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The Faerie Queene: Book One
Quoth then that aged man; “the way to win
Is wisely to advise: now day is spent;
Therefore with me ye may take up your In1
For this same night.” The knight was well content:
So with that godly father to his home they went.
A litle lowly Hermitage it was,
Downe in a dale, hard by a forests side,
Far from resort of people, that did pas
In traveill to and froe: a litle wyde2
There was an holy chappell edifyde,3
Wherein the Hermite dewly wont4 to say
His holy thinges5 each morne and eventyde:
Thereby a christall streame did gently play,
Which from a sacred fountaine welled forth alway.
Arrived there the litle house they fill,
Ne looke for entertainement, where none was:
Rest is their feast, and all thinges at their will;6
The noblest mind the best contentment has.
With faire discourse the evening so they pas:
For that olde man of pleasing wordes had store,
And well could file his tongue as smooth as glas,7
He told of Saintes and Popes, and evermore
He strowd8 an Ave-Mary after and before.
The drouping Night thus creepeth on them fast,
And the sad humor9 loading their eye liddes,
As messenger of Morpheus10 on them cast
Sweet slombring deaw, the which to sleep them biddes:
Unto their lodgings then his guestes he riddes:11
take up your In: take up residence as at
wyde: off to one side.
wont: was accustomed.
holy thinges: the monastic offices for
morning and evening.
I.e., rest is entertainment to them; and because they desire nothing, they have “all
things at their will” (TPR).
He was a “smooth talker.”
strowd: interspersed. The “Hail Mary” is
“the principal prayer of the rosary” (TPR),
moreover, he apparently says it in Latin;
Protestants associated this prayer with
God of sleep.
Where when all drownd in deadly sleepe he findes,
He to his studie goes, and there amiddes
His magick bookes and artes of sundrie kindes,
He seekes out mighty charmes, to trouble sleepy minds.
Then choosing out few words most horrible,
(Let none them read) thereof did verses frame,
With which and other spelles like terrible,
He bad awake blacke Plutoes griesly Dame,1
And cursed heven, and spake reprochful shame
Of highest God, the Lord of life and light,
A bold bad man, that dar’d to call by name
Great Gorgon,2 prince of darknes and dead night,
At which Cocytus quakes and Styx is put to flight.
And forth he cald out of deepe darknes dredd
Legions of Sprights,3 the which like litle flyes
Fluttring about his everdamned hedd,
A waite whereto their service he applyes,
To aide his friendes, or fray4 his enemies:
Of those he chose out two, the falsest twoo,
And fittest for to forge true-seeming lyes;
The one of them he gave a message too,
The other by him self staide other worke to doo.
He making speedy way through spersed ayre,5
And through the world of waters wide and deepe,
To Morpheus6 house doth hastily repaire.
Amid the bowels of the earth full steepe,
And low, where dawning day doth never peepe,
His dwelling is; there Tethys7 his wet bed
Pluto’s wife, Proserpina, queen of hell.
Demogorgon, the progenitor of all the
gods. Mentioned again at v.22.5ff. Like
“Cocytus,” chosen largely for its sound.
“Even mention of his name makes the
rivers of hell (Cocytus and Styx) tremble”
He: the sprite with the message; spersed
ayre: the air that parted to let him through.
See Metamorphoses, 11:592–632; Chaucer,
The Book of the Duchess, 155ff, which also
contains a farcical awakening.
Wife of Ocean, hence goddess of the sea;
here the sea itself.
The Faerie Queene: Book One
Doth ever wash,1 and Cynthia still doth steepe
In silver deaw his ever-drouping hed,2
Whiles sad Night over him her mantle black doth spred.
Whose double gates he findeth locked fast,
The one faire fram’d of burnisht Yvory,
The other all with silver overcast;3
And wakeful dogges before them farre doe lye,
Watching to banish Care their enimy,
Who oft is wont to trouble gentle Sleepe.
