Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
4 KRI Basic Education: Statistics on Students, Schools, and Teachers, 2008 and 2013

4 KRI Basic Education: Statistics on Students, Schools, and Teachers, 2008 and 2013

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

60



KRI: Assessing the Economic and Social Impact of the Syrian Conflict and ISIS



about 55,000. The number of school-aged children among Iraqi IDPs is

estimated at 270,000. The analyses show that the large majority of these

children remain out of school because of economic considerations; the

language barrier; the lack of school infrastructure, teachers, and school

materials; complex administrative procedures for school enrollment; and

other socioeconomic reasons.



The Syrian Crisis

Assessments indicate a low registration of school-age Syrian refugee children in KRI. A recent study by UNICEF showed that approximately

90 percent of school-age Syrian refugee children in noncamp settings are

not attending formal education, 76  percent of whom used to attend

schools while in Syria (UNICEF 2013). Enrollment in secondary education also appears to be lower than at the primary level. Children and

youth, and more specifically boys, would rather be sent to work to help

meet the basic needs of their families than enroll in secondary education

(United Nations, NGOs, and KRG 2012).

The proportion of Syrian refugee children attending school in the different governorates in KRI, irrespective of their age group, is low. The

proportion of children between the ages of 5 and 14 enrolled in schools

is 17 percent in Dohuk, 10 percent in Erbil, and 6 percent in Sulaymaniyah.

School enrollment is particularly low for youth between the ages of

15 and 24 (7 percent in Dohuk, 9 percent in Erbil, and 0 percent in

Sulaymaniyah) (UNICEF 2013).

The language barrier is one of the main reasons that Syrian refugee

children do not enroll in school. Most of the schools in KRI teach in the

Kurdish language. Although some Syrian children speak Kurdish, they

are often unable to read and write in Kurdish because they have received

an education in Arabic while living in Syria. As an alternative to the

Kurdish teaching schools, Syrian children and their families will look for

Arabic teaching schools. Those schools teaching in Arabic are, however,

limited and far from the low-rent accommodation areas where Syrian

refugees live.

The economic factor is another main cause for the low registration of

the school-age Syrian refugee children. In the urban area, 8 percent of

refugee children and youth are involved with paid labor; and 21 percent

are involved with domestic tasks on a full-time basis, among which

43 percent are girls (UNICEF 2013, 18). Furthermore, some schools in

KRI are unable to receive refugee students (UNICEF 2013, 11).

Other reasons for the low school enrollment of Syrian children refugees

in KRI are related to disability, administrative, and psychological issues.



Darashakran refugee camp profile in Erbil governorate. © UNHCR/T. Tool. Used with the permission of UNHCR/T. Tool; further permission required for reuse.



PHOTO 2.1

Darashakran Refugee Camp in Erbil Governorate



61



62



KRI: Assessing the Economic and Social Impact of the Syrian Conflict and ISIS



Children with disabilities are neglected in some schools. The proportion

of Syrian refugee children with disabilities attending schools in KRI is

15 percent (6 percent of Syrian refugee children have some form of

disability) (UNICEF 2013, 11, 18). Another impediment to children

enrolling in schools, even if they wish to do so, is that they do not possess the prerequisites in terms of documentation, identification papers,

or certificates. Many children do not find it easy to enroll back in

school after they dropped out while in Syria. Other children are still

very  much affected psychologically by the experiences they went

through.

Within its existing limited budget space, KRG has been supporting the

educational needs of the Syrian refugees. For example, a second shift has

been allocated to the Syrian refugees in some schools with the associated

costs, including teacher salaries, being provided by the Ministry of

Finance. KRG has also built two schools for the refugees, although they

have not yet opened because no funds are available to cover teacher

salaries and to pay for textbooks and school supplies.



Iraqi IDPs

The ISIS crisis in 2014 created a large inflow of Iraqi IDPs into KRI, with

an estimated 270,000 school-age children among them. The crisis violently erupted during the school year in January and February 2014 in

the regions affected by the crisis, and children from those areas were out

of school till late 2014. The massive influx of IDPs into KRI created a

humanitarian crisis and pushed to the limits the capacity of the regional

government, the UN, and other donors to respond to the basic needs of

the IDPs. As a result, at the peak of the crisis in October 2014, more than

450 schools across the region were used for this purpose. Some 435 of

these schools were located in Dohuk, and, on the basis of data obtained

earlier in the year, they were largely concentrated in the districts of

Zakho, Semel, and Dohuk (table 2.5).

