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Figure 3.3: Teaching and learning environment

Figure 3.3: Teaching and learning environment

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students) who shared “agree” opinion . It was only 7,1% (3 students) of giving

disagree answer.

With the same purpose, question 15 was designed to investigate student’s

feelings. The data was presented in the following figure question number 15.



Figure 3.5: Reduced self-confidence

As can be seen from the figure 3.5, in question number 15, compare with

other selections, the answer “strongly disagree” consumed the large proportion of

students’ choice. More than one second percentage (50%) of students admitted that

they often felt shy when performing in front of class. And 47.6% of students agreed

with this statement. Therefore, the number of students strongly agreed and agreed

with this statement is 97,6%, a largest number. This figure was fifteen times higher

than percentage of students who strongly disagreed and disagreed with this

statement, with 2,4% of students.

In conclusion, the provided figure 3.4 and 3.5 has four sections, each

illustrated reasons causing demotivation of student in reduced self-confidence. As

was presented in the graphs, most of students agreed or strongly agreed with opinion

that they were reduced self-confidence.

3.1.5. Learning content and materials.



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To find out factors related to learning content and materials English

lessons, question number 16 to question number 18 were designed. The survey

results of these questions were shown in table 3. and figure 3.4.

Question



SA

No



A

%



No



D

%



No



SD

%



No



%



Question 16



6



14,4



3



7,1



14



33,3



19



45.2



Question 17



7



16,7



10



23,8



8



19



17



40,5



Question 18



1



2,4



2



4,8



16



38,1



23



54,7



Table 3.5. Learning content and materials.

In question number 16, 17 and 18, most of them strongly disagreed and

disagreed that the content and materials were difficult and interesting to learn,

with an average about 80%. The second question had the most popular

choice, attracting one third of proportion, was students’ disagreement. The

answer strongly disagree and disagree had lower choice rates in the graph.

For example, in question number 16, only 9 students stated that the learning

content and materials were not interesting and suitable averaging 21,5 percent

of students. The difference was greater in question number 17 when 17

students (40,5%) agreed that English lessons were too long and difficult to

learn.

In contrast, question number 18, proportion of students, who agreed

and strongly agreed, are higher than those in remaining questions. Percentage

of students who agreed is about 7,2%. This figure was lower than those in

other questions in graph.

In conclusion, it was very clear that English learning content and

materials were appropriate for 10A1 students.

3.2.



Result from class observation

To find out 10A1 student’s demotivating factors, observing how English



activities are carried out and what is actually going on in the English classes is

really indispensable because it is a technique that can often reveal



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characteristics of groups and individuals which would have been impossible to

discover by other means and direct observation may be more reliable.

The researcher would like to observe what demotivating factors that

affect students’ motivation in English lesson. The observation was carried out

six times at three different units (Unit 12, 13 and 14) and with different

teachers in these classes. Each lesson lasted 45 minutes. While observing, the

researcher watched and followed all the procedures and activities the teachers

and the students were performing in the real classroom settings, which enabled

her to elicit reliable data.

The researcher carried out to observe 10A1 class taught by one teachers

with 2 reading lessons, 2 speaking lessons, 1 writing lesson and 1 listening lesson

at Huong Can high school. During each lesson, the researcher took notes of what

were observed carefully in the most detailed way.

Based on the observation objectives (Appendix 2), researcher found that:

First of all, about students, through observation sheets of 4 teachers (2

trainee teachers, 1 English teacher and the researcher), most students are

involved in the English lessons. Teacher’s way of teaching created students’

activeness in learning. The majority of students (31 students) often raised their

hand to contribute ideas. Observer saw that about four-fifth (88,6%) of students in

each class have had positive attitude toward English lessons. Some of them felt

sleepy and bored (11,4%), so they made noise and did their own work. However,

when teacher asked them to work in groups or in pairs, many students did not

give their ideas and interact to others. They always depended on better and harder

classmates. On the other hands, students’ ability and knowledge are limited.

Although they studied hard and paid attention to teacher’s lecture, they did not

get good result. Another case is that some students had good knowledge. They

were able to answer most of teacher’s questions.

Secondly, teachers used the teaching techniques in English lesson. In

the warm- up stage, she didn’t raise any questions and any games for students

to express their knowledge about singers and musicians as a way to warm up

students. In the pre stage, she gave instructions and vocabulary that need for



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students and asked them to do that task. In general, the researcher saw that

this stage was not fairly good as it attracted most of the students in the

activities. Teacher, however, did not give clear corrections and feedback to

students that they did not know exactly the answers were correct or in correct.

