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Sonnet XCV. The Vase of Life.

Sonnet XCV. The Vase of Life.

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236



The House of Life



Date

comp. 1881 No.

1871

1869

1869

1852

1869

1868

1868

1868

1868

1871

1871

1869

1880

1880

1880

1871

1880

1880

1873

?1860

1879

1853

1873

1854

1855

1850

1853

1847–

48

1847–

48

1847–

48

1849

1847–

48

1848

1866

1864–



1881 Title



1870

No.



XLIV

XLV

XLVI

XLVII

XLVIII

XLIX

L

LI

LII

LIII (54)

LIV (53)

LV

LVI (55, 57)

LVII (58)

LVIII (59)

LIX (56)

LX (80)

LXI (81)

LXII (60, 64)

LXIII (64, 69)

LXIV (62, 63)

LXV

LXVI (64, 73)

LXVII

LXVIII

LXIX

LXX (30, 50)

LXXI (77)



Cloud and Wind

Secret Parting

Parted Love

Broken Music

Death-in-Love

Willowwood I.

Willowwood II.

Willowwood III.

Willowwood IV.

Without Her

Love’s Fatality

Stillborn Love

True Woman I.

True Woman II.

True Woman III.

Love’s Last Gift

Transfigured Life

The Song-Throe

The Soul’s Sphere

Inclusiveness

Ardour and Memory

Known in Vain

The Heart of the Night

The Landmark

A Dark Day

Autumn Idleness

The Hill Summit

The Choice I.



LXXII (78)



The Choice II.



XXXVI



LXXIII (79)



The Choice III.



XXXVII



LXXIV (75, 77)

LXXV (76, 78)



Old and New Art I.

Old and New Art II.



LXXVI (77, 79)

LXXVII (76)

LXXVIII



Old and New Art III.

Soul’s Beauty

Body’s Beauty



XX

XXI

XXII

XXIII

XXIV

XXV

XXVI

XXVII



1869

No.



XI

I

II

III

IV



XXVIII



XXIX



XIV



XXX



XIII



XXXI

XXXII



X



XXXIII

XXXV



Appendix One

Date

comp. 1881 No.

65

1870

1871

1873

1869

1870

1869

1869

?1858–

62

1869

1875

1875

1847

1854

1869

1873

1880

1869

1873

1868–9

1870

1868

1868

1870



1881 Title



LXXIX

LXXX (79, 81, 82)

LXXXI (66, 70, 72, 84)

LXXXII

LXXXIII

LXXXIV

LXXXV

LXXXVI



The Monochord

From Dawn to Noon

Memorial Thresholds

Hoarded Joy

Barren Spring

Farewell to the Glen

Vain Virtues

Lost Days



LXXXVII

LXXXVIII

LXXXIX

XC

XCI

XCII

XCIII (94)

XCIV (92)

XCV

XCVI (95)

XCVII

XCVIII

XCIX

C

CI



Death’s Songsters

Hero’s Lamp

The Trees of the Garden

Retro Me Sathana

Lost on Both Sides

The Sun’s Shame I.

The Sun’s Shame II.

Michelangelo’s Kiss

The Vase of Life

Life The Beloved

A Superscription

He and I

Newborn Death I.

Newborn Death II.

The One Hope



237

1870

No.



1869

No.



XXXVIII

XXXIV

XXXIX

XL



XII



XLI



XLII

XLIII

XLIV



VI



XLV



VII



XLVI

XLVII

XLVIII

XLIX

L



VIII

XV

XVI



III

Answering a question from Harry Buxton Forman in October 1868

about his advertised intentions to publish his original poetry in the

1860s, Rossetti replied that he had a volume ‘nearly ready for the

press’ when he published The Early Italian Poets in 1861, ‘but shortly

afterwards I got into a state of health and spirits which caused me to

destroy the MSS’ (WEF 68.145). No indication survives of what that

volume might have contained, but we must assume that Rossetti was

speaking of the poetry MSS that he began to gather together in 1856

and buried with his wife Lizzie in 1862 (WEF 56.51.1 Vol. III).

