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Table 2. The results of reliability analysis of PSS, PHQ-9 and CPSS

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Data was entered, managed and analyzed by SPSS (v16). Descriptive analysis

included mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables and frequency and

percent for categorical variables. One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) or

t-test wereconducted on continuous demographic variables (potential covariates)

such as family income, age of child, and age of parents in order to determine if

there were any significant differences between these variables prior to parenting

stress.Pearson’s correlations were calculated to measure the association between

social support scores and parenting stress level and between parenting stress and

depression scores. Finally, a multiple linear regression was carried out to find

which the potential predictors of parenting stress are. P-value of 0.05 was used as

level of statistical significance.

3.8. Ethic issues

Prior to implementing the study, the researcher submited the proposal to the

Expert Committee of Hospital of Tropical Diseasesand received the permission of

conducting the study on May 2015. To participants, the investigators informed

patients that they have been enrolled in the study and described the purposes of the

study as well as the benefits that patients received so that the patients voluntarily

agreed to participate in by signing on informed consent. If the patient did not

agree, they would be excluded from the study. After the interviews, if patients had

parenting stress, the investigators provided useful consultants to help parents

53



overcome stressors during their child care. Additionally, all information related to

participants was solely used in the present study, not for any purposes.

3.9. Chapter summary

A cross-sectional study was conducted from 15 April and 15 May 2015 at

Hospital of Tropical Diseases. The sampling population was parents of children

with asthma visiting the hospital within the study time. A structured questionnaire

was developed to serve as instruments used in face-to-face interviews. Three welldesigned assessment tools used to evaluate social supports, parenting stress, and

parents’ depression level were also included in the questionnaire. Data was entered,

managed and analyzed by SPSS. v16. Descriptive analysis included mean and

standard deviation for quantitative variables and frequency and percent for

categorical variables, whereas ANOVAs or t-testand Pearson’s correlations

wereused to measure associations between independent and dependent variables.

Furthermore, a multiple linear regression was carried out to find potential

predictors of parenting stress. For ethical issues, approval from Expert Committee

of Hospital of Tropical Diseases was achieved prior to implement the study.

Additionally, informed consentswere obtained from and psychological counseling

was delivered to respondents.



54



Chapter four. Results



4.1. Introduction

This chapter discussed about all findings in this study. The first part

displayed the findings related to demographic characteristic of participants. The

second section displayed social support score of parents with asthmatic children.

The third one showed parenting stress score of participants and the fourth one

summarized depression score of participants. The final section showed relationship

between parenting stress and interested factors in this study. Finally, a summary of

this chapter was present so that the readers had a clear picture about what achieved

in this study.

4.2. Demographic characteristic of parents of asthmatic children

Among 171 participants, 79.53% were asthmatic child’s mother. Generally,

the age of participants was relative young with 77.19% were under 39 years of age.

Most of respondents (94.15%) were married and lived with their spouses. There

were 38.01% participants who had length of marriage lasted from 5 to 10 years and

36.26% had lived together with their spouses more than 10 years.

The education level of most of participants was not high with the

proportions of participants who completed elementary school or secondary schools



55



and participants who completed high school were 30.41% and 42.11%,

respectively.

The workers and officers were two main occupations in this study (32.75%

and 22.22%, respectively), while housewives and manual labor occupied 27.49%.

Nearly ninety percent of participants (86.55%) had from 1 to 2 children. The

proportion of participants who had monthly income over 2.5 million VDN was 91.

Buddhism and Catholic were the most popular religions among study population

with the rate of 67.84% and 21.64%, respectively.



56



Table 3. Demographic characteristics of parents (n=171)

Variable

Relationship with asthmatic child

Mother

Father

Age

< 30

30-39

40-49

Marital status

Married/Living with partner

Divorced/Separated

Widowed

Duration of Marriage

< 5 years

5-10 years

> 10 years

Education

Elementary school-Secondary school

High school

Graduate/college/Postgraduate

Occupation

Workers

Officers

Business

Housewives/manual labor

Number of children

1 child

2 children

> 2 children

Monthly family income

< 1.5 million VDN

1.5-2.5 million VDN

> 2.5 million VDN

Religion

Catholic

Buddhism

Other religions

Non-religious

57



Frequency Percent (%)

136

35



79.53

20.47



59

73

39



34.50

42.69

22.81



161

7

3



94.15

4.09

1.75



44

65

62



25.73

38.01

36.26



52

72

47



30.41

42.11

27.49



56

38

30

47



32.75

22.22

17.54

27.49



57

91

23



33.33

53.22

13.45



7

8

156



4.09

4.68

91.23



37

116

16

2



21.64

67.84

9.36

1.17



There were 65.5% asthmatic children under 5 years of ages in this study. The

age of acquiring asthma of children was mainly under 5 years as well (81.29%).

Based on severity assessment, most of children had mild intermittent and mild

persistent (65.5% and 27.49%, respectively).

Table 4.Asthmatic child characteristics (n=171)

Variable

Age of asthmatic child

≤ 5 years

> 5 years

Age of acquiring asthma

≤ 5 years

> 5 years

The severity of asthma

Mild intermittent

Mild persistent

Moderate persistent

Severe persistent



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Frequency



Percent (%)



112

59



65.50

34.50



139

32



81.29

18.71



112

47

11

1



65.50

27.49

6.43

0.58



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