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translation and discussion: VN 232–35) (Text: R. Beltrán, ed., Gutierre Díaz

de Games, ‘‘El Victorial’’ [Salamanca, 1996]) (JZ)

Before Julius Caesar dies, he says one day to the wise Virgil that two things in

this world grieve him: that the names of great men die with them and that

their sepulchers perish too. Virgil suggests that Caesar substitute his name

for the month of Quintil, and as for the tomb, Virgil promises that he will

attend to that too. Solomon, king of Judea, had had a marvelous stone carved

as high as a tower, and had ordered his bones placed on it in a golden apple. It

is lying in a field where Virgil finds it when, mindful of his promise to Caesar,

he goes to Jerusalem to buy it. In his purchase of it, Virgil outwits the Jews

and by some sort of magic levitation transports it to Rome in nearly a single

night. There it is placed in the market, and Caesar’s bones are said to be in it.

It is about twenty arms tall; it has four sides finely worked; it is smooth and

tapering. It stands upon four brass figures on a base of a single stone, and

from this descend three or four steps of the same stone, and from the top arises

a great golden apple containing, they say, the ashes of Caesar.



U. LIFE OF VIRGIL

(published about 1518)

The Life of Virgil that is here put into modern English for the first time was

published in the early sixteenth century in Antwerp, by the printer Jan van

Doesborch (also known as John Doesborche; died 1536). It bears the title

Virgilius, with the further explanation This boke treath [sic] of the lyfe of Virgilius

and of his deth and many maruayles that he dyd in hys lyfe tyme by whychcrafte and

nygramansy thorough the helpe of the devils of hell. Only one complete copy is

extant, in New York City (Pierpont Morgan Library, W 17 B), although one

exemplar in Oxford (Bodleian Library, Douce 40) is nearly perfect.

The English Life of Virgil seems to have been translated, at least mainly,

from a Dutch text entitled Virgilius, Van zijn leuen, doot, ende vanden wonderlijcken wercken die hi dede by nigormancien, ende by dat behulve des duvels (Virgil:

Of His Life and Death, and of the Wonderful Deeds He Accomplished by

Necromancy and by the Help of the Devil), which in the form now extant

bears no date but which has been assigned variously to 1518, 1525, and later.

The Dutch version was printed in Antwerp by Willem Vorstermann (active

1504–43). The copy in London (British Library, pressmark 1073. h. 44) is

apparently unique.

The English seems in a few instances to have been based upon the French text

that the Dutch itself translated. The French work, entitled Les faictz merveilleux de

Virgille (The Marvelous Deeds of Virgil), survives in two undated French editions, both from the first quarter of the sixteenth century. The contents of the

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French romance appear to rely in part on the dossier of Virgilian legends in Jean

d’Outremeuse (see above, V.P), upon which the Dutch and English versions may

also have drawn for episodes (such as the Salvation of Rome [see above, V.B.4] and

the mechanical horseman) not included in the French.

Despite the di√erences among the French, Dutch, and English versions, all

of them belong to the genre of romance—or at least of romance as it was

purveyed in chapbooks of the sixteenth century. Although Virgil the necromancer had appeared frequently as an exemplum in earlier medieval romances,

he became the central focus of a romance of his own only in this set of texts.

The identity of this sorcerer Virgil with the poet Virgil is left entirely implicit

in the romance.

For a full treatment of the Life of Virgil romance, see VN 236–53 (with notes

on 420–26). It provides invaluable information to help sort out the meaning

of names (the form Campania in the original has been rendered here as Champagne, Vellen as Vesle, Raynes as Reims, Tolleten and Tolenten as Toledo, and

so forth) and of passages in which the original English appears to reflect a misunderstanding of the Dutch. (Edition of French version: VMA [Pasquali],

2:242–56; facsimile of Dutch version: J. Gessler, Virgilius: Facsimile van de

oudste druk van het Vlaamse volksboek [Antwerp, 1950]; information on Icelandic translation from Dutch and the influence of the former on later Icelandic

literature, VN 252–53) (JZ)

Virgilius: The Life of Virgil

This book deals with the life of Virgil, his death, and many marvels that

he performed in his lifetime by witchcraft and necromancy with the help of

the devils of hell.

The prologue

It is reasonable to write down the marvelous deeds performed by Virgil

within the city of Rome and in other places.