By them the Sprite doth passe in quietly,
And unto Morpheus comes, whom drowned deepe
In drowsie fit he findes: of nothing he takes keepe.4
And more, to lulle him in his slumber soft,
A trickling streame from high rock tumbling downe
And ever drizling raine upon the loft,5
Mixt with a murmuring winde, much like the sowne6
Of swarming Bees, did cast him in a swowne:
No other noyse, nor peoples troublous cryes,
As still are wont t’annoy the walled towne,
Might there be heard: but carelesse Quiet lyes,
Wrapt in eternall silence farre from enimyes.7
The Messenger approching to him spake,
But his waste wordes retournd to him in vaine:
So sound he slept, that nought mought him awake.
Then rudely he him thrust, and pusht with paine,
Whereat he gan to stretch: but he againe
Shooke him so hard, that forced him to speake.
wash: as waves wash a gently sloping
shore. Why a wet bed is soporific remains
unexplained; it would make more sense if
the “bed” were the Ocean’s bed; one would
have to conjecture either that Spenser said
“his” when he meant “her,” or that he forgot that Tethys is female.
Cynthia is the moon. Dew materializes at
night, when the moon is visible; astrology
associates her with moisture.
The Gates of Sleep are from Homer,
Odyssey, 19.562–67, and Aeneid, 6.893–96.
They are pictured as side-by-side alterna-
tives; the gate of horn channels true dreams
and is not mentioned, being replaced by a
gate of silver; the gate of ivory channels
false dreams, and the sprite exits through it
fit: mood; keepe: notice.
loft: ceiling (OED, 5c).
Spenser flaunts his skill at creating a mood
by means of rhetoric and versification.
Here and elsewhere, he slips easily into personification.
As one then in a dreame, whose dryer braine1
Is tost with troubled sights and fancies weake,
He mumbled soft, but would not all his silence breake.
The Sprite2 then gan more boldly him to wake,
And threatned unto him the dreaded name
Of Hecate:3 whereat he gan to quake,
And lifting up his lompish head, with blame
Halfe angrie asked him, for what he came.
“Hether” (quoth he) “me Archimago4 sent,
He that the stubborne Sprites can wisely tame,
He bids thee to him send for his intent
A fit false dreame, that can delude the sleepers sent.”5
The God obayde, and calling forth straight way
A diverse dreame out of his prison darke,
Delivered it to him, and downe did lay
His heavie head, devoide of careful carke,6
Whose sences all were straight benumbd and starke.
He backe returning by the Yvorie dore,
Remounted up as light as chearefull Larke,
And on his litle winges the dreame he bore,
In hast unto his Lord, where he him left afore.
Who all this while with charmes and hidden artes,
Had made a Lady of that other Spright,
And fram’d of liquid ayre her tender partes
So lively and so like in all mens sight,
That weaker sence it could have ravisht quight:
The maker selfe for all his wondrous witt,
dryer braine: too-dry brain. See SE,
The queen of Hades, another name for
Proserpina; in Natalis Comes (Natale Conti,
Spenser’s and the Elizabethans’ favorite
mythographer, for whose comments on each
god mentioned by Spenser, translated into
English, see Lotspeich) the patroness of black
magic and goddess of dreams.
Here Archimago is named for the first
time. He is both “master of images” and
“master-magician.” Protestants charged that
Catholic ritual was supposed to operate like
magic, without considering the spiritual
state of the performer. He symbolizes the
devil as tempter and owes something to the
False Prophet in Rev., as well as to “the disguised hermit in Ariosto’s OF 2.12–3 and
the enchanter Malagigi in Tasso’s Rinaldo
5 sent: senses.
6 careful carke: worry.
