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4 T&Ps and use of Admiralty Information Overlay (AIO

4 T&Ps and use of Admiralty Information Overlay (AIO

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CHAPTER 4 Use of ECDIS for Navigation



4.5



ECDIS Safety Functions

ECDIS safety settings must be configured correctly to ensure that charted objects are identified by the ECDIS as

dangers or hazards to navigation. These parameters are referred to as chart alert parameters and are set by the

ECDIS operator (refer to Section 2.3).

The vessel safety depth, own ship look-ahead, chart alert parameters, navigation parameters, optimisation

parameters and other safety functions in ECDIS are essential to ensure the ship's navigational safety. If configured

correctly, they will alarm to warn the ECDIS operator that the vessel is approaching shallow waters or other

hazards to navigation so that timely action can be taken to avoid them. There is no such thing as a false alarm in

ECDIS and the ECDIS operator is required to acknowledge, interrogate and understand all alarms, warnings and

cautions.

To maximise the efficiency of these safety functions, standard procedures for setting them should be developed

incorporating (where necessary) the guidance in this section. It must be noted that when conducting route

planning, the safety depth and safety contour values may differ at various stages of the voyage and this must be

taken into account during the planning phase.



29



ECDIS Procedures Guide 2018 Edition



4.6



Safety Depth and Safety Contour

The safety depth is a value entered by the ECDIS operator based on the requirements throughout the passage plan

and any further requirements of the Master and/or standing orders. Setting the safety depth defines which depths

are a danger to navigation. A depth equal to or less than the safety depth is highlighted on the chart in bold type

when the display of spot soundings is turned on (ENCs only). The safety depth is a visual indication of the limit of

navigable water. Basic safety depth calculation:



I



Safety Depth= Draught+ Squat+ Safety - Height of Tide



Safety height = Safe vertical clearance + Height



He;ght



I



Safe ,ert;cal oleacance



UKC



Figure 4.5 -The calculation of the safety contour will be used to define safe navigable water



The safety contour value distinguishes between safe and unsafe water and generates alarms and warnings against

the planned and monitored route. The safety contour is highlighted on the chart with a bold line (ENCs only). If,

with an automatic change of ENC cell under the ship position the previously selected safety contour becomes

unavailable, the safety contour alarm is generated. ECDIS operators must be familiar with which contour the ENC

is selecting when the ship transfers between ENCs. The safety contour is automatically set as equal to the next

deepest available contour.

Calculation of the safety depth and safety contour is required at all stages of the voyage to give the necessary

under keel clearance (UKC). It is the responsibility of the Master to determine these during the passage planning

stage. If a safety contour other than the standard setting is required, it should be recommended for approval for

a particular route at the briefing stage. Once approved by the Master, the safety depth and safety contour should

be documented in the passage plan as required. The authorised safety depth and safety contour must always

be known to the ECDIS operator. It is recommended that this information is part of the watch handover and is

displayed on all ECDIS units (see Annex E).

Further guidance on passage planning with reference to safety depth and safety contours is given in Annex B.



30



CHAPTER 4 Use of ECDIS for Navigation



4. 7



Shallow and Deep Contour

The shallow and deep contours do not alarm and are for information purposes only. However, although it does

not provide an indication of a dangerous depth contour, the deep contour can be useful in displaying contour

information that has significance for ship handling. For example, if the 50 m contour is the onset depth for squat,

then the deep contour setting could be set accordingly to give an indication of the 50 m contour to the ECDIS

operator. The shallow and deep contours provide the following:





Shallow contour - Shades the area from the shallow contour to zero depth







deep contour - Shades the area below the deep contour (above is white).



If all contours are correctly configured and four shades is selected, then the following depth information is shaded

and distinguishable from each other:

"



Zero to shallow contour (dark blue)







shallow contour to safety contour (light blue)







safety contour to deep contour (light grey)







greater than deep contour (white).



If four shades is not selected, two shades will be displayed instead, showing only:





Zero to safety contour (blue)







greater than safety contour (white).



The two shades setting may be of benefit to the ECDIS operator when navigating using the dusk or night palette as

the contrast between safe and unsafe water and ARPA and AIS targets is improved.



