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C. Later Influence and Importance

C. Later Influence and Importance

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Tityrus et fruges Aeneiaque arma legentur,

Roma triumphati dum caput orbis erit . . .



Tityrus and crops and the arms of Aeneas will be read as long as Rome will be

head of the world she has conquered. . . . (MP)

Already at Amores 1.1.1 Arma (arms), as the opening word of an hexameter,

is a signpost for epic and for the Aeneid in particular, as the remainder of the

distich makes clear.

b. Amores 3.15.7

Mantua Vergilio gaudet, Verona Catullo. . . .



Mantua rejoices in Virgil, Verona in Catullus. (MP)

c. Ars amatoria 3.337–38

. . . et profugum Aenean, altae primordia Romae,

quo nullum Latio clarius extat opus.



. . . and exiled Aeneas, origin of lofty Rome, than which no more famous work

has appeared in Latium. (MP)

d. Remedia amoris 367–68

Et tua sacrilegae laniarunt carmina linguae,

pertulit huc victos quo duce Troia deos.



You also, under whose leadership Troy conveyed her conquered gods here,

your poems impious tongues have mutilated. (MP)

e. Remedia amoris 395–96

Tantum se nobis elegi debere fatentur,

quantum Vergilio nobile debet epos.



Elegy admits it owes to me as much as noble epic owes to Virgil. (MP)

f. Tristia 2.533–38

Tristia 2 is Ovid’s book-length defense, addressed to Augustus, for his writing

of erotic verse. Hence he allows himself a salacious take on the Aeneid. (Text,

items f–h: Ovid, Tristia. Ex Ponto, ed. and trans. A. L. Wheeler, LCL 151

[1924])

Et tamen ille tuae felix Aeneidos auctor

contulit in Tyrios arma virumque toros

nec legitur pars ulla magis de corpore toto

quam non legitimo foedere iunctus amor.



C. LAT E R I N F LU E N C E A N D I M P O RTA N C E



15



Phyllidis hic idem teneraeque Amaryllidis ignes

bucolicis iuvenis luserat ante modis.



And yet the blessed author of your Aeneid brought his ‘‘arms and the man’’ to a

Tyrian couch, nor is any part of the whole work more read than the love

consummated in an illegitimate union [between Dido and Aeneas]. The same

man had as a youth written in the measures of pastoral playful verse of the

passion of Phyllis and tender Amaryllis. (modified by MP)

g. Tristia 4.10.51–52

Vergilium vidi tantum: nec avara Tibullo

tempus amicitiae fata dedere meae.



Virgil I only saw, and greedy fate gave to Tibullus no time for friendship with

me. (modified by MP)

Compare the epigram of Domitius Marsus (see above, I.B.5), on the

deaths of Virgil and Tibullus.

h. Epistulae ex Ponto 3.4.83–86

Res quoque tanta fuit, quantae subsistere summo

Aeneadum vati grande fuisset onus.

Ferre etiam molles elegi tam vasta triumphi

pondera disparibus non potuere rotis.



The theme too was great enough to have formed a heavy burden even for the

mighty bard of the Aeneadae. Moreover soft elegiacs could not support the

weight of so vast a triumph [for Tiberius’s putative victory over the Germans]

upon their uneven wheels. (modified by MP)

i. Ovid’s ‘‘Aeneid’’ (Metamorphoses 13.623–14.608)

(Text and translations: Ovid, Metamorphoses, ed. and trans. F. J. Miller, 3rd ed.,

rev. G. P. Goold, vol. 2, LCL 43 [1984])

i. The journey from Troy (Metamorphoses 13.623–39, 705–34)

ii. Dido (Metamorphoses 14.75–81)

Hunc ubi Troianae remis avidamque Charybdin

evicere rates, cum iam prope litus adessent

Ausonium, Libycas vento referuntur ad oras.

