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ROSEMOND TUVE. Chaucer and the seasons, 1933

ROSEMOND TUVE. Chaucer and the seasons, 1933

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Chaucer: The Critical Heritage vol.2



his spring descriptions until his later period. Busk and

hay will be ‘shrouded’; the ground will have a ‘queynt

robe and fayr’ (‘cointe robe faire’), many-hewed, of

flowers and grass; nightingale, chelandre and papingay

will sing blithely. The ‘erthe wexeth proud’

(‘s’orgueille’) forgetting its ‘pore estat’ in winter;

‘love affrayeth alle thing’ (‘toute rien d’amer

s’esfroie’). This is the spring into which all the

courtly-love and dream-garden poets have waked, from the

early lyrics to Froissart. The ‘Book of the Duchesse’

shows the same predominating influence, as one would

expect. In the charm of Chaucer’s description, the birds

‘upon the tyles, al a-boute’ seem particular with him;

this ‘moste solempne servyse’ is universal and customary,

however, and has been in progress many seasons. The walls

need not have been painted with the ‘Romaunce of the

Rose’, for it shows plainly in the reference to the

dwelling of Flora and Zephirus, or in the proud earth

outdoing heaven in gaiety, forgetting ‘the povertee That

winter… had mad hit suffre [n]’, now green through

‘sweetnesse of dewe’ (291ff., 398ff.).

A slightly different tradition, and one of even more

ancient heritage, predominates in the ‘Parlement of

Foules’ passage on spring—the earthly paradise motif

(which had, of course, also attached itself to the Garden

of Love). ‘Grene and lusty May shal ever endure’ in this

garden, with its many kinds of trees, its river, its

heavenly harmony of birds, stringed instruments of

‘ravisshing swetnesse’, its small beasts playing, its

spices and ‘attempre’ air, its freedom from disease and

age, and its train of allegorical figures around the well

of Cupid—with the lovers of all times ‘peynted over al’

(130ff.). As in Froissart or Machaut, these details have

become a characteristic part of the convention. The

appearance of Aleyn’s ‘noble goddesse Nature’ reemphasizes the fact that it was Chaucer’s habit to put

together if he pleased settings of very different

provenance; but both are stage-sets and neither carries

its original force of purpose. In the Prologue to the

‘Legend of Good Women’, one would of course expect a court

of love, since the God of Love himself is to appear, in

one version garlanded with ‘rose-leves Steked al with

lilie floures newe’ (A 160) like the April or May of late

‘Horae’, in the other ‘corouned with a sonne’ (B 230). The

songs to St Valentine, the Zephirus and Flora, the

forgotten ‘pore estat’ of winter (B 125, A 113), all

belong to the convention as we have seen it in French

courtly romances; the ‘swerd of cold’, for example,

probably comes either directly from the ‘Roman de la



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Rose’, or from Machaut (1). The ‘smale foules’, in

Prologue B, go on to a long and artificial court scene,

with swearing of troth on the blossoms, and

reconciliations through the ‘ruled curtesye’ that is the

chief statute of the love court proper (left out in

Prologue A); but their songs in despite of the ‘fouler’

are in a manner that is not second-hand, however

conventional the situation. The ‘observaunces’ to be done

to May in the ‘Knight’s Tale’ are like those of the

courtly figures of ‘Guillaume de Dole’; they are very

different from those of the junketings that Chaucer may

have seen on Mayday. ‘May wol have no slogardye a-night

(184) has a background of Provenỗal complaint (strained

through many filters) rather than of early hawthorn

gathering and love-making in the country; the ‘joly wo’

and ‘lusty sorwe’ that kept Pandarus awake on a ‘Mayes

morwe’ was that of Petrarch for Laura not of Jack for Jill

(‘Tr.’ II, st. 157).

But this is only one color in the complex tissue that

makes up Chaucer’s contribution to English seasons poetry.

The ‘Prologue’ to the ‘Tales’, fully as characteristic, is

written in another idiom; and the months with their

qualities of cold or hot, moist or dry, the humor in the

budding trees, the sun running its course, now half

through the sign of Aries, remind one that Chaucer was

interested enough in the sciences of his day to write not

only a ‘Knight’s Tale’ grounded on aspects and

conjunctions but a treatise on the astrolabe. In ‘Troilus

and Criseyde’ also ‘Phebus doth his brighte bemes sprede

Right in the whyte Bole’, and ‘ful of bawme is fletinge

every mede’ (II, 8;…). The ‘Squire’s Tale’ passage is even

more closely related to diagrams and tables such as those

that illustrate calendar treatises:

Phebus the sonne ful joly was and cleer;

For he was neigh his exaltacioun

In Martes face, and in his mansioun

In Aries, the colerik hote signe…(40ff.)

