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V. ‘‘Olde Deceyte of Vergilius’’

V. ‘‘Olde Deceyte of Vergilius’’

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of Virgil in the basket (see above, V.C), Virgil’s revenge (see above, V.C), and

the bocca della verità (see above, V.B.6). (Text: VN 58–59) (JZ)

Virgil was a very wise and expert man, and he was a master of many different

sciences, which (as some men say) the devil had taught him. In addition, he

was a wise counselor, to such an extent that the emperor chose him to be one

of the lords of his counsel. This Virgil performed many marvels by necromancy. Indeed, he made a garden in which there were all types of fruit trees.

Whenever he wanted, there people found ripe fruit, beautiful flowers, and

grasses. There were also in the garden all kinds of birds that sang night and

day. This garden had no enclosure except the light that shone over it, and yet

no one could come in. Furthermore, he made in Rome a statue that radiated

great light and that was unable to fall. The people of Rome could not open

either door or window without seeing the image. Whoever had seen that

image, he would have no pleasure that day from performing the works of the

flesh. Concerning this, the women of Rome went and demonstrated [their

need] to Virgil, who at last cast down the image. Then the women had their

pleasure again. Furthermore, this Virgil had made in the midst of Rome, to

the benefit of the common people, a lamp of glass that shone and lighted all

Rome over and over, so that there was no street so narrow but it was illuminated by that lamp as if there had been two torches burning, and some people

say it stood well for three hundred years. Not so far from there in another

place he had made a man of copper with a bow in his hand, pointing with his

arrow toward the lamp. It so happened one time that the daughters of Rome

went out frolicking one evening, and one of the maidens of Rome struck with

her finger upon the string of the bow, and so the arrow sprung loose and shot

the lamp to pieces, which was a great pity [compare above, V.A.4.g]. (JZ)



1024



V. V I R G I L I A N L E G E N D S



CONTRIBUTORS



BH = Barbara Hillers, Associate Professor in Celtic Languages and Literatures at Harvard University, has worked with the medieval Irish adaptations

from classical literature, particularly the Irish Odyssey.

CB = Christopher Baswell, Professor of English at UCLA, studies the

classical tradition in the high and later Middle Ages and the roles of foundation narrative in the formation of later medieval national and urban identity.

DD = David Daintree, Rector of St. John’s College in the University of

Sydney and a classicist by training, has had a lifelong interest in Medieval Latin

and teaches an annual summer school in that subject for mature students.

DJ = Danielle Joyner, a Ph.D. candidate in medieval art history at Harvard

University, studies manuscripts and is interested in how diagrammatic and

figural imagery a√ects historical and biblical narratives.

DWO = David Scott Wilson-Okamura, who teaches medieval and Renaissance literature at East Carolina University, is finishing a book on Edmund

Spenser and the reception of Virgil in the sixteenth century.

GH = Gregory Hays, Associate Professor of Classics at the University of

Virginia, has published articles and reviews on late antiquity and medieval



Latin, as well as a translation of Marcus Aurelius’s Meditations. His commentary on Fulgentius is forthcoming from Oxford University Press.

GS = Gísli Sigur®sson, Professor in the Folklore Department at the Árni

Magnússon Institute (University of Iceland), specializes in oral aspects of the

eddas and sagas of Iceland. He is editing settlement lore collected in the 1970s

among people of Icelandic origin in Canada and the United States.

JG = Jonathan Gnoza, an A.B. graduate in classics from Harvard University

and a graduate student at Yale University, studies Greek and Roman literature,

ancient philosophy, and the medieval and Renaissance reception of antiquity.

JH = James W. Halporn, Professor Emeritus of Classical Studies at Indiana

University and Associate in the Classics at Harvard University, is a student of

Cassiodorus and late antique literature.

JL = Justin Lake, a Ph.D. candidate in Medieval Latin at Harvard University, has interests in late antique and medieval historiography, rhetoric, and

poetics.

JZ = Jan M. Ziolkowski, Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Medieval

Latin at Harvard University, has published extensively on medieval literature,

especially Medieval Latin literature.

LG = Luis M. Girón Negrón, Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures and of Comparative Literature at Harvard University, is a student of

medieval Spanish, Arabic, and Hebrew literatures in premodern Iberia.

MC = Matthew Ciardiello received a summa cum laude in classics from

Harvard University, with a concentration in Medieval Latin.

MP = Michael C. J. Putnam, MacMillan Professor of Classics and Professor

of Comparative Literature at Brown University, has been largely concerned in

his books and essays with Latin literature of the Republican and Augustan

periods, especially with the poetry of Virgil.