In all times Rome has had a great name and fame, and the people who live

there receive great honor in their times. But Romulus, the emperor of Rome,

slew his own brother out of hate and envy, even though Remus had given to

Romulus the city of Rome and all the lands that pertained to it. Nonetheless,

Remus carried with him into Champagne all the treasure, and upon a river

called Vesle he founded a costly, rich, and strong town with beautiful high

walls that was well outfitted inside and out with attractive images carved of

stone. All the waste of the town was conveyed below ground to the river

Vesle that ran nearby. He called the town Reims, after his own name.

How Romulus came into the fair town of Reims that he destroyed, and how he slew his

brother Remus, who was lord of Reims

When Romulus heard talk of his brother Remus and of the town of

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Reims, he was distressed; for the walls of Reims were so high that a man

who stood in its ditch could not shoot over well even with a bow and arrow,

whereas the walls of Rome were so low that man might well leap over

them—and there was no ditch.

It happened that Remus went to see his brother Romulus at Rome, took

with him many people of his own social class and birth, and left his wife to

await him, in the town of Reims in Champagne, with a little child or young

son named Remus, after himself. When he came before Rome and saw the

walls, he said three times that the walls were too low. Moreover he said that

with a run he would leap over them; and soon he took a run and leapt clean

over. And when his brother Romulus had heard this—how his brother had

leapt over—he said that he had done wrong, and therefore he should lose his

head. And as Romulus entered into his brother’s palace, he took Remus, and

with his own hands smote off his brother’s head, and slew him. And not

long after that he raised a great army of people throughout all his country,

and prepared to go toward the town of Reims in Champagne, and began to

direct his ordinance toward the walls of the town. There he razed the palace,

towers, and other places to the ground—so thoroughly that he left but few or

none standing. But he could not find the wife of Remus, his sister, for she

had fled underground a distance from the town by a hidden gate, to her

friends and kinfolk. For she was one of the greatest-born women who then

existed. And when Romulus had destroyed the land and town of Reims, he

departed and went home with all his army toward the city of Rome, where

he was received richly.

How the son of Remus, who was also named Remus after his father, slew his uncle

Romulus, and afterward was made emperor, and so reigned as emperor

Then the wife of Remus was very sad and mourned very bitterly when she

heard of the death of her husband, and also of the destruction of the town of

Reims, destroyed by the hands of his brother. And she commanded workmen

to make the walls again after her brother had departed from it, so that she

made the town of Reims stronger and fairer than it ever was before, and renewed it richly according to her might and power. For she was not as mighty

as she had been when her husband was alive. This noble lady also nourished

her child well, and within a short time he began to grow big and strong, and

mighty enough to bear armor. Then his mother said to him: ‘‘My dear son,

when will you avenge your father’s death, whom your uncle slew?’’ And he

answered his mother: ‘‘Within these three months.’’ And immediately he

commanded his kinfolk to raise their people; and when they were gathered,

they departed. He came with a great force toward Rome, and when he came to

Rome he entered in there, and no one stopped him. When he was within, he

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cried that no man should harm any of the common people. Then he went to

the emperor’s palace. When the emperor knew that he had come, he asked for

counsel, and the senators answered that there was no remedy but death:

‘‘Because you slew his father, he will slay you in return.’’ With that, Remus

came into the palace of his uncle Romulus, and no one stopped him. There he

saw his uncle standing before him in his emperor’s clothes. Then he was

inflamed with anger, and he drew out his sword, took his uncle by the hair,

and cut off his head. When it was done, he asked the lords and senators of

Rome whether they wanted war. And they all answered: ‘‘No,’’ and gave him

the whole empire and crowned him as the rightful heir. And when he was

emperor, he sent for his mother, and she came to him.

And then Rome was fortified with strong walls and ditches, and acquired

a great name; and there many diverse nations resided, and they built and

edified many fair dwelling places in Rome. This Remus was a man strong in

body, rich in goods, wise in counsel, and had under him many lands and

lordships.

Remus had from his mother’s side of the family a knight who was mighty

and bold in battle, and he took or married a wife in the city of Rome—a

woman who was the daughter of one of the greatest senators, and highest of

lineage. And Remus reigned not long after, but died, and his son was made

emperor and reigned after him. And he waged great war against this knight

of Champagne, who had married the senator’s daughter, and did him very

much harm. This knight had one son by his wife, who was born with great

travail of labors. He was named Virgil from vigilo, because he was for so long

watched over by men.