However, his first reference to what was to become The House of Life



238



The House of Life



in 1870 and 1881 in a letter to Jane Morris on 4 August 1869 suggests

that the sonnet sequence was only beginning to take shape then:

I think I shall have to get the sonnets printed only on one

side of the paper, in order that as I write more, I may be

able to slip them into their proper places in the series – so

far as it can be called a series. I find I have just 50 sonnets

which I shall print after rejecting a good many I have by

me. I shall reprint those in the Fortnightly. (WEF 69.112)

It was not until 26 March 1870 that the poet had fifty sonnets

ready for The House of Life; the first printed version after the

Fortnightly Review group of sixteen consisted of only thirty-three,

preceded by the following title:



OF LIFE, LOVE, AND DEATH.

SONNETS

(Towards a work to be called ‘The House of Life’)

This version, dating from the so-called Penkill Proofs of 16 August

1869, belongs to Proof State 2 of Poems and is shown below next to

the Fortnightly Review group of sixteen that had the same title but

lacked the House of Life subtitle. On the following pages, subsequent

versions of the sequence show how it evolved towards its first

published form in April 1870.

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW



POEMS: PROOF STATE 2 (Penkill)



Willowwood I. (49)

Willowwood II. (50)

Willowwood III. (51)

Willowwood IV. (52)

Sleepless Dreams (39)

Lost on Both Sides (91)

Run and Won [The Vase of Life]

(95)

A Superscription (97)

Winged Hours (25)

The Landmark (67)

Broken Music (47)

Lost Days (86)



p. 105 Willowwood I. (49)

p. 106 Willowwood II. (50)

p. 107 Willowwood III. (51)

p. 108 Willowwood IV. (52)

p. 109 Flammifera [Love’s Testament] (3)

p. 111Broken Music (48)

p. 113 The Morrow’s Message (38)

p. 115 Lovesight (4)

p. 117 The Kiss (6)

p. 119 The Love-Moon (37)

p. 121 Winged Hours (25)

p. 123 Nearest Kindred [The Birth Bond]

(15)



Appendix One



239



FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW



POEMS: PROOF STATE 2 (Penkill)



Known in Vain (65)

Inclusiveness (63)

Newborn Death I. (99)

Newborn Death II. (100)



p. 125 Bridal Birth (2)

p. 127 Love’s Lovers (8)

p. 129 Secret Parting (45)

p. 131 Sleepless Dreams (39)

p. 133 Death-in-Love (48)

p. 135 A Superscription (97)

p. 137 Placata Venere [Nuptial Sleep]

(6a)

p. 139 Known in Vain (65)

p. 141 Inclusiveness (63)

p. 143 The Landmark (67)

p. 145 A Dark Day (68)

p. 147 The Choice I. (71)

p. 148 The Choice II. (72)

p. 149 The Choice III. (73)

p. 151 Vain Virtues (85)

p. 153 Lost Days (86)

p. 155 The Sun’s Shame I. (92)

p. 157 Retro Me Sathana (90)

p. 159 Run and Won [The Vase of Life]

(95)

p. 161 Lost on Both Sides (91)

p. 163 Newborn Death I. (99)

p. 164 Newborn Death II. (100)



The next printed version of the House, significantly rearranged,

appeared on 13 September 1869 in Proof State 3, containing thirtytwo sonnets and fourteen songs under the heading,

SONNETS AND SONGS,

Towards a Work to be called

‘THE HOUSE OF LIFE’

Rossetti moved The Choice (71–73) to the ‘Sonnets for Pictures and

Other Sonnets’ section and added the sonnet Parted Love (46). The

Songs are on pp. 88–103. Pagination follows the Olivia Rossetti

Agresti copy of this state, the only perfect copy extant of the so-called

A Proofs.



240



The House of Life



p. 76 Inclusiveness (63)

p. 77 Known in Vain (65)

p. 78 The Landmark (67)

p. 79 A Dark Day (68)

p. 80 Vain Virtues (85)

p. 81 Lost Days (86)

p. 82 Retro Me Sathana (90)

p. 83 Lost on Both Sides (91)

p. 84 The Sun’s Shame I. (92)

p. 85 Run and Won (95)

p. 86 Newborn Death I. (99)

p. 87 Newborn Death II. (100)