Excipit Aenean illic animoque domoque

non bene discidium Phrygii latura mariti

Sidonis; inque pyra sacri sub imagine facta

incubuit ferro deceptaque decipit omnes.

16



I. VIRGIL THE POET



75



80



[75] When the Trojan vessels had successfully passed this monster [Scylla]

and greedy Charybdis too, and when they had almost reached the Ausonian

shore, the wind bore them to the Libyan coast. There the Sidonian woman

received Aeneas hospitably in heart and home, doomed ill to endure her Phrygian lord’s departure. [80] On a pyre, built under pretense of sacred rites, she

fell upon his sword; and so, herself disappointed, she disappointed all.

iii. Sicily, Ischia, Cumae (Metamorphoses 14.82–106)

iv. Sibyl and Anchises (Metamorphoses 14.106–19)

. . . At illa diu vultum tellure moratum

erexit tandemque deo furibunda recepto

‘‘magna petis,’’ dixit, ‘‘vir factis maxime, cuius

dextera per ferrum, pietas spectata per ignes.

Pone tamen, Troiane, metum: potiere petitis

Elysiasque domos et regna novissima mundi

me duce cognosces simulacraque cara parentis.

Invia virtuti nulla est via.’’ Dixit et auro

fulgentem ramum silva Iunonis Avernae

monstravit iussitque suo divellere trunco.

Paruit Aeneas et formidabilis Orci

vidit opes atavosque suos umbramque senilem

magnanimi Anchisae; didicit quoque iura locorum,

quaeque novis essent adeunda pericula bellis.



110



115



The Sibyl held her eyes long fixed upon the earth, then lifted them at last and,

full of mad inspiration from her god, replied: ‘‘Great things do you ask, you

man of mighty deeds, whose hand, by sword, whose piety, by fire, has been

well tried. [110] But have no fear Trojan; you shall have your wish, and with

my guidance you shall see the dwellings of Elysium and the latest kingdom of

the universe; and you shall see your dear father’s shade. There is no way denied

to virtue.’’ She spoke and showed him, deep in Avernal Juno’s forest, a bough

gleaming with gold, [115] and bade him pluck it from its trunk. Aeneas

obeyed; then saw grim Orcus’s possessions, and his own ancestral shades, and

the aged spirit of the great-souled Anchises. He learned also the laws of those

places, and what perils he himself must undergo in new wars.

v. Caieta (Metamorphoses 14.154–57, 441–44)

Talia convexum per iter memorante Sibylla

sedibus Euboicam Stygiis emergit in urbem



155



C. LAT E R I N F LU E N C E A N D I M P O RTA N C E



17



Troius Aeneas sacrisque ex more litatis

litora adit nondum nutricis habentia nomen.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . urnaque Aeneia nutrix

condita marmorea tumulo breve carmen habebat:

‘‘Hic me Caietam notae pietatis alumnus

ereptam Argolico quo debuit igne cremavit.’’



While thus along the hollow way the Sibyl told her story, [155] out of the

Stygian world they emerged near the Euboean city. Making due sacrifices here,

Trojan Aeneas next landed on a shore that did not yet bear his nurse’s name . . .

and Aeneas’s nurse, buried in a marble urn, had a brief epitaph carved on her

tomb: ‘‘Here me, Caieta, snatched from Grecian flames, my pious son consumed with fitting fire.’’

vi. Arrival at Tiber and war (Metamorphoses 14.445–58)

Solvitur herboso religatus ab aggere funis,

et procul insidias infamataeque relinquunt

tecta deae lucosque petunt, ubi nubilus umbra

in mare cum flava prorumpit Thybris harena;

Faunigenaeque domo potitur nataque Latini,

non sine Marte tamen. Bellum cum gente feroci

suscipitur, pactaque furit pro coniuge Turnus.

Concurrit Latio Tyrrhenia tota, diuque

ardua sollicitis victoria quaeritur armis.