31



ECDIS Procedures Guide 2018 Edition



4.8



Look-ahead

The look-ahead area is intended for setting the size of the area that will be used for the chart data analysis

and for the generation of the anti-grounding alarms, alarm alerts and navigational alarms. The trigger points

for alarms and warnings are defined by a look-ahead projected ahead, stern, port and starboard of the vessel.

When calculating and configuring the size of the look-ahead area, consideration must be given to the size,

manoeuvrability and location of the vessel. The look-ahead area must be sufficient to allow the ECDIS operator to

acknowledge, assess and take appropriate action.

The Master should only modify or adapt look-ahead settings after careful risk assessment. Should it be necessary

to modify look-ahead settings, for example in the event of deviation from the passage plan or in an emergency,

these should be made with the authorisation of the Master after careful risk assessment.



32



CHAPTER 4 Use of ECDISfor Navigation



4.9



SCAMIN

SCAM IN can be described as the process by which the system automatically filters information from the display.

When the display is underscale, and therefore not at the compilation scale, certain features are suppressed

and the operator runs the risk of not seeing all relevant and possibly safety critical information. This, therefore,

requires careful management. While there are various techniques to minimise the SCAM IN effect, such as ensuring

Autoload and Autoscale are on, the only foolproof measure is for the operator to select '1:1' or equivalent

function, which displays the ENC at compilation scale, and then frequently check that this setting is correct.

Presentation Library {PL) 4.0 allows the ECDIS operator the ability to turn off SCAM IN. SCAM IN is not universally

applied by HOs in the same way, so the ECDIS operators may need to see all data. However, the ECDIS operator

must be aware that disabling the SCAM IN filter will add significant clutter to the display.



33



ECDIS Procedures Guide 2018 Edition



4.10



Presentation of Data

Every ECDIS operator should assess the quality of information being viewed. This means ensuring settings and

procedures consistently provide full relevant safety data and that information is mirrored on all bridge ECDIS

terminals.

When an ENC is loaded for display (either manually or automatically) the ECDIS operator must be aware of its

datum and update status, which should be checked by cell information. The ECDIS operators should also check

all cautions, warnings and quality of data by use of category zone of confidence (CATZOC) details (or source data

diagrams for RNCs) for charts in use. CATZOCs should be used when risk assessing the quality and accuracy of

the ENC as part of the passage plan. Where CATZOC is lower, the ECDIS operator may need to increase all safety

margins and reduce speed.

PoMionAccu,ecy



,: I :;:

,: I :i;

'° I . ,

. I ,.

DepthAccuraq



Dapth(m)

�sm• 5%depth



A2



Accuracy(m)



1000



t105



Dep1h(mJ



Accuracy(m)



1000



t210



: 1 00•2%d

Depth(m) Aecuracy(ml

3,0



100

1000



±16



t30

� 21.0

----<



m) ,

r-Do-,.-,.-,�--,.,,,-



30



±35



,ooo



t52.0



100



Worse Than



zocc



SeafioorCovera11t1

FuNarea searci iurid9rt.iken

Sigrlllican1 seaftoorfea11;1es

detecte(laiddepthsmeawred



TypicalSu1YeyCUracteriatics



CATZOCSymbol



Conrrolled,s)'S!ematO:swvey

highf')SibOnarldciepltiaccuracy

adl�usingDGPSoramirllll'lJm

three high quality�oos ot position

(LOP)andarooltibeam.chamtlor

mochanicalsweepsystem.



Fija-easaarchundertaken

Sqlificant son!)()'fllabns

detecledanddepll'ISmeawred



Controlleds�surwy

achie\lingpo&llonaoddepltl

ao::t,,-acylessdieriZOCA1

andusl'lgamodemsurvey

echosoonlle(and a sonaroi

mechanical sweep system



Fu!areasearchrxitathieved:

unchartedleatures,hazarOOu,sto

surlace n a\ligation arer10te1P"Cted

bol mayexis1



Controlled,syste�ticsurvey

achle,ing similardepthbu!

lesserposilfona::curacHtSlhe<1

ZOCA2,u:.ngamooomsu,vey

eeho:souotlertJ.itOOS0Nll'Of

mechar»calsweepsystem.