For example, When 8 students were confused about the instruction and the

result that teacher gave out in 2 speaking lessons and teacher did not explain

again and correct the mistake or say if they were true or false, which led to

the boring environment and they felt unpleasant. In the post-stage there was no

time to check or apply any technique. The teacher did not use games, activities,

videos and dramas to motivate students in English lessons, the researcher think

that teacher should use games or dramas, students usually will feel exciting to

join the games or dramas.

In spite of being lack of teacher’s enthusiasm and dedication, it seemed that

the teacher’s English technique was not effective in boosting her students’

motivation in the lesson and doing the tasks.

Thirdly, after observation, researcher found that 10A4 students did not have

a good learning environment. The class was silent when teacher asked and the

class atmosphere were so stressful and boring, so teacher had a lot of difficulties

in teaching. In additions, partners play an important role in English lessons,

especially in pair or group works, the researcher saw that they didn’t cooperate

together when teacher asked them. Teacher had hardly asked them to move and

make groups when they moved. It was clearly that the classroom environment

was boring and unexciting.

Fourthly, about reduced self-confidence, most students felt scared when

they made mistake in both 6 periods, on the first and second lessons (2 reading

lessons) there are few students raise their hand to answer (just have 3-4 students),

and on the third lesson (2 speaking lessons), students sat in silent, they might be

shy. On the Listening lesson, students could not be interested in this lesson, so

they did not keep pecker up. And in writing lesson, student might be more active

due to activities teacher gave out. In general, it prevented them from thinking of



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what they would say. Especially, in 1 listening and 2 speaking lessons, 7 students

felt shy and did not say anything instead of looking around when being asked to

go in front of class and perform. They were prevented from thinking and giving

their answers, so they were not confident enough to express their answer, because

they were afraid of making mistakes.

Finally, materials were various and attractive. Teacher could provide the

tasks in the text book without any activities and teaching aids such as: games,

videos, pictures, etc. In addition, each English topic is so practical in daily life,

which is very necessary for students easy to understand.

In short, the observation helped the researcher confirm the fact that

technique applied by the teachers greatly affect the students’ motivation before

they start to learn and in order to keep students high motivated, the teacher needs

to employ various activities during the lesson.

In this chapter, this is the collected data from survey questionnaire and

observation. Then the data were synthesized and discussed to find out the

demotivating factors that 10A1 students faced when learning English including

learners’ factors teacher factors, classroom environment factors, reduced selfconfidence factors and learning content and materials factors.



3.3.



Major findings from questionnaire and observation

English is an important language, however, most students believe that it is



difficult and boring subject. Therefore, they have a lot of demotivation in learning

English. The researcher has focused on investigating the demotivating factors in

learning English of 10A4 students at Huong Can high school.

After investigating, analyzing data collected from the questionnaire and

observation for the teachers. The study has found out four main factors that cause

demotivation during English lessons of 10A1 students at Huong Can high school.

They were learner’s factors, teacher’s factors, classroom environmental factors

and reduced self-confidence factor.



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3.3.1. Learners’ factors

The second factor is a problem from the students themselves. When

learning English, the students at Huong Can high school had many difficulties.

First of all, their personality and intelligence were not very mature. They have

been freshmen at High school, so they did not have much opportunity to

use and practice English. Moreover, the majority had a quite low grade of

entrance exam so their qualifications are not very good. The survey showed that

most of the students did not understand much about content during English class

and could not answer the teachers’ tasks during the class.

Most of the students come from places around Phu Tho, so their

background knowledge is limited . They rarely come to visit the city and

approach the mass media. About the other topics, the fact makes students find it

difficult to learn well their English learning. The survey showed that most of

them blamed their English learning difficulties of the lack of vocabulary or

knowledge. After observing, researcher found that many students were not

confident enough to show their ideas and ask the help.

3.3.2. Teacher’s factors

The lack of knowledge about the teaching profession and some related

issues including the lack of knowledge of teaching methodology, dealing with

special students, and the difficulties with stress control are the main sources of

demotivation.

Teachers’ teaching methods refer to a set of techniques or activities used to

get students involved in learning to achieve a goal. One of the reasons for

learning a foreign language among many students is that they find learning

activities interesting. It means teachers’ teaching techniques or activities can

either motivate or demotivate students to learn. All students agreed that the

teachers often organized quite few activities. They did the same things lesson by

lesson, which caused boredom to the students. Teacher observing that class also



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admitted that they didn’t have new and attractive activities to encourage their

students, so students were usually stressful and uncomfortable.

Teachers always took good care of their students and paid much attention

to their studying. They were willing to explain when students have difficulties.

Most of students asserted that teacher have fair treatment to them and agreed that

teachers did not usually criticize and insult students.

The data analysis of the survey indicated that the teachers’ teaching

methods mismatched the students’ preferences. For example, students want to

swap their learning to their partner to check but organization for students to

swop their learning is sometimes used by teacher. It is clear that teacher is one

of the biggest demotivation for students to study in English lesson.

