year. Given the unreliability of the data

in this paper, the data derived from the research carried out by Mahmut Jukic in 2014

will be used in the preparation of a master’s thesis on the “Contribution to Determining

the Energy Potential of Municipal Waste”. The research was carried out in the Una-Sana

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

I. Karabegović (Ed.): NT 2018, LNNS 42, pp. 459–466, 2019.



M. Jukić and I. Šišić

Canton area, specifically in the “Mezdre” landfill, which is being disposed of by the

waste of the municipalities of Cazin, Bosanska Krupa and Buzim, using the official

method: SWA-Tool (Development of a Methodological Tool to Improve Precision and

Comparability of Solid Waste Analysis Data), which aims to develop an increase in the

accuracy and comparability of municipal waste data at the European level. According

to the data from the mentioned master thesis, the total generated amount of municipal

waste in the Una-Sana Canton area amounted to 34,000 t/year. Considering the high

proportion of biodegradable waste that can be treated with anaerobic digestion of 58%,

the estimated quantity is 19 720 t/year.

In addition to biodegradable household waste, which is 17.5%, organic waste is to

be treated as garden waste in the amount of 22.7% and fine elements (residues of wood

waste, sawdust, branches, other waste from the yard and the carriageway, etc.) in the

amount of 17.8%. Thus, the share of the organic biodegradable fraction of municipal

waste to be treated by anaerobic digestion is 58%.


Problems of Research

Sustainable management of biodegradable organic waste includes basic hierarchical

settings as well as in the management of all types of waste: avoiding the occurrence of

waste - prevention, that is, reduction at the source), to separate different forms of biowaste, material processing, thermal treatment and eventually disposal.

Regardless of the fact that the reduction in waste generation - prevention in the first

place, it is not possible to completely avoid what is necessary to implement measures

that will reduce the disposal of waste to landfills (Kirac 2009).

Anaerobic digestion is an appropriate way of converting biodegradable municipal

waste into renewable energy since this process is exclusively bacterial, and anaerobic

bacteria act best in aqueous medium or very humid conditions. It is this fact that makes

the process of anaerobic digestion very important. When talking about energy potential,

from every ton of such waste under biological treatment from 100 to 200 m3 of biogas

can be obtained (EC 2008).

The waste treatment methods differ in the EU member countries. In developed coun‐

tries, the 2014 data suggests that less communal waste was deposited in landfills, while

methods of composting and recycling waste predominated in relation to other methods

of treatment. Thus, recycling and composting in 2014 almost two one third (64%) of

waste treatment in Germany, followed by Slovenia (61%), Austria (58%), while the

largest share of municipal waste deposited in landfills was recorded in Latvia (92%),

Malta (88%), Croatia (83%) and Romania (82%) (EUROSTAT 2016).

In addition to disposal to landfills, thermal processing and composting, the most

optimal way of treating organic biodegradable waste is the treatment of anaerobic diges‐

tion through a biogas plant (Kricka et al. 2009).

All countries of the European Union have set clear targets before them, which can

be achieved by applying procedures for the rational utilisation of the organic part of

municipal waste. One of these methods is certainly the production and use of biogas

from organic waste, the method of anaerobic digestion (Amon et al. 2006). Biogas is a

Analysis of the Energy Potential of Organic Bioradable Part


mixture of several gases, where methane and carbon dioxide account for 90% of the total

mixture. The complete composition of biogas is shown in Table 1. (Kricka et al. 2009).

Table 1. Chemical composition of biogas

Flammable part of biogas


Volumepart %


Methane CH4


Hydrogen H2

Sulfurichydrogen H2S 0–1

Non-flammable part of biogas



Carbon dioxide CO2 25–45


Nitrogen N2


Oxygen O2


Aeratedwater H2O


Ammonia NH


In addition to the many advantages inherent in anaerobic digestion in the treatment

of the organic part of municipal waste, there are certain disadvantages that are reflected

in the inability to provide constant quality or quantity as well as the space constraints

for plant accommodation. Despite the difficulties of the European country, they increas‐

ingly use anaerobic digestion (Ostrem 2004). The largest number of installed waste

treatment plants with anaerobic digestion are in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands,

that is, the countries that first implemented the anaerobic digestion method as treatment

of municipal waste, while France and Spain have started to use the anaerobic digestion

method much later (De Baere, Mattheeuws).

2.1 Objective and Methods of Research

Considering the significant share of organic waste in municipal waste, the aim of this

paper is to analyse the energy potential of this waste. The aim of this analysis is to

determine the energy potential of the organic biodegradable fraction of municipal waste

in the field of research (Una-Sana Canton), or certain energy factors that will serve to

dimension the possible biogas plant, as well as to analyse the financial effects of a

possible cogeneration plant for production electrical or thermal energy by using biogas.