MS = Mark Stansbury, postdoctoral researcher at the National University

of Ireland, Galway, is a cotranslator of Servius on Aeneid 4 and a student of

late-antique and early-medieval history.



1026



CONTRIBUTORS



PLS = Philip Larratt-Smith, an A.B. graduate in classics from Harvard

University, is currently translating the diaries of Louise Bourgeois.

RA = Rachel Elizabeth Ahern, a Ph.D. candidate in classics at Stanford

University, with an A.B. in classics from Harvard University and an MSt. in

Classics from Oxford University, is interested in speech and narrative in Ancient Greek and Latin poetry.

RC = Raymond Cormier, currently Visiting Professor of French at Longwood University in Virginia, specializes in medieval comparative literature

(French, Latin, and Celtic) and has worked on the Roman d’Énéas for over

thirty years.

RE = Randi Eldevik, Associate Professor of English at Oklahoma State

University, works with the reception of classical myth and epic, has published

on Trójumanna saga and Spenser’s Faerie Queene, and is the translator of Torfi

Tulinius’s La matière du Nord.

SK = Stephanie Viereck Gibbs Kamath, an Assistant Professor at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, studies medieval allegory and its vernacular

translation and coauthored a bilingual edition of René d’Anjou’s Livre du cuer

d’amours espris.

SM = Stephen A. Mitchell, Professor of Scandinavian and Folklore (Harvard University), specializes in late medieval and early modern Nordic folklore

and literature. His current research focuses on Scandinavian witchcraft 1200–

1500.

SZ = Saskia Elizabeth Ziolkowski, a Ph.D. candidate at Columbia University with an A.B. in Italian from Princeton University, has interests in modern

Italian and German literature.

TM = Thomas Murgatroyd, an M.Phil. student at Cambridge University,

is currently working on cosmology in Lucan’s De bello civili.

WC = William F. Carroll, a teacher at the Boston Latin School who earned

his Ph.D. in Germanic languages and literatures from Harvard University, has

scholarly interests in German didactic literature and Latin language pedagogy

in the Middle Ages.



CONTRIBUTORS



1027



ZS = Zrinka Stahuljak, Assistant Professor of French at the University of

California, Los Angeles, has focused her research on Old French verse and

prose romances, historiography, and medieval and contemporary translation

theory. She is the author of Bloodless Genealogies of the French Middle Ages

(University Press of Florida, 2005).



1028



CONTRIBUTORS



TEXT CREDITS



American Academy of Religion: excerpt from E. Clark and D. Hatch, The

Golden Bough, The Oaken Cross: The Vergilian Cento of Faltonia Betitia Proba,

originally published by Scholars Press, ∫ 1981 The American Academy of

Religion (used by permission of the American Academy of Religion).

Cambridge University Press: excerpt from Vivien Law: Wisdom, Authority

and Grammar in the Seventh Century: Decoding Virgilius Maro Grammaticus,

∫ 1995 (reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press).

Catholic University Press: excerpts from The Fathers of the Church: The Writings of Saint Augustine, vol. 13, ∫ 1964; and from Lactantius, The Divine

Institutions, trans. M. F. McDonald, ∫ 1964 (used with permission of The

Catholic University of America Press, Washington, D.C.).

Columbia University Press: excerpts from Macrobius, The Saturnalia, trans.

P. V. Davies, ∫ 1969 Columbia University Press (reprinted with the permission of the publisher).

Harvard University Press: excerpts from Augustine, The Confessions, reprinted

by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical

Library from Augustine, The Confessions, trans. W. Watts, rev. W. H. D.

Rouse, LCL 26, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950 (the

Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and

Fellows of Harvard College); excerpts from Augustine, The City of God,

reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb

Classical Library from Augustine, The City of God, trans. G. E. McCracken,



LCL 411, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957 (the Loeb

Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of

Harvard College); excerpt from Giovanni Boccaccio, Famous Women, reprinted by permission of the publishers from Giovanni Boccaccio, Famous

Women, ed. and trans. by Virginia Brown, The I Tatti Renaissance Library,

pp. 166–81, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, copyright ∫

2001 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; excerpt from Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy, reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library from Boethius, The

Consolation of Philosophy, trans. S. J. Tester, LCL 74, Cambridge, Mass.:

Harvard University Press, 1973 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered

trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College); excerpts from

Aulus Gellius, The Attic Nights, reprinted by permission of the publishers

and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library from Aulus Gellius, The Attic