The Faerie Queene: Book One
Was nigh beguiled with so goodly sight:
Her all in white he clad, and over it
Cast a black stole, most like to seeme for Una fit.1
Now when that ydle2 dreame was to him brought,
Unto that Elfin knight he bad him fly,
Where he slept soundly void of evil thought,
And with false shewes abuse his fantasy,
In sort as he him schooled privily:
And that new creature borne without her dew,3
Full of the makers guyle with usage sly
He taught to imitate that Lady trew,
Whose semblance she did carrie under feigned hew.4
Thus well instructed, to their worke they haste,
And comming where the knight in slomber lay,
The one upon his hardie head him plaste,
And made him dreame of loves and lustfull play,
That nigh his manly hart did melt away,
Bathed in wanton blis and wicked joy:
Then seemed him5 his Lady by him lay,
And to him playnd, how that false winged boy,6
Her chaste hart had subdewd, to learn Dame pleasures toy.7
And she her selfe of beautie soveraigne Queene,
Fayre Venus seemde unto his bed to bring
Her, whom he waking evermore did weene,
To bee the chastest flowre, that aye did spring
On earthly braunch, the daughter of a king,
Now a loose Leman8 to vile service bound:
And eke the Graces seemed all to sing,
Hymen iõ Hymen,9 dauncing all around,
Whylst freshest Flora10 her with Yvie girlond crownd.
Una means “one,” i.e., consistent, in
Latin. In this she contrasts with Duessa, the
first syllable of whose name means “two,”
i.e., duplicitous. See SE, “Una.” “Una is
not named until the duplicate, false image
has been created” (TPR); Spenser customarily defers naming his characters.
without her dew: unnaturally.
hew: physical appearance.
seemed him: it seemed to him.
playnd: complained; false winged boy:
Cupid. So also “blind God” below.
Dame pleasures toy: lovemaking.
Hymen iõ Hymen: a chant at Roman
weddings; here ironical.
Goddess of spring and flowers, but also
the name of a famous harlot in classical
In this great passion of unwonted1 lust,
Or wonted feare of doing ought amis,
He starteth up, as seeming to mistrust,
Some secret ill, or hidden foe of his:
Lo there before his face his Ladie is,
Under blacke stole hyding her bayted hooke,
And as halfe blushing offred him to kis,
With gentle blandishment and lovely looke,
Most like that virgin true, which for her knight him took.
All cleane dismayd to see so uncouth sight,
And halfe enraged at her shamelesse guise,2
He thought have slaine her in his fierce despight,3
But hastie heat tempring with sufferance wise,
He stayde his hand, and gan himselfe advise
To prove his sense, and tempt her faigned truth.
Wringing her hands in wemens piteous wise,
Tho can she weepe, to stirre up gentle ruth,4
Both for her noble blood, and for her tender youth.
And sayd, “Ah Sir, my liege Lord and my love,
Shall I accuse the hidden cruell fate,
And mightie causes wrought in heaven above,
Or the blind God, that doth me thus amate,5
For hoped love to winne me certaine hate?
Yet thus perforce he bids me do, or die.
Die is my dew: yet rew my wretched state
You, whom my hard avenging destinie
Hath made judge of my life or death indifferently.
“Your owne dear sake forst me at first to leave
My Fathers kingdom,” There she stopt with teares;
Her swollen hart her speech seemd to bereave,
And then againe begonne, “My weaker yeares
Captiv’d to fortune and frayle worldly feares
Fly to your fayth for succour and sure ayde:
Rome; here used disparagingly, as classical
gods usually are in Book One; cf. II.ii.6.5.
Tho can: then did; ruth: pity.
amate: dismay; here by forcing her to
offer herself to Redcrosse and perhaps thus
disgust him, as she indeed does, though he
cleverly pretends not to understand what
she is suggesting.
The Faerie Queene: Book One
Let me not die in languor and long teares.”
“Why Dame” (quoth he) “what hath ye thus dismayd?
What frayes1 ye, that were wont to comfort me affrayd?”
“Love of your selfe,” she saide, “and deare2 constraint
Lets me not sleepe, but waste the wearie night
In secret anguish and unpittied plaint,
Whiles you in carelesse sleepe are drowned quight.”
Her doubtfull words made that redoubted knight
Suspect her truth: yet since no’untruth he knew,
Her fawning love with foule disdainefull spight
He would not shend,3 but said, “Dear dame I rew,
That for my sake unknowne such griefe unto you grew.
“Assure your selfe, it fell not all to ground;
For all so deare as life is to my hart,
I deeme your love, and hold me4 to you bound;
Ne let vaine feares procure your needlesse smart,
Where cause is none, but to your rest depart.”