Based on the amount of biodegradable organic waste in the field of research, this

analysis will determine the thermal value of organic biodegradable waste (Hd), the total

amount of energy contained in the waste (E), the amount of biogas produced in the biogas

plant (Qpl), the chemical energy of the produced biogas (Eh), the power of biogas at the

entrance to the cogeneration plant (Ppl), the biogas mass (mpl) and the mass of wet and

dry digestate (md, msd). This paper will use mathematical, statistical and methods of

technical-economic analysis.

2.2 Results of Research and Discussion

The total energy of the biodegradable organic part of municipal waste is calculated

according to formula 1 (Table 2):

E = M ⋅ Hd (MJ)



M. Jukić and I. Šišić

Table 2. Data for the analysis of the energy potential of organic municipal waste (Jukić 2015).




USK-Region Bihac

306.849 people

Population density

74,3 citizens/km2

Produced amount of waste

108 840 t/yeara

34 000 t/year

19 720 t/year

157 kg/capita/year

Amount of collected waste

Organic waste

Amount of waste per capita

4 125 km2


Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism, 2011

With the following:

M – mass of generated biodegradable waste

Hd – the lower thermal value of the organic waste, for the calculation of the lower

thermal value of this waste structure, reference values are used for the following:

Hd = 6 MJ/kg for garden waste

Hd = 4,2 MJ/kg for food residues,

Hd = 12 MJ/kg for other fine waste with the smallest structure (Kiely 1998).

The average lower thermal value of the biodegradable organic part of the municipal

waste is Hd = 7.2 MJ/kg, so that the total energy contained in this waste is:

E = 19.720 × 1000 × 7,2 = 141,984 × 106 (MJ)

E = 0,142 × 106 (GJ)

If 1 ton of fuel oil has approximately 40 GJ of energy, the energy equivalent of the

organic biodegradable fraction of municipal waste in the Una-Sana Canton amounts to

3550 tons of that oil.

The amount of biogas that can be obtained in a biogas plant is calculated based on

formula 2:


[ 3]




⋅ qs


Qbp = Q




The specific amount of biogas obtained from the biodegradable organic part of the

municipal waste is qs = 150 m3⁄t (Rohlik 2016).

Qpl – the amount of biogas per year

Q – annual production of biodegradable organic part of municipal waste


[ 3]

[ 3 ]





⋅ 150

= 2.958.000


Qbp = 19.720




Analysis of the Energy Potential of Organic Bioradable Part


The chemical energy contained in the biogas is calculated on the basis of the biogas

heat value and the total amount of biogas per formula 3. For this calculation the heat

value of the biogas from 6.5 kWh/m3 (Rohlik 2016) is taken.


Ebp = Qbp


Ebp = 2.958.000






⋅ Hdbp












⋅ 6, 5






If the AD plant works 8000 h per year with full capacity, the average biogas power

at the entrance to the cogeneration unit is calculated according to the formula 4:











= 2403.37[kW]

Pbp = [

] =










In addition to biogas as the basic product that is obtained from an organic biode‐

gradable part of municipal waste by anaerobic digestion, in order to do further researches

of the plant for AD sustainability, it is also necessary to calculate the mass of the digestate

as a beneficial product. In order to calculate the mass of the digestate it is necessary to

calculate the biogas mass according to the Eq. 5:


[ ]

[ 3 ]




= 𝜌bp 3 ⋅ Qbp







mbp = 0, 717





[ 3 ]













(Nakomcic-Smaragdakis et al. 2013).


Mass of the digestate is obtained if the mass of the biogas is taken from the total

mass of organic waste (Formula 6):


Biogas density 𝜌bp = 0, 717







− mbp

md = Q













− 2.120, 8

= 17.599, 2

md = 19.720




The amount of this digestate md is digestate in which the water content is about 40%

so it is necessary to calculate the mass of dry digestate:


M. Jukić and I. Šišić






where 50% (5267,7 t/year) there is fine

= 10.535, 2

msd = 60% ⋅ md



compost that will be sold, and 50% is a rough compost which is a cost because it is

necessary to dispose it in a proper manner.

