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1chauffed:heated, rubbed.2boawe and shaf
The same which over Hellespontus 1 swam:
Yet in his hand a spade he also hent,2
And in a bag all sorts of seeds ysame,3
Which on the earth he strowed as he went,
And fild her womb with fruitfull hope of nourishment.
33 Next came fresh Aprill full of lustyhed,
And wanton as a Kid whose horne new buds:
Upon a Bull4 he rode, the same which led
Europa floting through th’Argolick fluds:5
His hornes were gilden all with golden studs
And garnished with garlonds goodly dight
Of all the fairest flowres and freshest buds
Which th’earth brings forth, and wet he seem’d in sight
With waves, through which he waded for his loves delight.
34 Then came faire May, the fayrest mayd on ground,
Deckt all with dainties of her seasons pryde,
And throwing flowres out of her lap around:
Upon two brethrens shoulders she did ride,
The twinnes of Leda;6 which on eyther side
Supported her like to their soveraine Queene.
Lord! how all creatures laught, when her they spide,
And leapt and daunc’t as they had ravisht beene!
And Cupid selfe about her fluttred all in greene.
35 And after her, came jolly June, arrayd
All in greene leaves, as he a Player7 were;
Yet in his time, he wrought as well as playd,
That by his plough-yrons mote right well appeare:
Upon a Crab8 he rode, that him did beare
With crooked crawling steps an uncouth pase,
Hellespontus: the dangerous straits in the
Dardinelles, named when Jove took Helle
away from her stepmother on a ram, before
she unfortunately fell into the water.
Argolick fluds: the waters of the Argolic
Gulf. Jove carried Europa over the sea disguised as a bull.
Leda: Castor and Pollux, making up the
zodiacal sign of Gemini. Jove seduced Leda
while disguised as a swan.
Crab: the zodiacal sign of Cancer.
The Faerie Queene: Book Seven, the Mutabilitie Cantos
And backward yode,1 as Bargemen wont to fare
Bending their force contrary to their face,
Like that ungracious crew which faines demurest grace.2
36 Then came hot July boyling like to fire,
That all his garments he had cast away:
Upon a Lyon3 raging yet with ire
He boldly rode and made him to obay:
It was the beast that whylome did forray
The Nemaean forrest, till th’Amphytrionide
Him slew, and with his hide did him array;4
Behinde his back a sithe, and by his side
Under his belt he bore a sickle circling wide.
37 The sixt was August, being rich arrayd
In garment all of gold downe to the ground:
Yet rode he not, but led a lovely Mayd
Forth by the lilly hand, the which was cround
With eares of corne, and full her hand was found;
That was the righteous Virgin, which of old
Liv’d here on earth, and plenty made abound;5
But, after Wrong was lov’d and Justice solde,
She left th’unrighteous world and was to heaven extold.6
38 Next him, September marched eeke on foote;
Yet was he heavy laden with the spoyle
Of harvests riches, which he made his boot,7
And him enricht with bounty of the soyle:
In his one hand, as fit for harvests toyle,
He held a knife-hook; and in th’other hand
A paire of waights, with which he did assoyle8
Both more and lesse, where it in doubt did stand,
And equall gave to each as Justice duly scann’d.9
I.e., like that ungracious group who pretend to be gracious but are really the opposite.
4 Hercules, who was thought to be the son
of Amphitryon, slew the Nemaean Lion as
the first of his twelve labors.
Astrea, goddess of Justice, here cast as
extold: raised. Spenser tells this story at
7 boot: booty.
8 waights: for a scale, making him the sign
Libra; assoyle: worked out.
9 scann’d: judged.
39 Then came October full of merry glee:
For, yet his noule was totty of the must,1
Which he was treading in the wine-fats see,2
And of the joyous oyle, whose gentle gust3
Made him so frollick and so full of lust:
Upon a dreadfull Scorpion he did ride,
The same which by Dianaes doom unjust
Slew great Orion:4 and eeke by his side
He had his ploughing share, and coulter5 ready tyde.