How Virgil was sent to school

When Virgil was born, the town of Rome quaked and trembled. In his

youth he was wise and clever, and was sent to school. Shortly thereafter his

father died, and Virgil’s mother determined not to marry again, for she loved

her lord so well. And after the decease of her husband, her kinfolk wished to

take away her inheritance that she had, located within and without Rome,

and one of the fairest and strongest castles in the whole town, or anywhere

nearby, that could be imagined or made by any man. She complained often

to the emperor, who was near of kin to her husband; but the emperor was an

angry man, and would not hear her complaints. He was beloved neither by

the lords nor by the common people; but he died soon after this, and his son

and heir, Persydes, became emperor after his father’s death, and ruled the

whole land according to his own will. He had all the Romans under him and

ruled them so strictly that they were fearfully in dread of him.



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Virgil was at school at Toledo, where he studied diligently, for he had

great understanding. From time to time the scholars were permitted to go

play and sport in the fields according to the old-fashioned practice; and

therefore Virgil went walking among the hills all around. It happened he

spied a great hole in the side of a great hill, and he went in so deep that he

could not see any more light. Then he went a little further in, saw some light

again, and then went straight forward. Within a short time he heard a voice

that called ‘‘Virgil, Virgil,’’ and he looked about and could see no one.

Then he spoke and asked: ‘‘Who calls me?’’

Then he heard the voice again, but he saw nobody. The voice said: ‘‘Virgil, do you not see that little board lying beside you there, marked with

that word?’’

Then Virgil answered: ‘‘I see that board well enough.’’

The voice said: ‘‘Push away that board, and let me out by doing so.’’

Then Virgil answered the voice that was under the little board, and said:

‘‘Who are you who talks to me so?’’

Then the devil answered: ‘‘I am a devil conjured out of the body of a

certain man, and banished here until the day of Judgment, unless I am

delivered by the hands of men. Thus, Virgil, I pray that you deliver me out of

this pain, and I will show you the many books of necromancy, and how you

can learn it easily and know how to practice it, so that no man will surpass

you in the science of necromancy. And moreover I will show and inform you

so that you will have all your desire. I think it is a great gift for such a little

deed, for you may also with all your power help your friends, and make

your enemies weak.’’

Virgil was tempted by this great promise; he asked the fiend to show him

the books, so that he might have and use them at his will. And so the fiend

showed him, and then Virgil pulled open a board, and there was a little

hole, and out of it the devil squirmed like an eel, and came and stood before

Virgil like a big man. At the sight, Virgil was astonished and marveled

greatly that such a great man might come out of such a little hole. Then Virgil

said: ‘‘Would you be able to fit into the hole out of which you came?’’

‘‘Yes, I certainly could,’’ said the devil.

‘‘I hold the best pledge that I have, you could not do it.’’

‘‘Well,’’ said the devil, ‘‘Thus I will consent.’’ And then the devil squirmed

himself into the little hole again, and while he was in there Virgil covered the

hole again tightly with the board. Thus the devil was tricked, and could not

come out again, but still remains shut in there. Then the devil called dreadfully to Virgil, and said: ‘‘What have you done?’’



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Virgil answered: ‘‘Stay still there until your appointed day.’’ From thenceforth he has remained there. And so Virgil became very cunning in the

practice of the black art.

It happened that Virgil’s mother grew so old that she lost her hearing.

Then she called one of her servants, and said to him: ‘‘You must go to Toledo,

and tell Virgil my son that he should come and regain his inheritance within

and without Rome, and give up the school, for he should be by right one of

the greatest of all Rome.’’ The messenger departed and went toward Toledo

where Virgil was; and when he arrived there, he found Virgil teaching and

enlightening the greatest lords of the land, and other lands also. For I assure

you, he was a fair and a wise young man, and cunning in the science of

necromancy above all men then living. He saluted Virgil, and revealed to

him the entire reason for which he had come. When Virgil heard how matters stood, he was very sad: not for the goods, but for his mother, since Virgil

had goods enough. He rewarded the messenger. In addition, he sent his

mother four pack animals laden with money and with other costly jewels,

and he also sent her one white horse. And so the messenger took his leave of

Virgil, and so departed. Virgil, still staying in Toledo, imagined in his mind

how he might best convey the rest of his goods to Rome and how he might

follow. When he had ordained and set in order all the rest, he took his leave

and departed from Toledo toward Rome, with many of his scholars with

him. When he came to his mother in Rome, he saluted her, and she him; for

she was glad of his coming, for she had not seen him for twelve years.