Full antasearchnotac:Neved,
t.nwacx:ll'ac:ysurveyordata

ar(l!Tl!lliesmaybeexpecied

colectsdonanopportll'litybasls

suchassoondr,gsonp;i$Sag,e



17.0



WorseThan

,OC C



Poorqualitydataordatathat

Fulio"easearchrxilacliie,e.:!,large

depthiwiornalesmaybeeipected. cannolbe qualityassesseddueto

laclcaflllformatlOr>



Uoanesse,d - The quaity of the balhymatn:data MIS ye\1o be assessed



Figure 4.6 - CATZOC Table

All ECDIS operators should be familiar with the CATZOC table when

appraising the chart and the quality of the ENC.



34



Figure 4.7 -Without the CATZOC layer displayed, the ECDIS

operator may assume the quality of the ENC is uniform throughout

the passage planned area



CHAPTER 4 Use of ECDIS for Navigation



4.11



Man Overboard

In the case of a man overboard (MOB), the MOB function is available on all ECDIS systems and all ECDIS operators

must be competent in the use of this function on the specific equipment installed . Activating the MOB function

creates a reference point in ECDIS and a constant range and bearing from the ship is provided. If the MOB is not

being tracked visually, ECDIS should be used to direct the lookout bearing, although the position of the MOB may

not take into account set and drift. Any time delay between the MOB entering the water and activation of the

MOB marker should be established as quickly as possible and some systems may allow the ECDIS operator to apply

this offset to the MOB marker.

If visual contact has been lost and a significant delay in activating the ship's MOB marker has occurred, the ECDIS

operator should estimate the likely position of the MOB against the primary vessel track history.

Note that the MOB function may not provide a prediction of set and drift and so tidal information must be known

to the ECDIS operator.

When an MOB is reported after an unknown interval, the ECDIS operator should be familiar with, and may wish to

utilise, the search and rescue (SAR) functionality on ECDIS.









,.







....



_;_i.__



Figure 4.8 - Automatic SAR patterns displayed on FURUNO, Sperry and TRANSAS



35



ECDIS Procedures Guide 2018 Edition



4.12



RCDS Mode

The ECDIS operator must be aware that when the system has RNC as well as ENC data installed, that he prioritises

which chart data the system displays. The ECDIS operator must know the limitations of the system when in the

RCDS mode of operation. Of particular note are the following limitations when in RCDS mode:





Unlike ENCs, RNCs are not seamless and may display boundaries







RNCs cannot automatically generate safety contours







an RNC cannot be interrogated for automatic route checking, although mariner added objects with a danger

attribute should activate alarms to mitigate these limitations







objects on RN Cs cannot be interrogated to display any additional information







displayed information may be difficult to read if displayed in anything other than 'north up'







RNCs are distorted as a result of being over or under zoomed, as they are designed to be displayed at a

specific pixel density







charted information displayed on RNCs may be more difficult to view if on anything other than the 'day bright'

palette.



RNCs contain a header file that includes some additional information over and above that shown on a paper chart.

The most significant information in the header file is the datum shift needed for the plotting of WGS 84 positions

onto charts based on another datum. Datum shifts can be applied to WGS 84 positions and directly displayed

upon the chart using the shift appropriate to that area and chart, as determined by the relevant government

authorised Hydrographic Office. Where the difference between the local horizontal datum and WGS 84 is known,

an adjustment should be automatically applied by the ECDIS. If the horizontal datum of the paper chart from

which the RNC is produced is not known, then it is not possible to relate GPS positions accurately to the RNC. IMO

SN circular 255 has been issued to alert users to this problem.

ECDIS operates in WGS 84 datum and automatically offsets charts with other horizontal datums so that they are

displayed to the user in WGS 84. However, in cases where the original charted datum is uncertain or unknown,

shifting charts to match correct known positions is possible by offsetting GNSS manually. Conducting a manual

datum shift is potentially dangerous, is always subject to errors of unknown magnitude and should not normally

be attempted. It is only to be carried out with the Master's approval and after a documented risk assessment.

If a chart with an unknown datum is encountered, consider navigating in DR mode and apply manual fixes.



36



5



ECDIS Display Set-up

Robust procedures for setting up an ECDIS display are paramount, particularly as the ECDIS operator has access to

more configuration options, and the Master must be aware of how it is set-up in accordance with best practice. It

is also important to recognise that the terminology used by each of the 40+ ECDIS manufacturers is different.

The pull-out page that follows provides a generic overview for an 'ECDIS Display Configuration' that can be used to

form bridge check-off cards for configuring the ECDIS display on your own vessel.

