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Chương 12. NHỮNG THAY ĐỔI KHÍ HẬU TOÀN CẦU VÀ CHIẾN LƯỢC BẢO VỆ MÔI TRƯỜNG
I. Lắng đọng acid
Lắng đọng khơ: các khí, bụi, sol khí có tính acid.
Lắng đọng ướt: mưa, tuyết, sương mù, hơi nước
có tính acid
Mưa acid có pH < 5,6
Nguyên nhân: chủ yếu do phát thải SO2, NOx
II. Hiệu ứng nhà kính
III. Suy thối ozon tầng bình lưu
• The influx of oxygen from the seas created an ecological
crisis, as it poisoned many of the other species of bacteria.
• The atmosphere is a thin
layer of gases that
surrounds the earth.
• The bottom layer, the
the air we breathe and
every aspect of what we
• The infrared energy is then re-radiated off the
Earth’s surface, back towards space. Some of that
energy is kept at the surface by the troposphere. 43
The sun: 99% H2, d (the earth – the sun) = 150 millions km, T = 5500
The solar radiation drives almost all life systems on earth and the
earth’s climate and weather.
Incident irradiation = reflected irradiation
The trapping of some of the infrared radiation within the
atmosphere keeps the Earth’s daily temperature
fluctuations within a small, habitable range.
This is called the greenhouse effect.
The greenhouse gases responsible for this effect include:
Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) (nồng độ thấp nhất)
Carbon dioxide (nồng độ cao nhất)
Spectra of greenhouse gas absorption superimposed over emission
spectra of earth and sun [data from NIST Chemistry Webbook (2005)]
Illustrating the concept of atmospheric
lifetime of atmospheric gases
CO2 rough: Enting and Newman provided 1990.