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1 ANNUAL PROBABILITY OF EXCEEDANCE (P) AND PROBABILITY FACTOR (kp)

1 ANNUAL PROBABILITY OF EXCEEDANCE (P) AND PROBABILITY FACTOR (kp)

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19



AS 1170.4—2007



TABLE 3.2

HAZARD FACTOR (Z) FOR SPECIFIC AUSTRALIAN LOCATIONS

Location



Z



Location



Z



Z



Adelaide

Albany

Albury/Wodonga



0.10

0.08

0.09



Geraldton

Gladstone

Gold Coast



0.09

0.09

0.05



Port Augusta

Port Lincoln

Port Hedland



0.11

0.10

0.12



Alice Springs

Ballarat

Bathurst



0.08

0.08

0.08



Gosford

Grafton

Gippsland



0.09

0.05

0.10



Port Macquarie

Port Pirie

Robe



0.06

0.10

0.10



Bendigo

Brisbane

Broome



0.09

0.05

0.12



Goulburn

Hobart

Karratha



0.09

0.03

0.12



Rockhampton

Shepparton

Sydney



0.08

0.09

0.08



Bundaberg

Burnie

Cairns



0.11

0.07

0.06



Katoomba

Latrobe Valley

Launceston



0.09

0.10

0.04



Tamworth

Taree

Tennant Creek



0.07

0.08

0.13



Camden

Canberra

Carnarvon



0.09

0.08

0.09



Lismore

Lorne

Mackay



0.05

0.10

0.07



Toowoomba

Townsville

Tweed Heads



0.06

0.07

0.05



Coffs Harbour

Cooma

Dampier



0.05

0.08

0.12



Maitland

Melbourne

Mittagong



0.10

0.08

0.09



Uluru

Wagga Wagga

Wangaratta



0.08

0.09

0.09



Darwin

Derby

Dubbo



0.09

0.09

0.08



Morisset

Newcastle

Noosa



0.10

0.11

0.08



Whyalla

Wollongong

Woomera



0.09

0.09

0.08



Esperance

Geelong



0.09

0.10



Orange

Perth



0.08

0.09



Wyndham

Wyong



0.09

0.10



Meckering region



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



Location



Islands



Ballidu

Corrigin

Cunderdin



0.15

0.14

0.22



Meckering

Northam

Wongan Hills



0.20

0.14

0.15



Christmas Island

Cocos Islands

Heard Island



0.15

0.08

0.10



Dowerin

Goomalling

Kellerberrin



0.20

0.16

0.14



Wickepin

York



0.15

0.14



Lord Howe Island

Macquarie Island

Norfolk Island



0.06

0.60

0.08



www.standards.org.au



© Standards Australia



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



AS 1170.4—2007



20



Hazard (z)

1 in 500 years annual

probability of exceedance



FIGURE 3.2(A) HAZARD FACTOR (Z) FOR NEW SOUTH WALES, VICTORIA

AND TASMANIA



© Standards Australia



www.standards.org.au



21



AS 1170.4—2007



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



Hazard (z)

1 in 500 years annual

probability of exceedance



FIGURE 3.2(B) HAZARD FACTOR (Z) FOR SOUTH AUSTRALIA



www.standards.org.au



© Standards Australia



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



AS 1170.4—2007



22



FIGURE 3.2(C) HAZARD FACTOR (Z) FOR WESTERN AUSTRALIA



© Standards Australia



www.standards.org.au



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



23



AS 1170.4—2007



Hazard (z)

1 in 500 years annual

probability of exceedance



FIGURE 3.2(D) HAZARD FACTOR (Z) FOR SOUTH-WEST OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA



www.standards.org.au



© Standards Australia



AS 1170.4—2007



24



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



Hazard (z)

1 in 500 years annual

probability of exceedance



FIGURE 3.2(E) HAZARD FACTOR (Z) FOR NORTHERN TERRITORY



© Standards Australia



www.standards.org.au



25



AS 1170.4—2007



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



Hazard (z)

1 in 500 years annual

probability of exceedance



FIGURE 3.2(F) HAZARD FACTOR (Z) FOR QUEENSLAND



www.standards.org.au



© Standards Australia



© Standards Australia



FIGURE 3.2(G) HAZARD FACTOR (Z)



Hazard (z)

1 in 500 years annual

probability of exceedance



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



AS 1170.4—2007

26



www.standards.org.au



27



SECT ION



4



S ITE



AS 1170.4—2007



SU B- SO I L



C L ASS



4.1 DETERMINATION OF SITE SUB-SOIL CLASS

4.1.1 General

The site shall be assessed and assigned to the site sub-soil class it most closely resembles.

The site sub-soil classes shall be as defined in Clause 4.2, that is, Classes Ae to E e as

follows:

(a)



Class A e—Strong rock.



(b)



Class B e—Rock.