Based on the above factors, it is also possible to calculate the final products that can

be obtained from biogas by means of cogeneration plants, i.e. electrical and thermal

energy. First, it is necessary to calculate the electric power of a biogas plant using

formula 7:


Pe = Pbp[kW] ⋅ 𝜂 = 2403, 37 ⋅ 0, 3 = 721.011 kWel ≈ 0, 72 MWel


𝜂 – the electrical efficiency of the biogas plant is 30% for gas engines (Husika 2016)

Annual electricity production is:






⋅ 0, 72 [MWel] = 5.760

Eel = 8000





The ratio between the thermal and electric power of the big-scale plant is

= 1, 7


(Husika 2016),

Bearing in mind the above ratio, the thermal power of a biogas plant is:

Pth = 1, 7 ⋅ 0, 72 [MW] = 1, 22 [MW]

The total amount of heat is obtained as follows (Table 3):






⋅ 1, 22 [MW] = 9.760

Qth = 8000




Table 3. Products obtained by analysing the energy potential of biodegradable organic waste


Electricity (MWh/year)

Heat (MWh/year)

Dry digestate (t/year)

Annual production




It is important to note here that 20% of the heat remains for the operation of the

biogas plant, and the other part, i.e. power of 1 MW can be used to warm the surrounding

houses, or to heat the sanitary water. If we consider that the average boiler utilisation

rate in B&H is 42% (Husika 2016) and that the number of days in the heating season is

180, the heat can be calculated according to formula 8:

Qisk. = P ⋅ 𝜏 ⋅ k

where it is:


Analysis of the Energy Potential of Organic Bioradable Part


P[MW] – the heat power of buildings available for heating buildings

𝜏[h] – duration of the heating season

k – coefficient of heat load capacity of the heating plant

Qisk. = 0, 976 MW ⋅ 180 ⋅ 24 h ⋅ 0, 42 = 1.770, 85 MWh

The average consumption of thermal energy in households is about 7900 kWh per

year (Statistics Agency of B&H 2015), which means that 224 households can be supplied

by the heat from a biogas plant.



The aim of this paper was to present the most important benefits (products) from treating

this type of waste and using it for energy purposes due to a significant share and assuming

that organic biodegradable waste was initially separated from the rest of the municipal

waste. The use of municipal waste for energy purposes is inevitable in modern societies.

Technologies for energy valorisation of communal waste are continuously developed

and improved with the aim of achieving the most favorable effects on the community

and the environment.

In this paper, for the area of research based on the annual amount of biodegradable

municipal waste (19 720 t/year), the energy contained in (0.142 × 106 GJ) was calcu‐

lated, which equals to 3550 tons of fuel oil.

Based on the amount of biogas available in the biogas plant with anaerobic digestion

(2.958.000 m3/year), the energy contained in the biogas (19 227 kWh/year) was calcu‐

lated. Based on the calculated power of 0.72 MW and 1.22 MW of heat, the produced

electricity is calculated in the amount of (5760 MWh/year), the total amount of thermal

energy (9760 MWh/year). In addition to these two beneficial products based on the

calculation of waste mass and biogas, the amount of dry digestate for sale in the amount

of (10 535,2 t/year) was calculated. Based on the calculated utilised amount of heat (1

770.85 MWh), it was concluded that 224 households could be supplied with it.


De Baere, L., Mattheeuws, B.: Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste in Europe – Status,

Experience and Prospects (n.d)

Hublin, A., Kralik, D., Čurlin, M.: Energija iz biorazgradivog organskog otpada, Internet,

dostupno: http://gospodarenjeotpadom.yolasite.com/resources/ANDREA%20HUBLIN.pdf,

pristupljeno, 04 January 2018 (n.d)

Husika, A.: Tehnologije za proizvodnju energije iz biomase, seminar Proengineer, Razvojni

program ujedinjenih nacija, Amabasada Kraljevine Švedske, Fond za zaštitu okoliša

Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine i Fond za zaštitu životne sredine i energetsku efikasnost

Republike Srpske, Sarajevo i Banja Luka (2016)

Jukić, M.: Doprinos određivanju energijskog potencijala komunalnog otpada, Magistarski rad,

Mašinski fakultet, Univerzitet u Sarajevu (2015)


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Kirac, M.: Najbolje raspoložive tehnike, Diplomski rad, Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje,

Sveučilište u Zagrebu (2009)

Mihajlović, V.: Model upravljanja otpadom zasnovan na principima smanjenja negativnog uticaja

na životnu sredinu i ekonomske održivosti, Doktorska Disertacija, Fakultet tehničkih nauka,

Univerzitet u Novom Sadu (2015)

Rohlik, P.: Koncept iskorištavanja biootpada za proizvodnju biometana, Diplomski rad, Fakultet

Strojarstva i brodogradnje, Sveučilište u Zagrebu (2014)

Voća, N., Krička, T., Ćosić, T., Rupić, V., Jukić, Ž., Kalambura, S.: Digested residue as a fertilizer

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New Technologies in Agriculture and

Ecology, Chemical Processes

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