Auget uterque suas externo robore vires,

et multi Rutulos, multi Troiana tuentur

castra, neque Aeneas Evandri ad moenia frustra,

at Venulus frustra profugi Diomedis ad urbem

venerat. . . .



445



450



455



[445] Loosing their cables from the grass-grown shore, they kept far out from

the treacherous island, the home of the ill-famed goddess, and headed for the

wooded coast where shady Tiber pours forth his yellow, silt-laden waters into

the sea. There did Aeneas win the daughter and the throne of Latinus, Faunus’s son; [450] but not without a struggle. War with a fierce race is waged,

and Turnus fights madly for his promised bride. All Etruria rushes to battleshock with Latium, and with long and anxious struggle hard victory is sought.

Both sides augment their strength by outside aid; [455] and many defend the

Rutuli and many the Trojan camp. Aeneas had not gone in vain to Evander’s

home, but Venulus had vainly sought the city of the exiled Diomede.

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I. VIRGIL THE POET



vii. Return of legates, metamorphosis of Aeneas’s ships, Aeneas’s final victory

(Metamorphoses 14.566–77)

Spes erat, in nymphas animata classe marinas

posse metu monstri Rutulum desistere bello:

perstat, habetque deos pars utraque, quodque deorum est

instar, habent animos; nec iam dotalia regna,

nec sceptrum soceri, nec te, Lavinia virgo,

sed vicisse petunt deponendique pudore

bella gerunt, tandemque Venus victricia nati

arma videt, Turnusque cadit: cadit Ardea, Turno

sospite dicta potens; quam postquam barbarus ensis

abstulit et tepida latuerunt tecta favilla,

congerie e media tum primum cognita praepes

subvolat et cineres plausis everberat alis.



570



575



After the fleet had been changed to living water nymphs, there was hope that

the Rutuli, in awe of the portent, would desist from war. But the war went on,

and both sides had their gods to aid them, and, what is as good as gods, they

had courage, too. And now neither a kingdom given in dowry, [570] nor the

scepter of a father-in-law, nor you, Lavinian maiden, did they seek, but only

victory, and they wage war out of shame of backing away. At length Venus saw

her son’s arms victorious, and Turnus fell. Ardea fell, counted a powerful city

in Turnus’s lifetime. But after the barbarian sword had killed him [575] and

the city’s warm ash hid its ruins, from the confused mass a bird flew forth of a

kind never seen before, and beat the ashes with its flapping wings.

viii. Deification of Aeneas (Metamorphoses 14.598–608)

. . . litus adit Laurens, ubi tectus harundine serpit

in freta flumineis vicina Numicius undis.

hunc iubet Aeneae, quaecumque obnoxia morti,

abluere et tacito deferre sub aequora cursu;

corniger exsequitur Veneris mandata suisque,

quicquid in Aenea fuerat mortale, repurgat

et respersit aquis; pars optima restitit illi.

Lustratum genetrix divino corpus odore

unxit et ambrosia cum dulci nectare mixta

contigit os fecitque deum, quem turba Quirini

nuncupat Indigitem temploque arisque recepit.



600



605



[Venus] came to the Laurentian coast, where the river Numicius, winding

through beds of sheltering reeds, pours its fresh waters into the neighboring

C. LAT E R I N F LU E N C E A N D I M P O RTA N C E



19



sea. [600] She bade the river god wash away from Aeneas all his mortal part

and carry it down in his silent stream into the ocean depths. The horned god

obeyed Venus’s command and in his waters cleansed and washed quite away

whatever was mortal in Aeneas. His best part remained to him. [605] His

mother sprinkled his body and anointed it with divine perfume, touched his

lips with ambrosia and sweet nectar mixed, and so made him a god, whom the

Roman populace styled Indiges and honored with temple and with sacrifice.