You are strongly advised that where the ECDIS in use supports saving display configurations this should be done, so

that the system can be set up quickly when transiting between different operating environments such as confined

waters, anchoring, coastal navigation and open ocean.

Refer to Annex I for type specific guidance for: FURUNO, JRC and Kelvin Hughes.

Note: When preparing bespoke guidance for the exact make and model of the ECDIS on board your own vessel

the terminology used will be broadly based on the following three providers of ECDIS systems: FURUNO, JRC and

Kelvin Hughes.

Please use the system that is closest in terminology to your own system (if you are not already using FURUN 0, JRC

or Kelvin Hughes).



37



ECDIS Display Configuration (Generic)

The following guidance can be used to form bridge check-off cards for configuring the ECDIS display.

Where the ECDIS in use supports it, display configurations should be saved so that the system can be set up quickly when transiting between

different operating environments such as confined waters, anchoring, coastal navigation and open ocean.



Recommended Configuration for Pilotage and Confined Waters:

Time

Check:

Action:



Areas

Points

Shallow Contour

Deep Contour



Check that System Time is configured correctly.

Check that Ship's Time is correct in the ECDIS.

Check that the correct Time Zone settings are applied.



Position Source Setup



Check:



Action:



Check that the primary position fixing system is set up

correctly.

Check that ECDIS is correct by inputting a manual fix in the

system.

Select the best available sensor as the Primary Position Source.

Select the best available Secondary Position Source.

Check Heading reading with ECDIS readout.

Check Log reading with ECDIS readout.

Set SOG or STW as speed source.

Confirm that Radar Information Overlay (RIO) is available

and prove ECDIS correct.



Select System Units

Check:

Action:



Ensure that System Units are configured correctly.

Set up System Units for:

Large Distance

Small Distance

Speed

Depth

Time Zone



Main Chart Panel

Check:

Action:



Ensure that the Main Chart Panel is configured correctly.

Check that an appropriate level of data is available for the

execution of navigation.

Check that the palette is configured to suit the conditions.

Check that the screen layout is appropriate for execution of

navigation.

Check that all relevant panels, such as Route Data, are open

or available.



Consider setting the following options:

Four Shades

On during the Day; Off at Night

Shallow Pattern

On

Use SCAMIN

On

Full Light Lines

Off during the Day; On at Night

Highlight Info

Off

Show Correction

On

M-Quality Objects

Off

National Names

Off

Show Outdated

Off



Routes



Check:



Action:



Ensure that the chart is configured correctly.

Check that the following parameters are configured:

Chart Motion

Relative or True (configure

Look-Ahead if in True)

Chart Orientation

North Up, Head Up or Course Up

Chart Autoload

On

Chart Autoscale

On

Chart Priority

ENC



Layers Setup

Check:

Action:



Ensure that the chart is configured correctly.

Check that the display of layers is configured appropriately:

Standard+ or Custom

Display Category

(or equivalent)

Consider displaying the following layers:

Spot Soundings

Isolated Dangers

Names

Cables, Pipelines

Buoys Names

Other Info

All Depth Contours

Seabed

Scale Bar

NAVTEX



ENC Setup

Check:

Action:



Ensure that the chart is configured correctly.

Check that the ENC is configured appropriately:



Ensure that the correct Route is loaded for Route

Monitoring.

Check that XTD has been set to an appropriate value.

Set up ETA.

Set up ETD.

Confirm that the Route has been checked.

Protect the Route.

Activate the Route for Monitoring.

Load the Secondary Route in Route Editor if required.



Route Display Setup

Check:

Action:



Chart Setup

Check:

Action:



Symbolised or Simplified

Simplified or Traditional

Set appropriate value

Set appropriate value



Ensure that the display is configured for Route Monitoring.

Configure the following parameters appropriately:

Headline

COG Vector

HDG Vector

Ship by

Contour or Symbol

Align by

HDG

Course/Leg/Speed

On

XTD

On

Arrival Circle

Off

Radius

On

WPT Names

On



Overlays

Check:

Action:



Ensure that all relevant overlays are loaded.

Check that the following overlays are loaded and configured:

(load filename as appropriate)

Manual Corrections

(load filename as appropriate)

Additional Information



Safety Alarms

Check:

Action:



Ensure the Audible Alarm is working correctly.

Check that the Audible Alarm is on and test it to prove it

correct.