40 Next was November, he full grosse and fat,
As fed with lard, and that right well might seeme;
For, he had been a fatting hogs of late,
That yet his browes with sweat, did reek and steem,
And yet the season was full sharp and breem;6
In planting eeke he took no small delight:
Whereon he rode, not easie was to deeme;
For it a dreadfull Centaure was in sight,
The seed of Saturne, and faire Nais, Chiron hight.7
41 And after him, came next the chill December:
Yet he through merry feasting which he made,
And great bonfires, did not the cold remember;
His Saviours birth his mind so much did glad:
Upon a shaggy-bearded Goat he rode,
The same wherewith Dan Jove in tender yeares,
They say, was nourisht by th’Idaean mayd;8
And in his hand a broad deepe boawle9 he beares;
Of which, he freely drinks an health to all his peeres.
I.e., he was always drunk with new wine.
wine-fats see: the sea of wine in vats.
3 gust: taste.
4 Diana sent a scorpion to kill Orion when
he claimed that he was a match for any
earthly creature. The scorpion represents
5 coulter: ploughing blade.
breem: cold, harsh.
Chiron, the son of Saturn and the water
nymph Nais, was a centaur. He was also an
archer, making him Sagittarius.
8 December’s sign is Capricorn, the goat.
Jove was fed by a goat when he was looked
after by Amalthea, the Idaean maid who
lived on Mount Ida.
9 boawle: bowl.
The Faerie Queene: Book Seven, the Mutabilitie Cantos
42 Then came old January, wrapped well
In many weeds to keep the cold away;
Yet did he quake and quiver like to quell,1
And blowe his nayles to warme them if he may:
For, they were numbd with holding all the day
An hatchet keene, with which he felled wood,
And from the trees did lop the needlesse spray:2
Upon an huge great Earth-pot steane3 he stood;
From whose wide mouth, there flowed forth the Romane floud.
43 And lastly, came cold February, sitting
In an old wagon, for he could not ride;
Drawne of two fishes4 for the season fitting,
Which through the flood before did softly slyde
And swim away: yet had he by his side
His plough and harnesse fit to till the ground,
And tooles to prune the trees, before the pride
Of hasting Prime did make them burgein5 round:
So past the twelve Months forth, and their dew places found.
44 And after these, there came the Day, and Night,
Riding together both with equall pase,
Th’one on a Palfrey blacke, the other white;
But Night had covered her uncomely face
With a blacke veile, and held in hand a mace,
On top whereof the moon and stars were pight,6
And sleep and darknesse round about did trace:
But Day did beare, upon his scepters hight,
The goodly Sun, encompast all with beames bright.
45 Then came the Howres, faire daughters of high Jove,
And timely Night, the which were all endewed
With wondrous beauty fit to kindle love;
But they were Virgins all, and love eschewed,
That might forslack the charge to them fore-shewed7
By mighty Jove; who did them Porters make
steane: jar, hence the sign of Aquarius.
two fishes: making the sign Pisces.
Prime: spring; burgein: bud.
forslack: neglect; fore-shewed: ordained.
Of heavens gate (whence all the gods issued)
Which they did dayly watch, and nightly wake
By even turnes, ne ever did their charge forsake.
46 And after all came Life, and lastly Death;
Death with most grim and griesly visage seene,
Yet is he nought but parting of the breath;
Ne ought to see, but like a shade to weene,
Unbodied, unsoul’d, unheard, unseene.1
But Life was like a faire young lusty boy,
Such as they faine Dan Cupid to have beene,
Full of delightfull health and lively joy,
Deckt all with flowres, and wings of gold fit to employ.
47 When these were past, thus gan the Titanesse;
“Lo, mighty mother, now be judge and say,
Whether in all thy creatures more or lesse
CHANGE doth not raign and beare the greatest sway:
For, who sees not, that Time on all doth pray?
But Times do change and move continually.
So nothing here long standeth in one stay:
Wherefore, this lower world who can deny
But to be subject still to Mutabilitie?”
48 Then thus gan Jove; “Right true it is, that these
And all things else that under heaven dwell
Are chaung’d of Time, who doth them all disseise2
Of being: But, who is it (to me tell)
That Time himselfe doth move and still compell
To keepe his course? Is not that namely wee
Which poure that vertue from our heavenly cell,
That moves them all, and makes them changed be?
So them we gods doe rule, and in them also thee.”
49 To whom, thus Mutability: “The things
Which we see not how they are mov’d and swayd,
Ye may attribute to your selves as Kings,
And say they by your secret powre are made:
Cf. Milton’s Death, Paradise Lost, 2.666 ff.
disseise: deprive, dispossess.