As experienced by the Syrian refugees, the IDP families also face a

number of similar challenges in accessing the public education system,

including the language barriers, associated economic costs, administrative procedures, insecurities and uncertainties associated with possible further displacements, children’s safety, and other issues. KRG

authorities are aware of these challenges and are taking steps to

address them. For example, to address the language barrier, Arabicspeaking teachers and school instructors are being identified and

trained, including those among the IDPs, and discussions are underway for school textbooks in Arabic to be supplied from the federal

education ministry in Baghdad.



63



Social Development Impact of the Conflict



TABLE 2.5

Dohuk: Number of Refugee Shelters in Schools as of September 1, 2014



District



Schools with

Refugees



Operating

Schools



Number of Schools

Occupied by Refugees



Zakho



136



0



136



Semel



110



7



103



Dohuk



164



0



164



Amede



39



33



6



Shekhan



46



39



7



Akre



94



39



55



Bardarash



64



10



54



653



128



525



Total

Source: KRG authorities.



Stabilization Assessment: Education Sector

Education is one of the priority areas in providing for IDPs’ most immediate needs because education is a key factor in addressing the trauma

experienced by the IDP children (United Nations and KRG Ministry of

Planning 2014a). Priorities in this area are focused on school infrastructure, including (1) renovation and rehabilitation of schools following

IDPs’ relocation to proper shelters; (2) expanding classroom capacity,

largely via prefabricated mobile classrooms (caravans), in existing host

community schools and in camps; and (3) exploring the potential offered

by underused schools in rural areas and by opening schools in urban

areas. Other priority actions include (1) raising awareness and sharing

information among the IDPs about the education system and the availability of spaces for IDP children and (2) procuring supplies for schools,

children, and teachers.

The most immediate education sector needs are now focused on infrastructure, such as school and classroom renovation and expansion and

construction of temporary classrooms and learning spaces within camps.

In parallel, KRG authorities, together with the donor community, are

desperately trying to find other options to host refugees and IDPs so that

the schools used as shelters can be quickly rehabilitated to allow the

academic year in the KRI to start at full operational status.



64



KRI: Assessing the Economic and Social Impact of the Syrian Conflict and ISIS



The KRG Ministry of Education, with the support of the donor

Education Cluster, has developed an action plan that includes recommendations for the short to medium term to make sure that, beyond

immediate school infrastructure needs, all necessary conditions are provided to have qualified teachers deployed and paid, textbooks and other

school materials provided, language barriers addressed by identifying

Arabic-speaking school teachers among Syrian refugees and IDPs,

psychological and health services provided, and security and safety of

children ensured.

An urgent need exists to provide additional funds to the KRG education sector to cope with the impact of Syrian refugees and IDPs. Basic and

secondary education in KRI is free, and it is entirely funded by the

government. However, the current level of education spending in KRI is

rather modest, and is largely spent on teacher salaries, textbooks, and

school equipment (table 2.6). With the precrisis delays in paying teacher

salaries and procuring school supplies, KRG is not in a position to bear

alone the financial costs of the Syrian refugee and IDP influx, including

those for the education sector.

Roughly $16.3 million per month is required to provide basic education services to Syrian refugees and Iraqi IDPs. Stabilization costs for 2015

are estimated at $196 million under the baseline population scenario.

This would include funds necessary for renovating and rehabilitation

of schools currently used as shelters for the IDPs, constructing interim

learning facilities via prefabricated classrooms, paying teacher salaries,

and acquiring textbooks and other school supplies and equipment.

This assessment is based on the assumption of a 100 percent student

enrolment rate. The stabilization assessment for the education sector is

presented in table 2.7.



TABLE 2.6

KRG Education Sector Expenditures, Actual Spending 2008–12

dollars, millions

 

Total education expenditure

Current expenditure

(% share)

Capital expenditure

(% share)

Source: KRG Ministry of Education.



2008



2009



2010



2011



2012



1,026.3



1,052.4



1,207.1



1,407.2



1,628.3



928.9



966.1



1,111.1



1,315.8



1,523.2



90.5



91.8



92.0



93.5



93.5



97.4



86.3



96.0



91.4



105.1



9.5



8.2



8.0



6.5



6.5



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

4 KRI Basic Education: Statistics on Students, Schools, and Teachers, 2008 and 2013

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×