Navigational Alarms

Check:

Action:



Ensure that Navigational Alarms are configured correctly.

Check that the following Alarms are configured as necessary:

Anti-Grounding Cone

On

Ahead

3 mins (set appropriate value)

Port

0.1 nm (set appropriate value)

Starboard

0.1 nm (set appropriate value)

Anti-Grounding Alarm

On

Nav Danger

On

Land Danger

On

Aids to Navigation

On

Safety Contour

On

Primary/Secondary

Divergence

On (configure as necessary)

Off Chart Alarm

On



Sounder Alarm

Sounder Depth

Set Safety Depth

Set Safety Contour

Set Depth Alarm



On

On

Squat+ Draught+ Safety- HoT

Appropriate value

Appropriate value (e.g. set to

Safety Depth)



Route Alarms



Check:

Action:



Ensure that Route Alarms are configured correctly.

Check that the following Alarms are configured

appropriately:

End of Route Alarm

Off

On

Out of XTD Alarm

Out of Schedule Alarm

Configure as necessary

WPT Approach Alarm

On (set appropriate value)

Off Leg Course Alarm

On (configure as necessary)



Area Alerts



Check:

Action:



Ensure that Area Alerts are configured correctly.

If the system in use allows alarm configuration, check that

the following Basic Area Alerts are configured as necessary:



Basic Areas



Traffic Separation Zone

Traffic SS Roundabout

Two-way Traffic Route

Recommended Traffic Lane

Fairway

Caution Area

Areas to be avoided

Seaplane Landing

Ice Area

Fishing Ground

Pipeline Area

Anchorage Area

Dumping Ground

Cargo Tranship

Marine Farm Culture

Environmentally Sensitive Area

Traffic SS Crossing

Precautionary Area

Deepwater Route

Inshore Traffic Zone

Restricted Area

Offshore Production Area

Military Area

Submarine Transit

Dredged Area

Fishing Prohibited

Cable Area

Anchoring Prohibited

Spoil Ground

Incineration Area

Partly Sensitive Area

Action:



On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night

On, Day and Night



Check that the following Additional Area Alerts are

configured as necessary:



Additional Areas



International Maritime Boundary

Territorial Sea

Quarantine Anchorage

Swept Area

Harbour Limit

Explosive Dumping

Nature Reserve

Territorial Sea Base



On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and



Night

Night

Night

Night

Night

Night

Night

Night



Prohibited Area

Fishery Zone

Exclusive Economic Zone

U nsurveyed Area

Danger Line

NAVTEX Polygon



On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and

On, Day and



Night

Night

Night

Night

Night

Night



Waypoint Selection



Check:



Action:



Ensure that the correct waypoint information is being

displayed.

Check that the following are configured correctly:

Waypoint Selection

Auto or Manual

Arrival Circle

Auto or Manual

Auto or Manual

Radius

On (set appropriate

Track History

value)

Secondary Track

On



ECDIS Navigation Aids



Check:

Action:



Targets



Check:

Action:



Radar



Check:

Action:



Ensure that navigation aids are configured correctly.

Check that the following are configured correctly:

On, configure as

Predictor

necessary

Available

Manual Fixing



Ensure that targets are configured correctly.

Check that the following are configured correctly:

ARPA Contacts

On, Vectors On, Tracks

Off

AIS Contacts

On, Vectors On, Tracks

Off

CPA Alarm

Configure as necessary

Configure as necessary

TCPA Alarm

Ensure that the preferred radar is selected.

Check that RIO and ARPA targets can be displayed.



Docking Mode Settings



Check:

Action:



Other



Check:

Action:



Ensure that Docking Mode is configured correctly.

Check that the following are configured correctly:

1:7,500

DM Settings

Ship History

Steps 15, Interval 1 s



Ensure that other functions are configured correctly.

Check that the following are configured correctly.

EBL

On

VRM

On

Parallel Index Lines

Configure as required

Environmental Data

Tidal Stream On,

Current On



Vessel Setup



Check:

Action:



Ensure that vessel data is set up correctly.

Check that the following are configured correctly:

Ship Position

Centre on Ship or

displaced

Select the best scale

Chart

chart available

6 mins (set

Vectors

appropriate value)

Loaded, Medium or

TCS Ship Condition

Light (configure as

required)



Ensure that the above setup is replicated on all ECDIS units.



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