The Faerie Queene: Book Seven, the Mutabilitie Cantos
But what we see not, who shall us perswade?1
But were they so, as ye them faine2 to be,
Mov’d by your might, and ordred by your ayde;
Yet what if I can prove, that even yee
Your selves are likewise chang’d, and subject unto mee?
50 “And first, concerning her that is the first,
Even you faire Cynthia, whom so much ye make
Joves dearest darling, she was bred and nurst
On Cynthus hill,3 whence she her name did take:
Then is she mortall borne, how-so ye crake;4
Besides, her face and countenance every day
We changed see, and sundry forms partake,
Now hornd, now round, now bright, now brown and gray:
So that as changefull as the Moone men use to say.5
51 “Next, Mercury, who though he lesse appeare
To change his hew, and alwayes seeme as one;
Yet, he his course doth altar every yeare,
And is of late far out of order gone:
So Venus eeke, that goodly Paragone,
Though faire all night, yet is she darke all day;
And Phoebus self, who lightsome is alone,
Yet is he oft eclipsed by the way,
And fills the darkned world with terror and dismay.
52 “Now Mars that valiant man is changed most:
For, he some times so far runs out of square,
That he his way doth seem quite to have lost,
And cleane without6 his usuall sphere to fare;
Mutabilitie gives voice to a powerfully
skeptical argument, which can be subversive
of traditional astronomy, kingship, and religion. She proceeds to portray the Gods, not
as divinities, but merely as planets. Furthermore, they are susceptible to the vicissitudes that were leading, in Spenser’s day, to
the reevaluation of the geocentric theory of
the universe in favor of Copernicus’ heliocentric theory.
faine: wish, desire.
Cynthus hill: the hill in Delios where
Diana was born.
This stanza is often read as a scathing attack on Elizabeth, who was now very old
by Renaissance standards (she was sixty-five
in 1598 when the cantos were probably
written). She was often represented as notoriously capricious and fickle in the 1590s
by her courtiers.
That even these Star-gazers stonisht are
At sight thereof, and damne their lying bookes:
So likewise, grim Sir Saturne oft doth spare
His sterne aspect, and calme his crabbed lookes:
So many turning cranks these have, so many crookes.1
53 “But you Dan Jove, that only constant are,
And King of all the rest, as ye do clame,
Are you not subject eeke to this misfare?2
Then let me aske you this withouten blame,
Where were ye borne? some say in Crete by name,
Others in Thebes, and others other-where;
But wheresoever they comment the same,
They all consent that ye begotten were,
And borne here in this world, ne other can appeare.3
54 “Then are ye mortall borne, and thrall to me,
Unlesse the kingdome of the sky yee make
Immortall, and unchangeable to bee;
Besides, that power and vertue which ye spake,4
That ye here worke, doth many changes take,
And your owne natures change: for, each of you
That vertue have, or this, or that to make,
Is checkt and changed from his nature trew,
By others opposition or obliquid5 view.
55 “Besides, the sundry motions of your Spheares,
So sundry waies and fashions as clerkes6 faine,
Some in short space, and some in longer yeares;
What is the same but alteration plaine?
Onely the starrie skie doth still remaine:
Yet do the Starres and Signes therein still move,
Because he was begotten in the world,
Jove is mortal in essence and subject to the
ravages of time.
4 The “power and virtue” of which Jove
speaks are those mentioned in the claim at
48.6–8, “Is not that namely wee / Which
poure that vertue from our heavenly cell, /
That moves them all, and makes them
obliquid: oblique (a neologism used only
The Faerie Queene: Book Seven, the Mutabilitie Cantos
And even it self is mov’d, as wizards1 saine.
But all that moveth, doth mutation love:
Therefore both you and them to me I subject prove.
56 “Then since within this wide great Universe
Nothing doth firme and permanent appeare,
But all things tost and turned by transverse:2
What then should let, but I aloft should reare
My Trophee, and from all, the triumph beare?
Now judge then (ô thou greatest goddesse trew!)
According as thy selfe doest see and heare,
And unto me addoom3 that is my dew;
That is the rule of all, all being rul’d by you.”
57 So having ended, silence long ensewed,
Ne Nature to or fro4 spake for a space,
But with firme eyes affixt, the ground still viewed.
Meane while, all creatures, looking in her face,
Expecting th’end of this so doubtfull case,
Did hang in long suspence what would ensew,
To whether5 side should fall the soveraigne place:
At length, she looking up with chearefull view,
The silence brake, and gave her doome in speeches few.