Ovid o√ers the first attempt to bring closure to the complex ending of

Virgil’s epic. For detailed analyses of his ‘‘Aeneid’’ see J. Solodow, The World of

Ovid’s Metamorphoses (Chapel Hill, 1988), 110–56; S. Casali, ‘‘Altre voci nell’

‘Aeneide’ di Ovidio,’’ Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 35 (1995),

59–76; S. Hinds, Allusion and Intertext (Cambridge, 1998), 104–7; R.

Thomas, Virgil and the Augustan Reception (Cambridge, 2001), 78–83.

j. The Story of Anna Perenna (Fasti 3.523–656)

We o√er a representative selection. (Text and translations: Ovid, Fasti, ed. and

trans. J. G. Frazer, LCL 253 [1951])

i. Anna, Dido’s sister, departs from Carthage (Fasti 3.545–60)

Arserat Aeneae Dido miserabilis igne,

arserat exstructis in sua fata rogis;

compositusque cinis, tumulique in marmore carmen

hoc breve, quod moriens ipsa reliquit, erat:

praebuit Aeneas et causam mortis et ensem.

Ipsa sua Dido concidit usa manu.

Protinus invadunt Numidae sine vindice regnum,

et potitur capta Maurus Iarba domo,

seque memor spretum, ‘‘thalamis tamen’’ inquit ‘‘Elissae

en ego, quem totiens reppulit illa, fruor.’’

Diffugiunt Tyrii, quo quemque agit error, ut olim

amisso dubiae rege vagantur apes.

Tertia nudandas acceperat area messes,

inque cavos ierant tertia musta lacus:

pellitur Anna domo lacrimansque sororia linquit

moenia: germanae iusta dat ante suae.



545



550



555



560



[545] Poor Dido had burned with the fire of love for Aeneas; she had burned,

too, on a pyre built for her doom. Her ashes were collected, and on the marble

of her tomb was this short stanza, which she herself dying had left: Aeneas

caused her death and lent the blade: [550] Dido by her own hand in dust was

20



I. VIRGIL THE POET



laid. Straightway the Numidians invaded the defenseless realm, and Iarbas the

Moor captured and took possession of the palace; and remembering how she

had spurned his suit, ‘‘Lo, now,’’ quoth he, ‘‘I enjoy Elissa’s bridal bower, I

whom she so often repelled.’’ [555] The Tyrians fled hither and thither as each

one chanced to stray, even as bees often wander doubtingly when they have

lost their king. For the third time the reaped corn had been carried to the

threshing floor to be stripped of the husk, and for the third time the new wine

had poured into the hollow vats, when Anna was driven from home and,

weeping, left her sister’s walls; [560] but first she paid the honors due to her

dead sister.

ii. Flight to Melita, then to Latium (Fasti 3.601–18)

Iam pius Aeneas regno nataque Latini

auctus erat, populos miscueratque duos.

Litore dotali solo comitatus Achate

secretum nudo dum pede carpit iter,

aspicit errantem nec credere sustinet Annam

esse: ‘‘Quid in Latios illa veniret agros?’’

Dum secum Aeneas, ‘‘Anna est!’’ exclamat Achates:

ad nomen voltus sustulit illa suos.

Heu! Fugiat? Quid agat? Quos terrae quaerat hiatus?

Ante oculos miserae fata sororis erant.

Sensit et adloquitur trepidam Cythereius heros

(Flet tamen admonitu motus, Elissa, tui):

‘‘Anna, per hanc iuro, quam quondam audire solebas

tellurem fato prosperiore dari,

perque deos comites, hac nuper sede locatos,

saepe meas illos increpuisse moras.

Nec timui de morte tamen, metus abfuit iste.

ei mihi! credibili fortior illa fuit. . . .’’



605



610



615



By this time pious Aeneas had gained the kingdom and the daughter of Latinus and had blended the two peoples. While, accompanied by Achates alone,

he paced barefoot a lonely path on the shore with which his wife had dowered

him, [605] he spied Anna wandering, nor could he bring himself to think that

it was she. Why should she come into the Latin land? thought he to himself.

