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Table 2. The results of reliability analysis of PSS, PHQ-9 and CPSS
Data was entered, managed and analyzed by SPSS (v16). Descriptive analysis
included mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables and frequency and
percent for categorical variables. One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) or
t-test wereconducted on continuous demographic variables (potential covariates)
such as family income, age of child, and age of parents in order to determine if
there were any significant differences between these variables prior to parenting
stress.Pearson’s correlations were calculated to measure the association between
social support scores and parenting stress level and between parenting stress and
depression scores. Finally, a multiple linear regression was carried out to find
which the potential predictors of parenting stress are. P-value of 0.05 was used as
level of statistical significance.
3.8. Ethic issues
Prior to implementing the study, the researcher submited the proposal to the
Expert Committee of Hospital of Tropical Diseasesand received the permission of
conducting the study on May 2015. To participants, the investigators informed
patients that they have been enrolled in the study and described the purposes of the
study as well as the benefits that patients received so that the patients voluntarily
agreed to participate in by signing on informed consent. If the patient did not
agree, they would be excluded from the study. After the interviews, if patients had
parenting stress, the investigators provided useful consultants to help parents
overcome stressors during their child care. Additionally, all information related to
participants was solely used in the present study, not for any purposes.
3.9. Chapter summary
A cross-sectional study was conducted from 15 April and 15 May 2015 at
Hospital of Tropical Diseases. The sampling population was parents of children
with asthma visiting the hospital within the study time. A structured questionnaire
was developed to serve as instruments used in face-to-face interviews. Three welldesigned assessment tools used to evaluate social supports, parenting stress, and
parents’ depression level were also included in the questionnaire. Data was entered,
managed and analyzed by SPSS. v16. Descriptive analysis included mean and
standard deviation for quantitative variables and frequency and percent for
categorical variables, whereas ANOVAs or t-testand Pearson’s correlations
wereused to measure associations between independent and dependent variables.
Furthermore, a multiple linear regression was carried out to find potential
predictors of parenting stress. For ethical issues, approval from Expert Committee
of Hospital of Tropical Diseases was achieved prior to implement the study.
Additionally, informed consentswere obtained from and psychological counseling
was delivered to respondents.
Chapter four. Results
This chapter discussed about all findings in this study. The first part
displayed the findings related to demographic characteristic of participants. The
second section displayed social support score of parents with asthmatic children.
The third one showed parenting stress score of participants and the fourth one
summarized depression score of participants. The final section showed relationship
between parenting stress and interested factors in this study. Finally, a summary of
this chapter was present so that the readers had a clear picture about what achieved
in this study.
4.2. Demographic characteristic of parents of asthmatic children
Among 171 participants, 79.53% were asthmatic child’s mother. Generally,
the age of participants was relative young with 77.19% were under 39 years of age.
Most of respondents (94.15%) were married and lived with their spouses. There
were 38.01% participants who had length of marriage lasted from 5 to 10 years and
36.26% had lived together with their spouses more than 10 years.
The education level of most of participants was not high with the
proportions of participants who completed elementary school or secondary schools
and participants who completed high school were 30.41% and 42.11%,
The workers and officers were two main occupations in this study (32.75%
and 22.22%, respectively), while housewives and manual labor occupied 27.49%.
Nearly ninety percent of participants (86.55%) had from 1 to 2 children. The
proportion of participants who had monthly income over 2.5 million VDN was 91.
Buddhism and Catholic were the most popular religions among study population
with the rate of 67.84% and 21.64%, respectively.
Table 3. Demographic characteristics of parents (n=171)
Relationship with asthmatic child
Married/Living with partner
Duration of Marriage
< 5 years
> 10 years
Elementary school-Secondary school
Number of children
> 2 children
Monthly family income
< 1.5 million VDN
1.5-2.5 million VDN
> 2.5 million VDN
Frequency Percent (%)
There were 65.5% asthmatic children under 5 years of ages in this study. The
age of acquiring asthma of children was mainly under 5 years as well (81.29%).
Based on severity assessment, most of children had mild intermittent and mild
persistent (65.5% and 27.49%, respectively).
Table 4.Asthmatic child characteristics (n=171)
Age of asthmatic child
≤ 5 years
> 5 years
Age of acquiring asthma
≤ 5 years
> 5 years
The severity of asthma