How Virgil made his complaint to the emperor when he came to Rome

When Virgil came to Rome, he was received by his kinfolk, who were

worshipful of his power, but not by the rich, for they withheld his lands

from his possession. For that reason he was not welcome to them, but they

were angry at his arrival, and they would not eat with him or drink with

him. Then Virgil was angry, and then he gave all within his power to his

kinfolk, who withheld nothing from his mother: lands, trappings, horses,

silver, gold, and other things. He gave to his neighbors great thanks for the

kindness that they showed to his mother in his absence.

After this Virgil stayed for a long time with his mother, until the time

when the emperor raised a new custom or tax. Then all the lords who held

any land from him went to the emperor, and Virgil also went with all his

company and many kinfolk and friends. And when he came before him, he

saluted him, and showed him how he inherited his lands and properties,

and how those men withheld it, and how he desired to have it again. Then

the emperor answered that he would take counsel in the matter, and imme-



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diately he went to counsel with those who did not love Virgil. They answered to the emperor: ‘‘I think that the land is well distributed to those

who have it, for they may help you in your need. Why do you need to care for

the disinheriting of one schoolmaster? Command him to take heed and look

after his school, for he has no right to any land around the city of Rome.’’

Thus they said that he must have patience for the space of four or five years,

so that they might examine for themselves ‘‘whether you are right or not.’’

Virgil was very angry with that answer, and said that he would be

avenged. And when he came home he sent for all his poor kinfolk and

friends, and put them in his houses and dwelling places that he had within

Rome, and provided them with meat and drink, and told them to make

merry until July, when the corn and fruit was ripe. And when it was ripe,

Virgil by his necromancy cast the air over all the fruit and corn of his lands

that his enemies held from him, and caused it to be gathered and brought

into his houses, so that none of his enemies had any of it. In this way, Virgil

deceived his enemies of all the fruit and corn, so that they had not a penny’s

worth of the goods that they withheld from him. When Virgil’s enemies saw

the fruit so gathered, they assembled a great force, and came toward Virgil to

take him and cut off his head; and when they were assembled, they were so

strong that the emperor fled from Rome in fear, for they were twelve senators that had all the world under them; and Virgil had the right to be one of

the twelve, but they had disinherited him and his mother. When Virgil

learned of their approach, he closed all his lands with the air round about all

his land, so that no living creature might come in there to dwell against his

will or pleasure.

How the emperor of Rome besieged Virgil while he was in his castle

Virgil’s enemies came to destroy and take him; but when they came before

his castle, he enclosed them with the air so that they had no power to go either

forward or backward, but stood still, marveling. Then Virgil answered: ‘‘You

come to disinherit me, but you shall not; and know well that you shall have

no profit of the fruits as long as I live; and you may tell the emperor that I will

stay four or five years until he takes counsel. I do not desire to make a plea in

the law, but I will take my goods where I find them. Tell the emperor also that

I do not care about all his war or about anything that he can do to me.’’ Then

Virgil returned and made all his poor kinfolk rich.

When Virgil returned, his enemies went home and did not know what

they should do. They came to the emperor and complained about Virgil, and

said that Virgil had said that he cared nothing for the emperor and all that he

could do; and when the emperor heard this, he was greatly stirred and deeply



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angered, and said: ‘‘I will burn and set on fire all his houses, and also I will

cut off his head.’’ Then, not waiting long, he commanded his lords and

knights who held land from him to raise all their men of arms, whom they

had under them, to be ready at a day at his bidding.

On the appointed day, the emperor and all his army were assembled; they

made their way toward the palace of Virgil, which was well walled all

around and enclosed with the air, so that when the emperor came before the

walls with all his host, they could go neither forward nor backward. Then

Virgil went forth from his castle, and with his necromancy he also made a

wall of air in such a way that they could neither go forward nor return, but

could only stand still. Thus did Virgil treat the emperor and all his host: and

moreover, Virgil came to the emperor, and said: ‘‘Lord emperor, you have no

power with all your strength to do me or my lands harm; for by right you

should make me one of your greatest lords and nearest of your kindred, for I

may help you in your need more than all your other men.’’