Meantime, ‘‘It’s Anna!’’ cried Achates. At the sound of the name she looked

up. Alas! should she flee? what should she do? where should she look for the

earth to yawn for her? [610] Her hapless sister’s fate rose up before her eyes.

The Cytherian hero perceived her distress and accosted her; yet did he weep,

C. LAT E R I N F LU E N C E A N D I M P O RTA N C E



21



touched by memory of you, Elissa. ‘‘Anna, by this land that in days gone by

you used to hear a happier fate had granted me; [615] and by the gods who

followed me and here of late have found a home, I swear that they did chide

my loiterings. Nor yet did I dread her death; far from me was that fear. Woe’s

me! her courage surpassed belief. . . .’’

iii. Deification at the Numicius (Fasti 3.653–54)

Ipsa loqui visa est ‘‘placidi sum nympha Numici:

amne perenne latens Anna Perenna vocor.’’



[She] herself appeared to speak: ‘‘I am a nymph of the calm Numicius. In a

perennial river I hide, and Anna Perenna is my name.’’

k. [pseudo-Ovid], Argumenta Aeneidis, praefatio 1–4

These spurious verses, which purport to be by Ovid but are clearly later,

preface a series of summaries of the twelve books of the Aeneid. They are to be

found in one of the most famous of the early manuscripts of Virgil, Vatican,

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 3867, dating from the fifth century

(for further detail see below, II.F.3.g). They bring to the surface the emulation

of, and parallelisms between, the later poet and the earlier, at which Ovid

himself hints, especially in the exilic poetry. The couplets also exemplify the

‘‘inferiority’’ topos initiated by Statius (see below, I.C.21). (Text: AL [1982],

1, no. 1)

Vergilius magno quantum concessit Homero,

tantum ego Vergilio, Naso poeta, meo.

Nec me praelatum cupio tibi ferre, poeta;

ingenio si te subsequor, hoc satis est.



As much as Virgil yielded to mighty Homer, so much do I, the poet Ovid,

[yield] to my Virgil. Nor is it my wish to relate that I am preferred to you, O

poet. If my talent is second to yours, this is su≈cient. (MP)



2. ‘‘Ille ego qui quondam gracili modulatus avena’’

The verses that follow this incipit (I am he who once tuned my song on a

slender reed), probably Tiberian in date (14–37 c.e.), are found in Aelius

Donatus’s Vita Vergilii (Life of Virgil, VSD 42; see below, II.A.1) and in

Servius’s preface to his commentary on the Aeneid (Thilo-Hagen 1.2). Donatus writes that the grammaticus (teacher of language) Nisus (first century

c.e.) had heard a senioribus (from older people) that Varius had eliminated the

verses from the opening of Aeneid 1.

The opening phrase, ille ego qui, is used three times by Ovid (Tristia 4.10.1

[9–12 c.e.], Epistulae ex Ponto 1.2.131 [13 c.e.], and 4.3.13 [circa 16 c.e.]),

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I. VIRGIL THE POET



as well as by Statius (Silvae 5.5.38 [95 c.e.]). R. A. B. Mynors (ed., P. Vergili

Maronis: Opera, OCT [1969], xii n. 2) refers with approval to the suggestion

of E. Brandt (‘‘Zum Aeneis-Prooemium,’’ Philologus 83 [1927–28], 331–35)

that the lines were placed under an e≈gy of the poet at the start of a volumen of

his work, but R. G. Austin (‘‘Ille Ego Qui Quondam,’’ Classical Quarterly 18

[1968], 107–15) doubts Brandt’s suggestion, because such an ‘‘inscription’’

should be self-contained and not end in midsentence. (Further discussion: R.