Similarly, the ‘gardin ful of leves and of floures’ ‘Which

May had peynted with his softe shoures’ (in the

‘Franklin’s Tale’) (2) contrasts with the longer

description of the ‘colde frosty seson of Decembre’ (179,

cf. 516ff.). Into this, Chaucer has put suggestions from

December and January feast scenes in the ‘Horae’ or other

calendar series, and their declining sun taking his course

through Capricorn; and while he doubtless observed for

himself the ‘bittre frostes,…. sleet and reyn’ of actual

English winters, destroying ‘the grene in every yerd’, it



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is equally questionless that he had seen the bare trees

and brown earth of the winter landscapes in the ‘Horae’.

We have seen how often, in the manuscripts, ‘Janus sit by

the fyr, with double berd, And drinketh of his bugle-horn

the wyn’, while ‘Biforn him stant braun of the tusked

swyn’. Also, when Chaucer and other poets, in the line

immediately before or after the description of a month,

note the position of the sun in the zodiac, they are not

merely obedient to a literary convention. They also follow

an artistic tradition. Some of the descriptions are

earlier in date than the more elaborate pictures (3) which

we still possess, in which Phebus does actually drive

through the degrees on the circle of the zodiac and alight

full pale in Capricorn. But e.g. in MS. Douce 62, a ‘Book

of Hours’ of the late xiv. c., use of Paris, the

rectangular ‘labor’ of the month contains, besides the

zodiac sign, a redfaced sun varying in size, with

‘stremes’ which increase and decrease; long, stronglymarked rays in May or July give place to shorter slighter

ones in November and December. The gradual strengthening

of the ‘yonge sonne’ as he runs his course is marked in

B.Mus. MS. Arundel 157 by inscriptions under the zodiac

signs (under the ram, for example, ‘…ore commence li

soleil a montrer sa force’; MS. before 1220, English).

Bodley 614 (Engl., last quarter xii.), whose series of

occupations (folios 3–16) has not been completely filled

in (but includes a January ‘with double berd’ eating ‘by

the fyr’), pictures Sol on f. 17 as a gold-crowned nude in

a chariot, with four leaping horses and a staff with a

gold pennon; on f. 23 he is a figure with two gold

torches, surrounded by personified planets. It is true

that none of the pictures like these which were seen by

Chaucer and Lydgate and Hoccleve and Spenser suggested new

ideas to them; it was the frequent seeing of them that

made them conventions—which only to us seem recondite. We

realize the relative parts played by observation of

‘nature’ and by convention more clearly if we recognize

that in such a familiar description as that here

considered, observation is much likelier to embellish than

to originate, to add striking details than to see

independently.

One other Chaucerian figure seems thrice as familiar

after seeing a great number of ‘Horae’ manuscripts,—the

Squire, a ‘lovyere, and…lusty bacheler’ (‘C.T., Prol.’,

80), ‘with lokkes crulle, as they were leyd in presse’,

‘embrouded…al ful of fresshe floures, whyte and rede’, ‘of

twenty yeer of age’, ‘singinge…or floytinge, al the day’,

in ‘short…goune, with sleves longe and wyde’, well knowing

how to ‘sitte on hors, and faire ryde’, with him a



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‘yeman’. The month of May in Queen Mary’s ‘Psalter’ (MS.

Royal 2 B vii, early xiv.), with curly yellow hair, in a

wide-sleeved, decorated short gown, rides a horse,

hawking; his two attendants also have hawks. The May of a

St. Omer ‘Book of Hours’ (B.Mus. Addit. 36684, after 1318)

is also a youth with curly yellow hair, in short gown and

wide sleeves, on a horse, with hawk and rose. In the May

of Lansdowne 383 (mid-xii., Shaftesbury Abbey), the horse

is gaily caparisoned, the saddle red, the wide-sleeved

gold and blue embroidered gown slit to the thigh, the hair

wavy. In B.Nat. MS. f. lat. 1076 (English, xiii.) May has

a chaplet of red flowers; in B.Nat. f. lat. 745 (xiv., f.

clxxix) his gown is plaited and has puffed sleeves; in

both B.Nat. f. lat. 1077 (xiii.) and Bodleian Canon. Lit.