p. 88 Aspecta Medusa

p. 89 The Sea-Limit

p. 90 A Young Fir-Wood

p. 91 The Honeysuckle

p. 92 The Woodspurge

p. 93 Love-Lily

p. 94 First Love Remembered

p. 95 The Moon-Star

p. 96 Sudden Light

p. 97 A Little While

p. 98 The Song of the Bower



p. 100 Penumbra

p. 102 A New Year’s Burden

p. 103 Even So

p. 104 Bridal Birth (2)

p. 105 Flammifera (3)

p. 106 Lovesight (4)

p. 107 The Kiss (6)

p. 108 Nuptial Sleep (6a)

p. 109 Love’s Lovers (8)

p. 110 Nearest Kindred (15)

p. 111 Winged Hours (25)

p. 112 The Love-Moon (37)

p. 113 The Morrow’s Message (38)

p. 114 Sleepless Dreams (39)

p. 115 Secret Parting (45)

p. 116 Parted Love (46)

p. 117 Broken Music (47)

p. 118 Death-in-Love (48)

p. 119 Willowwood I. (49)

p. 120 Willowwood II. (50)

p. 121 Willowwood III. (51)

p. 122 Willowwood IV. (52)

p. 123 A Superscription (92)



One week later, Rossetti added five sonnets in Proof State 4: Joy

Delayed (82) after A Dark Day (68); Death’s Songsters (87) after Lost

Days (86); Supreme Surrender (7) after Nuptial Sleep (6a); The Portrait

(10) after Love’s Lovers (8) and Stillborn Love (55) as a conclusion

following Willowwood (49–52). A Superscription (92) was moved back

from its concluding position to precede the Willowwood quartet. Then,

in Proof State 7 (early October), A Superscription (92) was shifted

again, now coming between the Newborn Death pair (99–100) and the

Songs. He also transferred The Hill Summit (70) from the ‘Sonnets for

Pictures and Other Sonnets’ to follow A Dark Day (68); following it

came The Choice trio (71–73), restored to the sequence after temporary

banishment to the ‘Sonnets for Pictures’ section. The new sonnets

added were Passion and Worship (9) to follow Love’s Lovers (8) and

Love’s Baubles (22) to follow The Birth-Bond (15). The next table shows

the Contents and order of the House in Proof States 4, 7 and 12:



Appendix One

Proof State 4:

20 Sep 69

p. 82 Inclusiveness (63)

p. 83 Known in Vain (65)

p. 84 The Landmark (67)

p. 85 A Dark Day (68)



Proof State 7:

3 Oct 69



p. 96

p. 97

p. 98

p. 99

p. 100 The Hill Summit

(70)**

p. 101 The Choice I

(71)**

p. 102 The Choice II

(72)**

p. 103 The Choice III

(73)**

p. 86 Joy Delayed (82)*

p. 104

p. 87 Vain Virtues (85)

p. 105

p. 88 Lost Days (86)

p. 106

p. 89 Death’s Songsters (87)* p. 107

p. 90 ‘Retro Me Sathana!’(90) p. 108

p. 91 Lost on Both Sides (91) p. 109

p. 92 The Sun’s Shame [I] (92) p. 110

p. 93 Run and Won (95)

p. 111

p. 94 Newborn Death I (99) p. 112

p. 95 Newborn Death II (100) p. 113

p. 114 A Superscription

(97)

pp. 96–111 Songs

pp. 115–30

p. 112 Bridal Birth (2)

p. 131

p. 113 Flammifera (3)

p. 132

p. 114 Lovesight (4)

p. 133

p. 115 The Kiss (6)

p. 134

p. 116 Nuptial Sleep (6a)

p. 135

p. 117 Supreme Surrender

p. 136

(7)*

p. 118 Love’s Lovers (8)

p. 137

p. 138 Passion and

Worship (9)*

p. 119 The Portrait (10)*

p. 139

p. 120 Nearest Kindred (15)

p. 140

p. 141 Love’s Baubles

(23)*



241

Proof State 12:

25 Nov 69

p. 87

p. 88

p. 89

p. 90

p. 91

p. 92

p. 93

p. 94

p. 95

p. 96

p. 97

p. 98

p. 99

p. 100

p. 101

p. 102

p. 103

p. 104

p. 105

pp. 106–22

p. 123

p. 124

p. 125

p. 126

p. 127

p. 128

p. 129

p. 130

p. 131

p. 132

p. 133



242



The House of Life



Proof State 4:

20 Sep 69



Proof State 7:

3 Oct 69



Proof State 12:

25 Nov 69



p. 121 Winged Hours (25)

p. 122 The Love-Moon (37)

p. 123 The Morrow’s Message

(38)

p. 124 Sleepless Dreams (39)

p .125 Secret Parting (40)

p. 126 Parted Love (46)

p. 127 Broken Music (47)

p. 128 Death-in-Love (48)

p. 129 A Superscription (97)

p. 130 Willowwood I (49)

p. 131 Willowwood II (50)

p. 132 Willowwood III (51)

p. 133 Willowwood IV (52)

p. 134 Stillborn Love (55)*

p. 143 Lilith (78)***

p. 144 Sibylla Palmifera

(77)***

p. 145 The Choice I (71)***

p. 146 The Choice II (72)***

p. 147 The Choice III (73)***

p. 155 The Hill Summit

(70)***

p. 156 Autumn Idleness

(69)***



p. 142

p. 143

p. 144



p. 134

p. 135

p. 136



p. 145

p. 146

p. 147

p. 148

p. 149

[p. 114]

p. 150

p. 151

p. 152

p. 153

p. 154

p. 163

p. 164



p. 137

p. 138

p. 139

p. 140

p. 141

[p. 105]

p. 142

p. 143

p. 144

p. 145

p. 146

p. 156

p. 157



p. 173



p. 167



p. 174 Farewell to the

Glen (84)***



p. 168



* first appearance, **moved to HL from ‘Other Sonnets’, ***not yet in HL

[St. Luke the Painter (74)***, later Old and New Art I, first appeared in

print on p. 45 in Proof States 8 and 9, pulled after the exhumation; it

was on p. 166 in Proof State 12, the only HL sonnet retrieved from

Lizzie’s grave.]

No further substantial change occurred in The House of Life until

Proof State 14. By 1 March 1870, Rossetti had decided to restore the

basic order of Proof State 2 with the love sonnets (Bridal Birth to

Stillborn Love) coming first (WEF 70.35) followed by the ‘change and

fate’ sonnets (Inclusiveness to A Superscription) and the Songs coming

last. He removed three songs to the first section of Poems: Aspecta



Appendix One



243



Medusa, A New Year’s Burden and Even So. He also changed the order

of the remaining songs to conform with that of the sonnets. The love

songs now came first, and two titles were changed: The Sea-Limit

became The Sea-Limits and The Moon-Star became Plighted Promise.

Two sonnets were retitled at this point: Flammifera appeared as Love’s

Redemption (3) after Proof State 13, and Run and Won became The Vase

of Life (95) between Proof States 14 and 15. The poet added three new

sonnets to this state: A Day of Love (16) followed The Birth-Bond (15);

Life-in-Love (36) came after Winged Hours (25) and The One Hope

appeared as a conclusion, immediately preceded by A Superscription

(97), which had been shifted again. The table below shows The House

of Life as it was printed in Proof State 14, containing forty-six sonnets

and eleven songs; ‘Sonnets for Pictures’ and other sonnets added to

the House later are noted at the end:

p. 177 Bridal Birth (2)

p. 178 Love’s Redemption (3)

p. 179 Lovesight (4)

p. 180 The Kiss (6)

p. 181 Nuptial Sleep (6a)

p. 182 Supreme Surrender (7)

p. 183 Love’s Lovers (8)

p. 184 Passion and Worship (9)

p. 185 The Portrait (10)

p. 186 The Birth-Bond (15)

p. 187 A Day of Love (16)

p. 188 Love’s Baubles (23)

p. 189 Winged Hours (25)

p. 190 Life-in-Love (36)

p. 191 The Love-Moon (37)

p. 192 The Morrow’s Message (38)

p. 193 Sleepless Dreams (39)

p. 194 Secret Parting (45)

p. 195 Parted Love (46)

p. 196 Broken Music (47)

p. 197 Death-in-Love (48)

p. 198 Willowwood I. (49)

p. 199 Willowwood II. (50)

p. 200 Willowwood III. (51)

p. 201 Willowwood IV. (52)

p. 202 Stillborn Love (55)

p. 203 Inclusiveness (63)

p. 204 Known in Vain (65)



p. 205 The Landmark (67)

p. 206 A Dark Day (68)

p. 207 The Hill Summit (70)

p. 208 The Choice I. (71)