G. Austin, ed., P. Vergili Maronis: Aeneidos: Liber Primus [Oxford, 1971], 25–

27, on Aeneid 1.1–7, with further bibliography; P. A. Hansen, ‘‘Ille Ego Qui

Quondam . . . Once Again,’’ Classical Quarterly 22 [1972], 139–49; J. Fairweather, ‘‘Ovid’s Autobiographical Poem, Tristia 4.10,’’ Classical Quarterly 37

[1987], 181–96, especially 187; S. Koster, Ille ego qui: Dichter zwischen Wort

und Macht [Erlangen, 1988]; L. Gamberale, ‘‘Preproemio,’’ EV 4, 259–61)

For images of the poet attached to manuscripts, see Martial 14.186 (quoted

below, I.C.20.t).

On Arma virum(que) as a tag for the opening of the Aeneid, and therefore for

the epic as a whole, or at least as important words, see for example Propertius

2.34.63 (quoted above, I.B.4); Ovid, Tristia 2.534 (quoted above, I.C.1.f);

Seneca, Epistulae morales (Moral Epistles) 113.25 (see below, I.C.7); Persius,

Satires 1.96; and Martial 8.55(56).19 (see below, I.C.20.k) and 14.185.2 (see

below, I.C.20.s). Compare Macrobius, Saturnalia 5.2.8. Augustine (De musica

3.2.3) calls the epic’s opening words pervulgatissima (he refers to the poem’s

initial lines also at 4.16.31, 5.3.3, and 5.9). Ovid’s indirect allusion to Aeneid 1.1

at Amores 1.1.1–2 assumes his reader’s knowledge of the opening line of the

epic for appreciation of his wit:

Arma gravi numero violentaque bella parabam / edere . . .



Arms, and the violent deeds of war, I was making ready to sound forth—in

weighty numbers . . .

(Discussion: G. B. Conte, The Rhetoric of Imitation: Genre and Poetic Memory in

Virgil and Other Latin Poets [Ithaca, 1986], 85–86) (See also I.C.15, I.C.31.c.i,

I.C.55, I.C.57, I.D.3, II.A.1, II.A.3, II.A.12, II.A.23, II.A.35, II.A.37, II.A.38,

III.A.5.b, IV.F, IV.O, IV.X.3.b.) (Text and translation: Ovid, Heroides and

Amores, ed. and trans. G. Showerman [New York, 1931]; 2nd ed., rev. G. P.

Goold, LCL 41 [1977])

In the grammatical tradition, Arma virumque became emblematic of all

articulate utterance. It appears at the opening of Priscian’s extremely influential Institutiones grammaticae (1.1, ed. GL 2 [1859] 5):

Vocis autem differentiae sunt quattuor: articulata, inarticulata, literata, illiterata. Articulata est, quae coartata, hoc est copulata cum aliquo sensu

mentis eius, qui loquitur, profertur. Inarticulata est contraria, quae a nullo

C. LAT E R I N F LU E N C E A N D I M P O RTA N C E



23



affectu proficiscitur mentis. Literata est, quae scribi potest, illiterata, quae

scribi non potest. Inveniuntur igitur quaedam voces articulatae, quae possunt scribi et intellegi, ut: ‘‘Arma virumque cano.’’



There are four di√erent kinds of utterance: articulate, inarticulate, literate, and

illiterate. The articulate is that which is pronounced with a close fit, which is to

say, connected with some mental sense of the person who speaks. Inarticulate

is the opposite, which emanates from no mental viewpoint. Literate is that

which can be written; illiterate, that which cannot be written. Therefore certain utterances are devised to be articulate, which can be written and understood, as ‘‘Of arms and the man I sing.’’ (JZ)

Inspired by Priscian, the early-eleventh-century schoolmaster Egbert of

Liège incorporated a short poem on the same topic into his verse textbook, the

Fecunda ratis (The Richly Laden Ship) (1 [‘‘Prora’’ (The Prow)], lines 1545–

48, ed. E. Voigt [Halle an der Saale, 1889], 194–95). Including the Virgilian

tag in his own incipit, Egbert wrote:

De quattuor vocibus

‘‘Arma virumque cano’’ commendat scire caracter;

Mugitum et strepitum nec mens nec littera prodit;

Sibilus et gemitus nam scire datur sine scripto;

Quamuis sint elementa ‘‘coax,’’ non scire potes quid.