126 (xiv., Neth.?) he has a musical instrument. (4)

Perhaps Chaucer’s squire was ‘as fresh’ as a very

particular ‘month of May’ (‘C.T., Prol.’, 92).

Those who echoed the seasons-descriptions of Chaucer and

of the French poets whose works he helped to make popular

in England, mingled the traditions as casually if not as

skillfully as he had. Pastourelles in English perhaps show

only this last influence; they are late and formalized.

They are often ‘upon a morning in May’, but only

occasionally have seasons-passages of any fresh ness. (5)



Notes

1 ‘R. de la R.’ has (5942–4, in a passage translated from

Alanus’ ‘Anticlaudianus’, v. notes, II. 345): ‘E quant

Bise resoufle, il fauche Les floretes e la verdure A

l’espee de sa freidure’. Cf. Machaut’s ‘Jugement dou Roy

de Navarre’ (v. appendix 64; also noted by Fansler, ‘Ch.

and the R. de la R.’, 99). The same metaphor occurs

again in the ‘Squire’s Tale’ (48).

2 V. Lowes’ discussion of Chaucer’s relation here to the

‘Teseide’; cf. also his comparison of Chaucer’s December

description with Boccaccio’s October reference, (‘The

Franklin’s Tale’, the ‘Tes.’, and the ‘Filocolo’, ‘Mod.

Phil.’ XV, 689ff., esp. 698–9 [1917–18]….

3 In later ‘Horae’—of the Jean Pucelle school, for

example, and more especially in the Duc de Berry MSS. V.

the ‘Très riches heures du Duc de Berry’, Musée Condé,

Chantilly; ‘Petites heures’, B. Nat. MS. f. lat. 18014,

fin. by 1402; ‘Grandes heures’, B. Nat. f. lat. 919,

dated 1409; v. Delisle, ‘Les livres d’heures du Duc de

Berry; Herbert’, 250 f.; Leroquais, II, 175ff.

4 V. also, among many others, Royal I D x (xiii.), Harl.



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2332 (early xv., standing), Lansdowne 431, B. Mus.

Addit. 38116 (after 1280; on dappled horse, with hawk

and short gown, gloved and curly-haired), Addit. 33992

(xiv., red gown above knees).

5 Perhaps ‘in ane symmer sessoun, quhen men wynnis thair

hay’ is mildly interesting when one remembers the labors

of June, July, and August (ed. Laing, ‘Early Pop.

Poetry’, I, 113; first half xv., according to Sandison,

130; v. there also no. A 37, c. 1303, A 22, c. 1400).



Index



The index has been divided into two parts. The first index

contains material on Chaucer: biographical details,

literary qualities and themes and his works. The second

index contains general topics, people, books and

periodicals.