(c)



Class C e—Shallow soil.



(d)



Class D e—Deep or soft soil.



(e)



Class Ee —Very soft soil.



4.1.2 Hierarchy for site classification methods

Site classification shall be determined using the methods in the following list, in order of

most preferred to least preferred:

(a)



Site periods based on four times the shear-wave travel-time through material from the

surface to underlying rock.



(b)



Bore logs, including measurement of geotechnical properties.



(c)



Evaluation of site periods from Nakamura ratios or from recorded earthquake

motions.



(d)



Bore logs with descriptors but no geotechnical measurements.



(e)



Surface geology and estimates of the depth to underlying rock.



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



Where more than one method has been carried out, the site classification determined by the

most preferred method shall be used.

4.1.3 Evaluation of periods for layered sites

For sites consisting of layers of several types of material, the low-amplitude natural period

of the site may be estimated by summing the contributions to the natural period of each

layer. The contribution of each layer may be estimated by determining the soil type of each

layer, and multiplying the ratio of each layer’s thickness to the maximum depth of soil for

that soil type (given in Table 4.1) by 0.6 s. In evaluating site periods, material above rock

shall be included in the summation.



www.standards.org.au



© Standards Australia



AS 1170.4—2007



28



TABLE 4.1

MAXIMUM DEPTH LIMITS FOR SITE SUB-SOIL CLASS C

Soil type and description



Cohesive soils



Very soft



Representative undrained

shear strengths



Representative

SPT N-values



(kPa)



(Number)



(m)



<12.5







0



Soft



12.5 – 25







20



Firm



25 – 50







25



Stiff



50 – 100







40



100 – 200







60



Very loose







<6



0



Loose dry







6 – 10



40



Medium dense







10 – 30



45



Dense







30 – 50



55



Very dense







>50



60



Gravels







>30



100



Very stiff or hard

Cohesionless soils



Maximum

depth of soil



Property



4.2 CLASS DEFINITIONS

4.2.1 Class Ae—Strong rock



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



Site sub-soil Class A e is defined as strong to extremely strong rock satisfying the following

conditions:

(a)



Unconfined compressive strength greater than 50 MPa or an average shear-wave

velocity over the top 30 m greater than 1500 m/s.



(b)



Not underlain by materials having a compressive strength less than 18 MPa or an

average shear wave velocity less than 600 m/s.



4.2.2 Class Be—Rock

Site sub-soil Class Be is defined as rock satisfying the following conditions:

(a)



A compressive strength between 1 and 50 MPa inclusive or an average shear-wave

velocity, over the top 30 m, greater than 360 m/s.



(b)



Not underlain by materials having a compressive strength less than 0.8 MPa or an

average shear wave velocity less than 300 m/s.



A surface layer of no more than 3 m depth of highly weathered or completely weathered

rock or soil (a material with a compressive strength less than 1 MPa) may be present.

4.2.3 Class Ce—Shallow soil site

Site sub-soil Class Ce is defined as a site that is not Class Ae , Class B e (i.e., not rock site),

or Class Ee site (i.e., not very soft soil site) and either—

(a)



the low-amplitude natural site period is less than or equal to 0.6 s; or



(b)



the depths of soil do not exceed those listed in Table 4.1.



The low-amplitude natural site period may be estimated from—

(i)



four times the shear-wave travel time from the surface to rock;



(ii)



Nakamura ratios;



© Standards Australia



www.standards.org.au



29



AS 1170.4—2007



(iii) recorded earthquake motions; or

(iv)



evaluated in accordance with Clause 4.1.3 for sites with layered sub-soil.



Where more than one method is used, the value determined from the most preferred method

given in Clause 4.1.2 shall be adopted.

4.2.4 Class De—Deep or soft soil site

Site sub-soil Class De is defined as a site that is—

(a)



not Class A e, Class Be (i.e., not rock site) or Class Ee site (i.e., very soft soil site); and



(b)



underlain by less than 10 m of soil with an undrained shear-strength less than

12.5 kPa or soil with Standard penetration test (SPT) N-values less than 6; and either

(i)



the low-amplitude natural site period is greater than 0.6 s; or



(ii)



the depths of soil exceed those listed in Table 4.1,



where the low-amplitude natural site period is estimated in accordance with Clause 4.2.3.

4.2.5 Class Ee—Very soft soil site

Site sub-soil Class Ee is defined as a site with any one of the following:

More than 10 m of very soft soil with undrained shear-strength less than 12.5 kPa.



(b)



More than 10 m of soil with SPT N-values less than 6.



(c)



More than 10 m depth of soil with shear wave velocities of 150 m/s or less.



(d)



More than 10 m combined depth of soils with properties as described in Items (a), (b)

and (c) above.



Accessed by SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY on 19 Nov 2007



(a)



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© Standards Australia



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