Then the emperor answered Virgil: ‘‘You beguiler, once I get you into my

hands, I will give you what you deserve.’’

Then Virgil answered and said: ‘‘Lord emperor, I do not fear you; but note

well that I will tame you well enough, so that you will be glad to know me as

one of your kinsfolk and of your blood; but you want to disinherit me—and

you shall not.’’ Then Virgil commanded much meat to be dressed between his

house and the host, so that the emperor and his men might see it, and see how

they dressed it. But they could not have any of it except the smoke or smell,

for the men of the army were shut in by the air as though it were a great body

of water. Thus Virgil treated the emperor and his men, and there was nobody

in his host who could find any remedy to help them there again.

It happened, as they were under that spell before the castle, that there

came a man who was skilled in the science of necromancy, and he came

before the emperor, and said that he would by his practice make all Virgil’s

men fall asleep. And so he did, so much that Virgil himself could scarcely

restrain himself from sleeping. Then he was sorry and did not know what to

do, for the emperor’s men were delivered, and began to come upon Virgil’s

walls. And when Virgil saw that, he looked in his book of necromancy, in

which he was very well versed, and there he found out how he could deliver

his men from sleep.

Then Virgil forced the emperor to stand still again, so that he could not

move out of his place; nor could all his men or the master of necromancy

move or stir, as though they were dead. Those who were still upon the

ladders, one foot up, another down, stood still in this position, and also some

stood with one foot on the ladder and another upon the wall, and they were to

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stand still so long as it pleased Virgil. So the emperor was greatly vexed and

angry, and asked his master if they must stand still in that manner. And he did

not answer him, but he spoke to Virgil and said that he would show to him

his cunning.

Then Virgil answered and told him to do his best, ‘‘For I do not care a straw

for you and all that you can do to me.’’ Thus Virgil held the emperor and all his

men enclosed in this manner by the air, for the length of a day. In the night

Virgil came to the emperor and said: ‘‘It is a shame for so noble a prince to stop

the way thus and to undertake what he cannot do.’’

Then the emperor said to Virgil: ‘‘Help me out of this danger, and I will

restore again to you all your lands and properties, and have all things at your

own will.’’

Then Virgil answered the emperor: ‘‘I will deliver you out of this danger,

so that you will give me grace.’’

‘‘Yes, by my crown, for I know you for one of my kindred, and I desire to

have you with me in my fellowship.’’

Then Virgil put away the closing of the air, and received the emperor and

all his men into his castle, where gold and riches were plenty. He served them

with meat and drink very plenteously after their degree, of the daintiest and

rarest that could be gotten, which they had never seen before. The emperor

was more richly served there than he ever was before or after. Virgil rewarded

every person according to his degree, and with many costly and marvelous

gifts.

How the emperor restored again to Virgil all his inheritance and goods, and gave him

many other things

Then they bade Virgil farewell and returned home again, and when they

had returned home the emperor gave Virgil his land again, and all that he

asked, and he was the greatest lord of the emperor’s council. After that it

happened that Virgil fell in love with a fair lady, the fairest in all Rome. Virgil

cast a magic spell that told her his whole mind. When the lady knew his

mind, she thought to herself that she would deceive him. She said that it

would be very dangerous to do as he willed. But at last she consented, and

said that if he would come at midnight to the castle wall, she would let down

a basket with strong cords, and there would draw him up to her window, so

that he could lie by her and have his pleasure [see above, V.C]. Virgil was

very glad with that answer, and said that he would do it with a good will.

How the gentlewoman pulled Virgil up, and how she let him hang in the basket when he

was halfway up to her window, and how the people wondered and mocked him

A day was set when Virgil should come to a tower that stood in the

marketplace of Rome, and in all the town there was none so high; and on the

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appointed day Virgil came to the tower, and the gentlewoman was waiting

there. When she saw him standing there, she let down the basket at the

window, and when it was done Virgil went in, and when he was in, she

pulled him up until he came halfway, and there she let him hang, and tied the

cord fast. Then the gentlewoman said: ‘‘You are deceived, and I will let you

hang until tomorrow—for it is market day—so that all the people can wonder

at you and at the dishonesty that you would have done, to lie by me.’’