1. GEOFFREY CHAUCER



Biographical details

acquaintances, 68, 69,

126, 134

betrayal of accomplices,

134

birthplace and date, 67,

134–5, 170, 182, 302

Civil Service, 169, 174,

228, 302, 438–9, 440,

487

court life, 127, 174,

182–3, 302, 335, 436,

437, 438

culture of his day, 2,

6–8, 59, 90, 94–5,

111–12, 114, 121–2,

127, 246

death, 134

diplomacy, 174, 302, 335,

438, 487

education, 67, 119, 182,

335, 387, 436–7,

455–60

499



financial affairs, 92–4,

174, 439, 440

foreign travel, 67–8,

125, 302, 335, 438,

440, 455, 465

interests,

alchemy, 67, 89, 182,

387, 458

architecture, 487

astronomy and astrology,

67, 89, 119, 182,

210, 362–3, 387,

458, 495

London, 155, 302

love, 172

marriage, 210, 438

military service, 67–8,

174, 302, 437

parentage, 66–7, 182,

302, 335, 436

Parliament, 169, 174,

302, 438

pensions, 92, 93, 169,

438, 439, 440



500



Index



political views, 210, 439

prison, 134, 169, 183,

438

reading, 455–60

social status, 7, 16–17,

92–4, 226, 415

sons and descendants,

182, 210, 441

Literary qualities

allegory, 12, 13–14, 61–5,

104–5, 119, 146–7,

161, 229, 255, 423,

463, 478–9

allusion, 5, 230, 417–22,

457–8, 467

ambiguity, 5, 11, 20,

179, 443–52

anachronisms, 48, 213

artistry, 14–16, 38–9,

48–9, 83, 84–5, 110–11,

124, 145, 355,

386, 398–9, 402, 458–61,

466–8, 486

beauty, 11, 117, 120–1,

380

characterisation, 73, 77,

97–8, 144–5, 150, 183,

215, 273–4, 301–2,

359, 364–6, 393, 398,

422–3

conservatism, 126

description, 4, 48, 54,

121, 141–2, 144, 214

animals, 142, 158, 160–1,

360–2

colour, 155–9

flowers, 158, 161–2, 164–5,

166–7

nature, 9, 98, 102–4,

121, 125, 129, 142–3,

149, 150–61, 164–7,

187, 297, 379

seasons, 493–7

detachment, 179, 303,

356, 382

diction, 5, 217, 218,

229–30, 265–8

directness, 118–19



dramatic breadth, 118

earthiness, 3, 10, 71–2,

77, 97, 106, 107, 110,

148, 187, 189–207,

380–1

ease, 143–4

economy, 409, 410–12, 492

elusiveness, 20, 383–4

Englishness, 6–7, 52, 53–4,

90, 106, 126, 127,

136, 138, 184, 190–1,

276

father of English poetry,

52, 53–4, 59, 74, 75,

127, 147, 149, 218,

223, 229, 231–2

fluidity, 218–9

French influence, 35,

135–6, 150, 171, 183,

184, 190, 214, 216–17,

223, 241–2, 245, 268–9,

274–7, 279, 283–4,

331, 336, 384, 389,

413, 423, 449, 461–5

geniality, 10, 51–6, 83,

97, 120, 127, 133–4,

138–9, 145, 180, 226–7,

261, 305, 487–8

gothic, 3, 6, 252

humour, 4, 10–11, 54, 71–4,

125, 138, 140, 147,

150, 159, 175, 223,

262–5, 273–4, 280–2,

323, 357, 374–6, 402,

418, 475–6.