On the Four Forms of Utterance

Writing commits to knowledge ‘‘Of arms and the man I sing’’:

neither the mind nor the written letter transmits bellowing or noise;

indeed, it is granted to know hissing and moaning without writing;

although there may be elements in a [frog’s] ‘‘croak,’’ you cannot know what

they are. (JZ)

An amusing and emphatic instance of play on the opening of the Aeneid

appears in the fourth-century Epigrammata Bobiensia (see below, III.E.3), no.

47. (Text: W. Speyer, ed., Bibliotheca Teubneriana [Leipzig, 1963], 58)

De matrimonio grammatici infausto

‘‘Arma virumque’’ docens atque ‘‘Arma virumque’’ peritus

non duxi uxorem, sed magis arma domum.

Namque dies totos totasque ex ordine noctes

litibus oppugnat meque meumque larem

atque ut perpetuis dotata [a] matre duellis

arma in me tollit nec datur ulla quies.

Iamque repugnanti dedam me, ut denique victus

iurger ob hoc solum, iurgia quod fugiam.



24



I. VIRGIL THE POET



On the Unfortunate Marriage of a Grammarian

Teaching ‘‘Of arms and the man’’ and expert in ‘‘Of arms and the man’’

I brought home not a wife but rather arms.

Indeed, every day and every night in succession

she assaults me and my dwelling with strife,

and, as if dowried by her mother with uninterrupted war,

she bears arms against me and no rest is granted.

So I will surrender to her as she opposes me, so that conquered at last

I may be scolded for this alone, that I take flight from quarrels. (JZ)

On a larger scale, the tripartite division of Virgil’s works, with their three

di√ering subjects and styles, initiates a pattern that from then on was followed

in diverse ways by both Virgil’s poetic emulators and his interpreters (see

below, IV.S and IV.X). For a manuscript that reveals how the questionable

attribution of these ‘‘opening lines’’ was sometimes reflected in their placement on folios with the text of the Aeneid, see VME 43, plate 2. (Text and

translation: Fairclough 1:261)

Ille ego qui quondam gracili modulatus avena

carmen et egressus silvis vicina coegi

ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono,

gratum opus agricolis, at nunc horrentia Martis . . .



I am he who once tuned my song on a slender reed,

then, leaving the woodland, compelled the neighboring fields

to serve the husbandman, however grasping,

a work welcome to farmers: but now of Mars’s bristling . . .



3. Appendix Vergiliana

According to Aelius Donatus (VSD 17–19; see below, II.A.1), Virgil in his

youth wrote, among other poems, Catalepton et Priapea et Epigrammata et

Diras, item Cirim et Culicam, cum esset annorum XXVI . . . scripsit etiam de qua

ambiguitur Aetnam (Catalepton and poems to Priapus and Epigrams and Dirae,

likewise the Ciris and the Culex, when he was twenty-six. . . . He also wrote the

Aetna, whose authenticity is in doubt). With additional shorter poems these

were collected and transmitted as a unity under the title Appendix Vergiliana.

Two of the Catalepton, addressed to Varius and Tucca, may be genuine, as may

be another pair addressed to Octavius Musa, who was linked by Horace with

Varius, Tucca, and Virgil at Satires 1.10.81–82 (see above, I.B.2.d).

The total Appendix in modern editions consists of thirteen poems. The

order of the Oxford Classical Text (ed. W. Clausen, F. Goodyear, E. J. Kenney,

and J. Richmond [Oxford, 1967]) is as follows: Dirae (Curses), Lydia (a

lover’s lament), Culex (brief epic on a gnat killed by a shepherd whose life he

C. LAT E R I N F LU E N C E A N D I M P O RTA N C E



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