p. 209 The Choice II. (72)

p. 210 The Choice III. (73)

p. 211 Hoarded Joy (82)

p. 212 Vain Virtues (85)

p. 213 Lost Days (86)

p. 214 Death’s Songsters (87)

p. 215 Retro Me Sathana (90)

p. 216 Lost on Both Sides (91)

p. 217 The Sun’s Shame I. (92)

p. 218 The Vase of Life (95)

p. 219 Newborn Death I. (99)

p. 220 Newborn Death II. (100)

p. 221 A Superscription (97)

p. 222 The One Hope (101)

p. 223 Love-Lily

p. 224 First Love Remembered

p. 225 Plighted Promise

p. 226 Sudden Light

p. 227 A Little While

pp. 228–9 The Song of the Bower

pp. 230–1 Penumbra

p. 232 The Woodspurge

p. 233 The Honeysuckle

p. 234 A Young Fir-Wood



244



The House of Life



pp. 235–6 The Sea Limits

p. 246 Lilith (77)

p. 247 Sibylla Palmifera (78)

p. 256 St. Luke the Painter (74)



p. 259 Autumn Idleness (69)

p. 260 Farewell to the Glen (84)

p. 261 The Monochord (79)



Finally, Rossetti added four more sonnets to bring The House of Life

up to a round half-century for publication in April 1870. In Proof State

15 (about 22 March), The Love-Letter (11) was inserted after The Portrait

(10) and Barren Spring (83) became Sonnet XXXIV following The Hill

Summit (70). Completing the sequence in Proof State 16 (about March

26), Love-Sweetness (21) comes after A Day of Love (16) and He and I

(98) precedes Newborn Death (99–100), following A Superscription (97),

which had been moved back at the last minute to follow The Vase of

Life (95). In 1870, the ‘Sonnets for Pictures and Other Sonnets’ section

contained six sonnets that were to become part of the 1881 House of

Life: Autumn Idleness (69), St. Luke the Painter [renamed Old and New

Art I. to become 74], Sibylla Palmifera [renamed Soul’s Beauty to become

77], Lilith [renamed Body’s Beauty to become 78], The Monochord (79)

and Farewell to the Glen (84). There were no songs in the 1881 House.



IV

In Ballads and Sonnets (1881), the division of The House of Life, now

subtitled A Sonnet Sequence, into two titled parts, Youth and Change

and Change and Fate, makes explicit the sectioning foreshadowed in

the note on the verso of the Poems (1870) half-title:

The first twenty-eight sonnets and the seven first songs

treat of love. These and the others would belong to

separate sections of the projected work.

Thus the fifty-two sonnets added in 1881 expanded but did not

fundamentally change the structure of the 1870 sequence: the first

twenty-eight sonnets of 1870 appear in Part I, Youth and Change, the

last twenty-two, in Part II, Change and Fate. All six sonnets from the

1870 ‘Sonnets for Pictures and Other Sonnets’ were transferred to

Part II; fourteen other sonnets were inserted there, almost all of them

written between 1873 and 1880. Thirty-two sonnets were added to

Part I, twenty-seven of them ‘Kelmscott love sonnets’ written in the

summer of 1871 and five others written in 1880.

Both MSS and proofs for The House of Life as it appeared in Ballads

and Sonnets are less cumbersome for the editor to collate than those of

Poems (1870). The poet’s friend Charles Fairfax Murray assembled the

most complete collection of House MSS between two covers, now in



Appendix One



245



the Fitzwilliam Museum Library. Called simply ‘The House of Life’,

this volume contains MSS of ninety-two sonnets in DGR’s hand in

the final 1881 order, with the missing eleven inserted as fair copies by

Murray. After 1873, DGR recorded planned changes in House sonnets

in his copy of the seventh (Tauchnitz) edition of Poems. It appears

that he used this 1873 edition as printers’ copy when he was

preparing the two volumes of 1881, Ballads and Sonnets and Poems, for

publication. The printed Tauchnitz pages in the Fitzwilliam and

Delaware Art Museum collections, marked with changes and then

torn from the book to be sent to the printer, should be regarded as

MSS (see Appendix Seven).