irony, 11, 70–1, 80–1,

100–1, 125, 178–9, 213–14,

264–5, 282, 299,

316–17, 358, 414, 466

Italian influence, 35,

139, 150, 171, 214,

217, 223, 226, 241,

283, 386–7, 403–27,

445, 449, 461, 465–6

landscape, 9, 144, 149,

150–61, 164–7, 187,

378–9



501



Index



language, 18, 65–7, 95–6,

122–3, 139, 240, 265–8,

283–4, 330, 335–6,

355, 407

largeness, 3, 117, 118,

144, 217

lightness, 232

logic, 114–15, 315–16

materialism, 36, 355–60,

364

medievalism, 469–84, 486

metre, 15–16, 30, 74–5,

76, 77–8, 122–3, 139–40,

151, 217, 221–2, 233–6,

240–3, 261, 335–6, 414

modesty, 208–9

moral values, 7, 111, 180,

202, 204, 213, 260–1,

271–2, 303, 382–3

musicality, 83, 84–6

naivety, 3, 4–5, 53–5,

124, 146, 159–60, 214,

285

narrative skill, 15, 76,

79–80, 111–12, 120,

139, 140, 141–2, 143,

144, 268–9, 286, 378

naturalness, 5, 15, 53–4,

83, 125, 143–4, 149,

229–31

ordinariness, 15, 20, 21,

65–6, 117, 119–20,

127, 129–30, 138, 229–31,

246–7, 381–3

originality, 146–260

pathos, 4, 13, 48, 76, 98,

125, 172, 178, 223, 253,

262, 282, 303, 416, 488

place in European

literature, 15, 53, 59,

216– 17, 231

plainness, 5, 36, 65–6,

84–5, 117, 118–19, 266

poetic range, 1, 149,

184, 254–5, 422

poetic status, 20, 51,

59, 96–7, 137–8, 208

prolixness, 47, 55, 63

quaintness, 47, 49–50,

212–13, 418



rationalism, 5, 8

readability, 20, 100

realism, 4–5, 11, 20, 63,

97, 109–10, 125, 138,

147, 261, 381–2

repetition, 47, 412

rhetoric, 14, 15, 317,

385–6, 387–402, 472,

473–4

rhymes, 18, 76, 170–1,

181, 217, 234, 261

rhyme tests, 170–1, 181

richness of style, 5,

184– 5, 330

satire, 12, 21, 137, 140–1,

145–6, 211–12, 262,

299–301, 308

scansion, see metre

self-consciousness, 262–3,

304

sensibility, 11–13, 125,

140, 145, 150, 174,

179– 80, 264

sententiousness, 474–6

sentimentality, 195, 201,

205, 282

sincerity, 3, 133, 143

situation, 113

symmetry, 109–10

timelessness, 33, 34–6,

88, 89–90, 94–5

variety, 4, 120, 184

versification, see metre

Themes

animals, 142, 158, 160–1,

360–2

chivalry, 7, 59, 113, 183,

185–8, 201, 300, 305,

325, 470, 473, 476–83

class distinction, 185–7

courtly love, see chivalry

flowers, 158,

161–2, 164–5, 166–9

love, 11–13, 60, 61, 62,

63–4, 118, 161, 172–3,

189–90, 191–207, 473,

476–83

marriage, 308, 309–10,



502



Index



314–15, 317–19, 324–6

poetic justice, 275

religion, 7–8, 19, 48–9,

161, 294, 340–4, 363–4

seasons, 493–7

sex, 12, 189–207

women, 200, 206–7, 366,

379–80

satire, 12, 211–12,

300–1, 316, 358

Works

1532 ed, 27–8

1542 ed, 28

1550 ed, 28

1561 ed, 28–9

1598 ed, 29

1602 ed, 29, 30

1687 ed, 29–30

1721 ed, 30

1737 ed, 31

1775 ed, 31

1782–3 ed, 31

1845 ed, 31

1894 ed, 31

1933 ed, 31

apocrypha, see spurious

works

authenticity, 18–20;

see also spurious works

canon, 17, 18–19

chronology of

composition, 18, 173–4,

177, 182, 183, 212

early prints, 27

further editions, 27–32

mss., 18, 27, 176–7, 234–5,

236

modernisations, 14, 36–48,

76–7, 91–2

romances, 13, 113–14,

251, 252, 289, 292

spurious, 19, 28, 29, 30,

148, 168–71, 180–2, 238

translations, 48, 95,

151, 332, 456, 466



‘A.B.C.’, 29, 173, 194

‘Adam Scriveyn’, 27, 173,

233

‘Anelida and Arcite’, 63,

172, 173, 175, 193,

249, 387, 390

‘Boece’, 171, 173, 238

‘The Book of the Duchess’,

170, 171, 172, 173,

182, 183, 197–8, 198–9,

205, 244, 386, 389,

464–5, 494

‘The Canterbury Tales’,

10, 13, 18, 19, 20, 27,

115, 135, 172, 173, 174,

175–7, 181, 183, 185–7,

189, 191–2, 194, 228,

238–9, 249, 254, 255–8,

286–97, 299–301, 306–26,

339–40, 380–1, 390,

396– 402, 422–4

‘The Canon’s Yeoman’s

Tale’, 147, 174, 182

‘The Clerk’s Tale’, 80,

144, 174, 194, 258,

288–9, 300–1, 307–9,

310–12, 313–18, 397, 412

‘The Cook’s Tale’, 30, 174

‘The Franklin’s Tale’,

103–4, 174, 213, 258,

321–5, 390, 393, 395,

397, 401, 495

‘The Friar’s Tale’, 174,

390, 397

‘The Knight’s Tale’, 13,

31, 38–9, 45, 129–30,

174, 194, 196, 198, 231,

251, 252–3, 256, 257–8,

263, 289–92, 300, 342,

397, 409, 419, 491, 495

‘The Manciple’s Tale’,

174, 390, 397–8

‘The Man of Law’s Tale’,

44, 54, 102, 139, 174,

194, 256–7, 397, 400

‘Tale of Melibee’, 68,

174, 177, 246, 256,

257, 259, 287, 475



503



Index



‘The Merchant’s Tale’,

174, 318–21, 324, 397,

401

‘The Miller’s Tale’, 40,

174, 295, 386, 397

‘The Monk’s Tale’, 136,

174, 177, 396–7

‘The Nun’s Priest’s Tale’,

70–1, 158, 174, 177,

292–3, 396, 397, 399,

400

‘The Pardoner’s Tale’,

174, 296, 386, 397

‘The Parson’s Tale’, 28,

174

‘The Physician’s Tale’,

130, 174, 397, 400

‘The Prioress’s Tale’,

54, 98, 174, 177, 218–19,

281, 397, 400

‘The Prologue’, 29, 31,

38, 43, 54, 55, 109,

125, 128, 147, 174,

217, 249, 273, 340,

386, 495

‘The Reeve’s Tale’, 10,

174, 268–80, 386, 390,

397

‘Retracciouns’, 30, 111

‘The Second Nun’s Tale’,

174, 397, 400–1, 409

‘The Squire’s Tale’, 30,

41–2, 45, 174, 395–6,

397, 495

‘The Summoner’s Tale’,

174, 295, 386, 397

‘The Tale of Sir Thopas’,

68, 159, 174, 177, 414

‘The Wife of Bath’s Tale’,

174, 296, 309–13, 320,

322–3, 397, 400

‘Chaucer’s Dream’, see

‘Isle of Ladies’