Not all content, yet seemd she to appease
Her mournefull plaintes, beguiled of her art,5
And fed with words, that could not chose but please,
So sliding softly forth, she turnd as to her ease.
Long after lay he musing at her mood,
Much griev’d to thinke that gentle Dame so light,6
For whose defence he was to shed his blood.
At last dull wearines of former fight
Having yrockt a sleepe his irkesome spright,
That troublous dreame gan freshly tosse his braine,
With bowres, and beds, and ladies deare delight:
But when he7 saw his labour all was vaine,
With that misformed spright he backe returnd againe.
deare: here, dire, an unusual use; for the
normal use, see line 8 of this stanza.
hold me: consider myself.
plaintes: complaints; beguiled of her
art: being disappointed that her women’s
wiles did not succeed in seducing him.
light: wanton, forth-putting.
I.e., the sprite who was administering the
dream, as in stanza 47. The “misformed
sprite” is the one who is impersonating Una
(ii.2). Their failure shows that Redcrosse
has so far resisted temptation and remained
sinless, though his priggish desire to slay the
false Una is worrisome.
The guilefull great Enchaunter1 parts
The Redcrosse Knight from Truth:
Into whose stead faire falshood steps,
And workes him woefull ruth.2
By this the Northerne wagoner had set
His sevenfold teme behind the stedfast starre,
That was in Ocean waves yet never wet,
But firme is fixt, and sendeth light from farre
To al, that in the wide deepe wandring arre:3
And chearefull Chaunticlere4 with his note shrill
Had warned once, that Phoebus fiery carre,5
In hast was climbing up the Easterne hill,
Full envious that night so long his roome did fill.
When those accursed messengers of hell,
That feigning dreame, and that faire-forged Spright
Came to their wicked maister, and gan tel
Their bootelesse paines, and ill succeeding night:
Who all in rage to see his skilfull might
Deluded so, gan threaten hellish paine
And sad Proserpines 6 wrath, them to affright.
But when he saw his threatning was but vaine,
He cast about, and searcht his baleful bokes againe.
great Enchaunter: one indubitable etymology of “Archimago.”
These five lines constitute a conspicuously
abstruse astronomical way of telling time.
The “Northerne wagoner” is the constellation Boötes, the ox-driver. His “sevenfold
teme” are the seven bright stars of Ursa
Major, identified with the Plough or
Charles’ Wain in England and the Big Dipper in the U.S.; the “stedfast starre” is the
Pole Star or North Star, which was thought
never to move, and so never to set into the
Chaunticlere: the rooster.
Phoebus fiery carre: the chariot of the
sun, pictured as climbing up the bulging
surface of his underground orbit toward the
Proserpina is the wife of Pluto and therefore the queen of Hell.
The Faerie Queene: Book One
Eftsoones he tooke that miscreated faire,1
And that false other Spright,2 on whom he spred
A seeming body of the subtile aire,
Like a young Squire, in loves and lusty hed
His wanton daies that ever loosely led,3
Without regard of armes and dreaded fight:
Those twoo he tooke, and in a secrete bed,
Covered with darkenes and misdeeming night,
Them both together laid, to joy in vaine delight.
Forthwith he runnes with feigned faithfull hast
Unto his guest, who after troublous sights
And dreames gan now to take more sound repast,4
Whom suddenly he wakes with fearful frights,
As one aghast with feends or damned sprights,
And to him cals, “Rise rise unhappy Swaine,
That here wex5 old in sleepe, whiles wicked wights
Have knit themselves in Venus shameful chaine;6
Come see, where your false Lady doth her honor staine.”
All in amaze he suddenly up start
With sword in hand, and with the old man went;
Who soone him brought into a secret part,
Where that false couple were full closely ment7
In wanton lust and leud enbracement:
Which when he saw, he burnt with gealous fire,
The eie of reason was with rage yblent,8
And would have slaine them in his furious ire,
But hardly9 was restreined of that aged sire.
Eftsoones: immediately; that miscreated faire: that unnaturally created beauty.
I.e., the one who formerly manipulated
the sexual dream.
I.e., that ever loosely led his wanton days.
Word order is inverted for sake of rhyme.
wex: wax, i.e., become.