Nights, trans. J. C. Rolfe, LCL 195, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University

Press, 1927 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the

President and Fellows of Harvard College); material from Horace, Satires

and Epistles, reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of

the Loeb Classical Library from Horace, Satires, Epistles, and Ars Poetica,

trans. H. R. Fairclough, LCL 194, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University

Press, 1926 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the

President and Fellows of Harvard College); excerpts from Martial, Epigrams, reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the

Loeb Classical Library from Martial, Epigrammata, trans. D. R. Shackleton

Bailey, LCL 95, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993 (the

Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and

Fellows of Harvard College); excerpts from Ovid, Fasti, reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library

from Ovid, Fasti, trans. J. G. Frazer, LCL 253, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard

University Press, 1951 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College); excerpts from

Ovid, Heroides, reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees

of the Loeb Classical Library from Ovid, Heroides, trans. G. Showerman,

rev. G. P. Goold, LCL 41, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,

1977 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College); excerpts from Ovid, Metamorphoses,

reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb

Classical Library from Ovid, Metamorphoses, trans. F. J. Miller, rev. G. P.

Goold, LCL 43, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984 (the

Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and

1030



TEXT CREDITS



Fellows of Harvard College); material from Ovid, Tristia, reprinted by

permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library

from Ovid, Tristia, translated by A. L. Wheeler, LCL 151, Cambridge,

Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1924 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a

registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College);

excerpt from Suetonius, On Grammarians, reprinted by permission of the

publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library from Suetonius,

trans. J. C. Rolfe, LCL 38, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,

1997 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College); excerpts from Ma√eo Vegio, Book

XIII of the Aeneid, reprinted by permission of the publishers from Ma√eo

Vegio, Short Epics, ed. and trans. Michael C. J. Putnam and James Hankins,

The I Tatti Renaissance Library, pp. 3–13 and 33–41, Cambridge, Mass.:

Harvard University Press, copyright ∫ 2004 by the President and Fellows

of Harvard College; excerpts from Virgil, reprinted by permission of the

publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library from Virgil, trans.

H. R. Fairclough, rev. G. P. Goold, LCL 63–64, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999–2000 (the Loeb Classical Library Ω is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College).

The Johns Hopkins University Press: excerpts from Francesco Petrarca, Letters

on Familiar Matters (Rerum familiarium libri I–XXIV), trans. Aldo S. Bernardo, vol. 3 (books XVII–XXIV), pp. 340–41, ∫ 1985 The Johns Hopkins University Press (reprinted with permission of The Johns Hopkins

University Press); excerpts from Francesco Petrarca, Letters of Old Age

(Rerum senilium libri I–XVIII), translated by Aldo S. Bernardo, vol. 1

(books I–IX), pp. 141–47, ∫ 1992 The Johns Hopkins University Press

(reprinted with permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press).

Thomas E. Maresca and the University of Nebraska Press: excerpts from Bernardus Silvestris, Commentary on the First Six Books of Virgil’s Aeneid, trans.

E. G. Schreiber and T. E. Maresca, ∫ 1979 by the University of Nebraska

Press; ∫ 1992 by Thomas E. Maresca.

The Medieval Academy of America: permission to reprint excerpts from E. H.

Wilkins, Studies in the Life and Works of Petrarch, ∫ 1955, The Medieval

Academy of America.

Oxford University Press: excerpt from Augustine, De Doctrina Christiana, ed.

and trans. R. P. H. Green, p. 121, ∫ 1996 Oxford University Press (by

permission of Oxford University Press).

Princeton University Press: excerpts from Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy,

ed. and trans. Charles Singleton, ∫ 1970–75. Reprinted by permission of

Princeton University Press.

TEXT CREDITS



1031



State University of New York Press: excerpts from Francesco Petrarca, Letters

on Familiar Matters (Rerum familiarium libri I–VIII), trans. Aldo S. Bernardo, ∫ 1975 State University of New York (reprinted by permission of

the State University of New York Press).

Taylor and Francis: material from Dante’s Il Convivio, trans. Richard Lansing

∫ 1990. Reproduced by permission of Routledge / Taylor and Francis

Books, Inc.

David Townsend: excerpt from Walter of Châtillon, The Alexandreis: A

Twelfth-Century Epic, trans. D. Townsend, Broadview Editions, ∫ 2007 by

David Townsend.



1032



TEXT CREDITS



INDEX



In the index of titles and incipits, page numbers in italics indicate a text or translation

included as an item in the anthology. Boldface type is used to distinguish line numbers

within particular works.