(spurious)

‘The Cock and the Fox’, 35

‘The Complaint of the

Blacke Knight’

(spurious), 63, 64,

169, 193, 200



‘The Complaint of Chaucer

to his Purse’, 93, 173

‘The Complaint of Mars’,

63, 172, 173, 193

‘The Complaint of Venus’,

63, 172, 173, 193, 247

‘The Complaint unto Pity’,

172, 173, 175, 193

‘The Court of Love’ (spurious), 64, 95, 161, 169,

181–2, 183, 191, 193,

197, 199–200, 201, 202

‘The Cuckoo and the

Nightingale’ (spurious),

63, 157, 169, 193, 196, 202

‘The Death of Blaunche’

see ‘The Book of the

Duchess’

‘L’Envoy de Chaucer à

Bukton’, 205

‘L’Envoy de Chaucer à

Skogan’, 173

‘The Flower and the Leaf

(spurious), 19, 29, 45,

65, 154, 164, 169, 181,

193

‘Fortune’, 173

‘Gentilesse’, 173

‘A Goodly Ballade of

Chaucer’, 169, 171

‘The House of Fame’, 35,

62, 155, 173, 181, 182,

183, 194, 209, 248, 255,

390, 399, 414, 438–9,

454

‘Isle of Ladies’

(spurious), 29, 63,

107, 169, 193

‘Jack Upland’ (spurious),

19, 29

‘Lack of Stedfastness’,

173

‘Legende of Goode Women’,

61, 63, 113, 172, 173,

181, 183, 193–4, 200,

209, 211, 244, 342, 390,

404–6, 494–5

‘Life of St. Cecile’, 171,

172, 256



504



Index



‘Marriage’ (spurious),

173

‘Mother of God’ (spurious),

173

‘Palamon and Arcite’, 171,

252, 256; see also

‘Canterbury Tales’: The

Knight’s Tale’

‘Parliament of Fowls’, 19,

61, 63, 64, 121, 167,

171, 173, 175, 293,

389, 494

‘The Plowman’s Tale’

(spurious), 19, 28

‘A Praise of Women’

(spurious), 169

‘The Romaunt of the

Rose’, 14, 35, 61, 103,

107, 151–4, 155, 169,

170–1, 181, 182, 189,



191–2, 203–4, 243,

493–4

‘Testament of Cressida’

(spurious), 19, 28

‘Testament of Love’(spurious),

19, 28, 52–3, 119,

134, 169, 171, 180

‘A Treatise on the Astrolabe’,

172, 173, 238,

334

‘Troilus and Criseyde’, 9,

13, 18, 27, 35, 47, 61,

63, 100–1, 112, 118,

171, 172, 173, 175, 183,

189, 191–2, 197, 202–3,

243–4, 249–52, 253, 254,

263, 365–6, 386, 406–11,

412–14, 420–1, 443–7,

450–2, 468–84

‘Truth’, 173



2. GENERAL INDEX



Abercrombie, Lascelles, 484

Addison, Joseph, 368

Alanus de Insulis, 456, 473

Alderson, W.L., 24, 30, 31,

32

Ariosto, Ludovico, 79, 225,

419

Arnold, Matthew, 10, 12, 50,

184–5, 216–20, 490

Arras, Jehun d’, 146

Art and nature, 4, 14, 129–30,

147, 378–9

Ascham, Roger, 29, 371

Atterbury, Bishop, 30

Austin, Alfred, 260

Avesbury, Robert, 434

Bacon, Roger, 53

Bagehot, Walter, 4, 108–10

Baker, Geoffrey, 434



Beaumont and Fletcher, 79

Bell, John, 31

Bell, Robert, 77, 176

Betterton, Thomas, 40, 42–3

Bichop, G., 29

‘Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine’,

58

Blake, William, 22, 145,

371, 373

Boccaccio, Giovanni, 35, 53,

100, 136, 139–40, 148,

152, 171, 192, 223, 252,

253, 256–7, 287, 294,

305, 343, 387, 403, 418,

419, 421–2, 423, 424,

453, 465

‘II Filostrato’, 9, 100,

101, 112, 183, 250, 252,

406–11, 414–14, 418,

420, 424, 425–6, 445,

460, 465–84



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ROSEMOND TUVE. Chaucer and the seasons, 1933

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