I.e., linked themselves in intercourse.
closely ment: tightly or secretly united.
I.e., the passion of rage blinded the eye of
reason. See also ii.12.4: “Will was his guide,
and grief led him astray.” These diagnoses
are in terms of the faculty-psychology
common in older literature. Reason is not
doing its job—to control the will and,
through it, the passions such as rage and
hardly: with difficulty.
Retourning to his bed in torment great,
And bitter anguish of his guilty sight,
He could not rest, but did his stout heart eat,
And wast his inward gall with deepe despight,1
Yrkesome of life,2 and too long lingring night.
At last faire Hesperus3 in highest skie
Had spent his lampe, and brought forth dawning light,
Then up he rose, and clad him hastily;
The dwarfe him brought his steed: so both away do fly.
Now when the rosy fingred Morning faire,
Weary of aged Tithones4 saffron bed,
Had spred her purple robe through deawy aire,
And the high hils Titan discovered,5
The royall virgin shooke of drousy hed,
And rising forth out of her baser bowre,
Lookt for her knight, who far away was fled,
And for her dwarfe, that wont to wait each howre;
Then gan she wail and weepe, to see that woeful stowre.6
And after him she rode with so much speede,
As her slowe beast could make; but all in vaine:
For him so far had borne7 his light-foot steede,
Pricked with wrath and fiery fierce disdaine,
That him to follow was but fruitlesse paine;
Yet she her weary limbes would never rest,
But every hil and dale, each wood and plaine
Did search, sore grieved in her gentle brest,
He so ungently left her, whome she loved best.
But subtill Archimago when his guests
He saw divided into double parts,
And Una wandring in woods and forrests,
Th’end of his drift,8 he praisd his divelish arts,
Yrksome of life: finding life irksome.
Venus positioned as the morning star.
Aurora, goddess of the dawn, loved
Tithonus and persuaded the gods to grant
him immortality; but she forgot to obtain
for him eternal youth, so that he lived but
just went on getting older.
5 Titan: the sun; discovered: uncovered
them for mortal watchers.
6 stowre: time of distress.
7 borne: carried off.
8 Th’end of his drift: the goal of his plan.
The Faerie Queene: Book One
That had such might over true meaning harts:
Yet rests not so, but other meanes doth make,
How he may worke unto her further smarts:
For her he hated as the hissing snake,
And in her many troubles did most pleasure take.
He then devisde himselfe how to disguise;
For by his mighty science he could take
As many formes and shapes in seeming wise,
As ever Proteus1 to himselfe could make:
Sometime a fowle, sometime a fish in lake,
Now like a foxe, now like a dragon fell,2
That of himselfe he ofte for feare would quake,
And oft would flie away. O who can tell
The hidden powre of herbes, and might of Magick spel?
But now seemde best, the person to put on
Of that good knight, his late beguiled guest:
In mighty armes he was yclad anon:
And silver shield, upon his coward brest
A bloody crosse, and on his craven crest
A bounch of heares discolourd diversly:3
Full jolly knight he seemde, and wel addrest,4
And when he sate uppon his courser free,
Saint George5 himselfe ye would have deemed him to be.
But he the knight, whose semblaunt he did beare,
The true Saint George was wandred far away,
Still flying from his thoughts and gealous feare;
Will was his guide, and griefe led him astray.
At last him chaunst to meete upon the way
A faithlesse Sarazin6 all armde to point,
A god of the sea, also a shapeshifter. He
will appear in person in Book Four.
2 fell: ruthless.
3 heares discolourd diversly: hairs of
various colors; i.e., a plume. Arthur’s plume
is similar (vii.32).
4 addrest: readied.
5 Redcrosse is here named for the first time.
He has been called St. George in ii.11.9,
but in x.61 we learn he earns this name
only when he kills the dragon, and he may
not even know his name is George; hence
critics, and indeed, most of the time, the
poet-speaker, call him Redcrosse. This description echoes the description of Redcrosse in i.1.
6 Sarazin: Saracen, a pagan or infidel—
epithets ignorantly applied to Muslims such
as the feared and hated Turks.