In the index of titles and incipits and the index of names and subjects, page numbers

enclosed in parentheses indicate locations in the corresponding Latin text.



MANUSCRIPTS

Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales,

Peniarth MS 2, 101

Admont, Stiftsbibliothek, MS 637. See

Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Lat.

Misc. D 66

Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, MS Hamilton 201, 450

Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, MS germ. fol.

282, 442

Bern, Burgerbibliothek: MS 165, 236,

674; MS 167, 237, 249, 250, 251, 674;

MS 172, 674; MS 239, 171, 177

Book of Ballymote. See Dublin, Royal

Irish Academy, MS 23 P12

Brussels, Bibliothèque royale: MS 5325–



5327, 175; MS 10455, 956; MS 19303,

956

Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár,

MS 7, 168, 171, 175, 176

Cambridge, Mass., Houghton Library,

Harvard University, MS Richardson

38, 446, 512fig

Cambridge, Peterhouse College, MS

158, 722

Cambridge, University Library, MS

Gg.5.35, 105; MS Mm.1.18, 737

Chantilly, Musée Condé: MS 9, 455; MS

597, 448

Chartres, Bibliothèque municipale, MS

13, 700–701

Codex Buranus. See Munich, Bayerische

Staatsbibliothek, clm 4660



Codex Mediceus. See Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, MS Plut.

39.7

Codex Romanus. See Vatican, Biblioteca

Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 3867

Codex Salmasianus. See Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, MS lat. 10318

Douai, Bibliothèque municipale, MS

340, 455

Dublin, King’s Inns Library, MS 13, 608

Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 23

P12, 609

Dublin, University College, MS A 11,

608

Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana: MS Aedil. 170–72, 303; MS

Ashburnham 23, 168, 174, 175, 176,

177, 178; MS Mediceo-Palat. 69, 396;

MS Plut. 39.7, 444; MS Plut. 41.44,

550–51; MS Plut. 45.7, 674; MS Plut.

45.15, 644

Florence, Biblioteca nazionale centrale,

MS Palat. 313, 449

Florence, Biblioteca Riccardiana: MS

1129, 453; MS Riccardianus 21

(1426), 321

Floriacensis. See Bern, Burgerbibliothek,

MS 172

The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek,

MS 76 E 21, 445

Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, MS

Pal. Germ. 848, 460–61

Ingeborg Psalter. See Chantilly, Musée

Condé, MS 9

Killiney, Franciscan House of Studies.

See Dublin, University College

Klosterneuburg, Stiftsbibliothek, MS

742, 175, 176, 177, 441

Kremsmünster, Stiftsbibliothek, Fragm.

III/154, 176



1034



MANUSCRIPTS INDEX



Laon, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 263,

454

Leiden, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit: MS Vossianus F. 12, 289; MS

Vossianus F. 79, 260

London, British Library: MS Additional

19587, 449; MS Additional 21910,

177; MS Harley 4946, 773; MS King’s

24, 445; MS Yates Thompson 36, 449

Manesse Codex. See Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, MS Pal. Germ. 848

Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana: MS

G111 inf., 773; MS S.P. 10, 27, 133,

412, 451

Montpellier, Bibliothèque municipale,

MS Montepessulanus 358, 260

Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek:

cgm 5198, 871, 988; clm 305-II, 172,

176; clm 631, 889; clm 4393, 269; clm

4660, 460, 529; clm 15514, 263; clm

18059, 169–70, 174, 175, 176, 177,

178, 243; clm 18451, 230, 274, 275;

clm 21562, 172, 176–77; Monacensis

40 Inc. s. a. 1253 m, 229

Naples, Biblioteca nazionale: MS Vindob. lat. 5, 174, 175; MS Vindob. lat.

6, 177–78, 440

Orléans, Bibliothèque municipale, MS

259, 248

Oxford, Bodleian Library: MS Add. A

44, 531; MS Auct. F.1.16, 175, 176,

177; MS Canon. class. lat. 50, 441;

MS Canon. class. lat. 52, 443; MS Digby 23, 466; MS Lat. Misc. D 66,

624fig

Oxford, Jesus College, MS 94, 816–17

Palatine Virgil. See Vatican, Biblioteca

Apostolica Vaticana, MS Pal. lat. 1631

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale: MS fr. 60,

550–51; MS fr. 301, 459; MS lat. 1,

439; MS lat. 3088-XI, 174; MS lat.

6186, 876; MS lat. 7925, 168, 177; MS



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