With that, she shut her window, and let him hang until the morning

when it was day, until all the men in Rome saw it, and also the emperor—

who was ashamed, and sent for the gentlewoman and commanded her to let

him down, and so she did. When he was down, he was ashamed. He said

that shortly after he would be avenged on her, and he went home to his

garden, which was the fairest that stood within Rome. Then he took his

books, and by his cunning he put out all the fire that was in Rome, and no

one outside could bring fire into the city. This lasted for the length of a day

and a night. Virgil had enough, but nobody else had, nor could make, any

fire within Rome.

How Virgil put out all the fire of Rome [see above, V.C]

The emperor and all his barons and the commoners of Rome marveled

that there was no fire in the entire city. But then they thought in their minds

that Virgil had put it out. Then the emperor sent for Virgil, and begged him

for his counsel that men might have fire again. ‘‘Then you must cause a

scaffold to be made in the middle of the marketplace, and you must set upon

it the gentlewoman in her smock, the one who hung me in the basket yesterday. And then let a cry be made through all the city of Rome, that whoever

wants any fire must come to the scaffold in the marketplace, and there between the legs of the gentlewoman they can have fire, or otherwise none.

And know that one can give none to another, nor sell any; and thus you must

do if you want any fire.’’ When they heard this, they came in a great multitude to the scaffold.

How the gentlewoman was put upon the scaffold, and how the folk of the town went and

fetched fire at her tail, and also lit candles between her legs

The emperor and all his lords saw that there was no other remedy but to

act according to Virgil’s counsel. He caused a scaffold to be made in the

marketplace, and caused the gentlewoman to be set upon it in her smock,

and there the men fetched fire between her legs: the poor men with candles

and straw, and the rich men lighted their torches there. For three days the

gentlewoman had to stand in that manner, or else they could have no fire.

And after the third day the gentlewoman went home deeply ashamed, for

she knew well that Virgil had done that violence to her.

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Within a while after, Virgil married a wife, and when that was done,

Virgil made a marvelous palace with four corners: and once it was made, he

put the emperor in one of the corners, and there the emperor heard all that

the men said in that quarter. And likewise he brought him into the other

three quarters, and so he heard what they said in the other quarters of Rome,

and thus going by the four quarters he heard what they said throughout

Rome; they could not speak so secretly that he could not hear it.

How Virgil made the ‘‘Salvation of Rome’’

The emperor asked Virgil how he might make Rome prosper and have

many lands under them, and know when any land would rise against them.

And Virgil said to the emperor: ‘‘Within a short time I will do that.’’ He built

on the Capitolium a town hall, made with carved images, and with stone,

and he let it be called the Salvation of Rome [see above, V.B.4]—that is to say,

‘‘this is the salvation of the city of Rome’’; and he put within its compass all

the gods that we call false gods and idols, which were under the subjection

of Rome. All the gods that there were had in their hands a bell; and in the

middle of the gods he made one god of Rome. Whenever there was any land

that tried to make any war against Rome, then the gods would turn their

backs toward the god of Rome; and then the god of the land that would

stand up against Rome clinked his bell, which he had in his hand, for so

long that the senators of Rome would hear it, and immediately they would

go there and see what land it was that would make war against them. And so

they prepared themselves, and went against them and subdued them.

This token was known by the men of Carthage, who were sorely grieved

for the great harm that the Romans had done them. They took counsel privately about how they might destroy that work. Then they thought in their

mind to send three men out, and gave them a great abundance of gold and

silver; and these three men left the lords and went toward the city of Rome.

When they arrived at Rome, they called themselves soothsayers and true

dreamers. One day these three men went to a hill that was within the city,

and there they buried a great pot of money very deep in the earth; and when

that was done and covered again, they went to the bridge of the Tiber, and in

a certain place they let fall a great barrel with golden pence. When this was

done, these three men went to the senators of Rome and said: ‘‘Worshipful

lords, we have this night dreamed that within the foot of a hill here within

Rome is a great pot with money. Will you lords allow us, if we will pay the

cost to seek for it?’’ The lords consented, and then they took laborers and

dug the money out of the earth.

When it was done, they went another time to the lords, and said: ‘‘Worshipful lords, we have also dreamed that in a certain part of the Tiber there

U. LIFE OF VIRGIL



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