Two collections of Ballads and Sonnets proofsheets, marked with the

printer’s date-stamp and with extensive revisions and instructions in

DGR’s hand, have survived nearly intact: the ‘Rosenbach Proofs’

(sold at Christie’s in 2004) and the ‘Bancroft Proofs’ at the Delaware

Art Museum. Partial copies of these proofs exist in the Troxell

Collection (Princeton), the Tinker Collection (Beinecke) and the

Widener Collection (Harvard). Collation of these proofs is not simple,

however, because they were not issued in complete sets (as in 1870)

but separately by signature – that is, as sheets of sixteen pages each,

in multiple copies. The House of Life appears in seven signatures, M

though S, issues of which were staggered between 23 April and 27

May 1881; the proofs for all of Ballads and Sonnets were pulled

between 5 April and 7 June. The chart on p. 23 schematizes the

proofing phase of Ballads and Sonnets according to signature, date

pulled and present location of proofsheets.

With the exception of the press-proofs (those imprinted on the

paper to be used in the edition) and one set of post-press proofs, all

these sheets are date-stamped in the upper-left-hand corners of the

first page of each signature. Beside these stamped dates appear

numbers 1, 2, 3, etc., chronologically according to date; in the Bancroft

collection, where more than one set of proofs exists for the same date,

the letters a, b, c, etc., follow the numbers. There are twenty-eight

separate sheets containing House sonnets among the Bancroft Proofs.

As in 1870, the poet used these proofsheets to alter words, phrases or

lines, to delete, exchange or insert entire sonnets and to instruct the

printer in matters of typography, spacing and format. One set, the 5a

press-proofs, were copy-edited with a red pencil by William Rossetti

(WEF 81.228 & 230 & 243 [DW 2486–87 & 2489]).

Signature [A] is included in the Table because some of the

preliminary material, especially the Table of Contents, is relevant to

the sonnet sequence. The much-revised half-title to The House of Life

and the prefatory note verso are not dealt with fully because of the



246



The House of Life



confusion and uncertainty surrounding them. The topic is discussed

in detail at the beginning of Text and Notes above. This half-title and

note were present in the 1881 proofs from 25 April (WEF 81.188

[Texas]), appearing first as part of Signature L. The note was dropped

and restored, with variants, several times. It became a separate leaf

between Signatures L and M (WEF 81.305 & 306 [Texas]), appearing

finally as a cancel-leaf in the first edition.

The following table records the changes in sequential order of

sonnets in the Ballads and Sonnets proofs evident from an analysis of

the Bancroft and Rosenbach materials. Each sonnet moved is identified

by, from left, signature letter, copy number and date pulled:

N1



28 Apr



N2

N3



3 May

4 May



N4



6 May



N5

O3

R1



n.d.

9 May

5 May



R2



9 May



R3



10 May



The Dark Glass (34) appears as 21

Heart’s Haven (22) appears as 34

Equal Troth (32) appears as 29

The Moonstar (29) appears as 32

Love-Sweetness (21) appears as 22

Heart’s Haven (22) reappears as 21

The Dark Glass (34) reappears as 34

Heart’s Haven (22) reappears as 22

Equal Troth (32) reappears as 32

Love-Sweetness (21) reappears as 21

The Moonstar (29) reappears as 29

Farewell to the Glen (84) appears as 81

Memorial Thresholds (81) appears as 84

Michelangelo’s Kiss (94) appears as 92

The Sun’s Shame (92–93) appears as 93–94

From Dawn to Noon (80) appears as 81

Farewell to the Glen (84) reappears as 80

Michelangelo’s Kiss (94) reappears as 94

The Sun’s Shame (92–93) reappears as 92–93

From Dawn to Noon (80) reappears as 80

Memorial Thresholds (81) reappears as 81

Farewell to the Glen (84) reappears as 84



Changes from Poems:

Nuptial Sleep (6a) was withdrawn. See Letter (8) in the notes to that

sonnet: DGR to F. S. Ellis c. 25 Apr 81 (WEF 81.188 [Texas]).

Barren Spring (83) was moved from XXXIV (following The Hill

Summit) to follow Hoarded Joy (82).

Autumn Idleness (69), Old And New Art I: St. Luke The Painter (74), Soul’s

Beauty (77), Body’s Beauty (78), The Monochord (79) and Autumn Idleness

(69) were moved to HL from ‘Sonnets for Pictures and Other Sonnets.’



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