58 “I well consider all that ye have sayd,
And find that all things stedfastnes doe hate
And changed be: yet being rightly wayd6
They are not changed from their first estate;
But by their change their being doe dilate:7
And turning to themselves at length againe,
Doe worke their owne perfection so by fate:
Then over them Change doth not rule and raigne;
But they raigne over change, and doe their states maintaine.
Wizards were associated with the stars as
astronomers and astrologers.
by transverse: awry.
to or fro: for or against.
dilate: expand, enlarge upon, express
themselves more fully. The language suggests that, even if Nature’s logic holds,
everything is still subject to change.
59 “Cease therefore daughter further to aspire,
And thee content thus to be rul’d by me:
For thy decay1 thou seekst by thy desire;
But time shall come that all shall changed bee,
And from thenceforth, none no more change shall see.”
So was the Titaness put downe and whist,2
And Jove confirm’d in his imperiall see.
Then was that whole assembly quite dismist,
And Natur’s selfe did vanish, whither no man wist.
put downe: defeated; whist: silenced.
The VIII. Canto, vnperfite.1
When I bethinke me on that speech whyleare,2
Of Mutability, and well it way:3
Me seemes, that though she all unworthy were
Of the Heav’ns Rule; yet very sooth to say,
In all things else she beares the greatest sway.
Which makes me loath this state of life so tickle,4
And love of things so vaine to cast away;
Whose flowring pride, so fading and so fickle,
Short Time shall soon cut down with his consuming sickle.
Then gin I thinke on that which Nature sayd,
Of that same time when no more Change shall be,
But stedfast rest of all things firmely stayd
Upon the pillours of Eternity,
That is contrayr to Mutabilitie:
For, all that moveth, doth in Change delight:
But thence-forth all shall rest eternally
With Him that is the God of Sabbaoth5 hight:
O! thou great Sabbaoth God, grant me that Sabaoths sight.
tickle: fickle, inconstant.
God of Sabbaoth: a multiple pun. The
description alludes to the God of final
causes, the state of rest after the world has
ended, and the day of rest, the Sabbath,
when God rested after creating the world.
“Sabbaoth” is also near to the Hebrew for
“Hosts,” from the Lord of Hosts, one of the
Hebrew names for God, meaning the lord
of great armies or numbers. The point is
that the life God gives completes and circumscribes everything.
THE LETTER TO RALEIGH
Letter of the Authors expounding his
whole intention in the course of this worke: which
for that it giueth great light to the Reader, for
the better vnderstanding is hereunto
To the Right noble, and Valorous, Sir Walter Raleigh knight, Lo. Wardein of
the Stanneryes, and her Maiesties liefetenaunt of the County of
Sir knowing how doubtfully all Allegories may be construed, and this booke of
mine, which I have entituled the Faery Queene, being a continued Allegory, or
darke conceit, I have thought good aswell for avoyding of gealous opinions and misconstructions, as also for your better light in reading thereof, (being so by you commanded,) to discover unto you the general intention and meaning, which in the
whole course thereof I have fashioned, without expressing of any particular purposes
or by accidents therein occasioned.The generall end therefore of all the booke is to
fashion a gentleman or noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline:2 Which for
that I conceived shoulde be most plausible3 and pleasing, being coloured with an
historicall fiction, the which the most part of men delight to read, rather for variety
of matter, then for profite of the ensample: I chose the historye of king Arthure, as
most fitte for the excellency of his person, being made famous by many mens former
workes, and also furthest from the daunger of envy, and suspition of present time.
In which I have followed all the antique Poets historicall, first Homere, who in the
Persons of Agamemnon and Ulysses hath ensampled a good governour and a vertuous man, the one in his Ilias, the other in his Odysseis: then Virgil, whose like
intention was to doe in the person of Aeneas: after him Ariosto comprised them
Appended to the 1590 edition of The
Faerie Queene, Spenser’s “Letter to Raleigh,”
also called “A Letter of the Authors,” has
been read as a preface, detailing both the
larger plot and the poetics underlying the
poem. It was not included in the 1596 edi-
tion, and so only discusses the first three
discipline: learning, training, orderly
conduct, the system by which a church exercises control over its members.
plausible: deserving applause, acceptable.