3.3.3. Environmental factors

To begin with, the result from the survey questionnaire and observation

sheet showed that demotivating factors in classroom environment are the number

of students and the cooperation of partner. It is clear that the overload students

makes students difficult to learning English well. For example, when we study in

a crowded class, teacher can not control their students, of course, students will not

pay attention to the lesson.

Otherwise, cooperation also plays an important role in learning English. In

English lessons, it brings motivation for students when other students cooperate.

For example, a student wants to practice speaking English but nobody practice

with, which leads to demotivation.

From the observation, many students denied practicing with their partner

until teacher asked to move to make groups.

3.3.4. Reduced self-confidence.

Problem is related to the reduced self-confidence is student’s feelings about

their mistake and performance, which created demotivation in the English lesson.

It was showed that students often felt scared when making mistake. Their

feeling occurs because they feel unconfident when they are false. As the observation

sheet, teacher didn’t encourage whenever they make mistake in both 6 periods.



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Most of students strongly agreed that they were shy to perform in front of

class. They were lack of confidence, so they didn’t speak loudly even they looked

outside.

In addition, it was stressed that confidence is one of the most important

elements for students and therefore, reduced self-confidence also reduces

motivation and the ability to enhance. From result of questionnaire and

observation, researcher find that most of students are timid or shy, some are not

confident.

3.4.



Suggested solutions to deal with students’ demotivation in English

learning

Many researchers gave out some suggested solutions to deal with students’



demotivation in English learning. The followings are some suggestions to the

teachers and 10A1 students of English at Huong Can high school.

3.4.1. Having awareness of students’ need and attitudes

Hausbeck, Milbrath and Enright (1992) studied awareness along with

attitude in high school students. They linked these results to the relatively easy

access to information by electronic media, where awareness and concern can be

picked up with little substantive attitude.

The level of attitude presented by the students was significantly higher

when compared to the levels of their corresponding parents. Villacorta, Koestner,

and Lekes (2003) developed the Motivation Towards the Environment Scale

(MTES) and found that individuals were more likely to engage in autonomous

environmental behaviors if their parents had shown an interest in their developing

students’ attitude, their peers supported their freedom to make decisions about

their learning, and if they had concern for their community.

It is important that English teachers are aware of the existence of different

sources of demotivation and critically evaluate their teaching methods and

classroom activities to meet students’ need.



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Firstly, teachers need to have students understand about English’s importance

to be more interested in English as well overcome difficulties. In class, students

should concentrate the teacher’s lesson, try to show the opinion and ask the help and

advice if not understand. Similarly, students need to listen and write the feedback

from teacher carefully.

Secondly, the teacher should encourage learners to raise long-term

motivation by focusing on student’s internal features. It is also advisable for the

teacher to arouse learners’ intrinsic interest in the activity, to improve both their

awareness of developing skill and their realistic ability.

Finally, the teacher’s characteristics are, furthermore, decisive factors

to help increase motivation. It is the teacher’s helpfulness and enthusiasm

that make students feel like learning. Besides, the teacher’s friendliness and

humor make students feel more comfortable and relaxed. Moreover, in order to

lead students to willingly study the subject matter, the teacher should be active

and creative. The teacher should keep walking around the class so as to check

students’ work at the same time to encourage them to study by giving help

immediately when they need. Besides, teachers need to pay attention to poor

students in class instead of praising excellent ones only. Feeling of being ignored

has negative influences on students’ motivation.

3.4.2. Renovating teaching methods to motivate students

Teachers often enter the profession because of their heartfelt desire to

witness and support the physical, emotional and intellectual growth of their

students. Yet a teacher’s performance is measured largely by student

achievements.



Because



motivation



influences



both



developmental



and



performance outcomes, educators have a vested interest in their students’

motivation. However, motivation is not an easy task. Motivation is a complex and

dynamic construct that is a function of the past, present and future and is

dependent on both the whole group and the individual (Hardre & Sullivan, 2002).

While one strategy will not work on all students, some elements of social contexts



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influence what will influence a given group (Black & Deci, 2000). Teachers

should view motivation as a complex task involving a multi-faceted approach to

the classroom and to their relationships with the students within that classroom.

Motivation is a process, not merely an end product (Reeve, 2005)

First of all, in order to make the English learning process more motivating,

teachers need to build a lot of fun activities which maintain learner’s interest in

English lesson… So far as the teaching aids and techniques are concerned,

games and music are truly beneficial for teachers to motivate their students. The

teacher can use them in any stage of English lessons. However, it will surely be of

benefit if these two aids are used in the warm-up stage. For example, Unit 13

Theater and movies, before starting new lesson, teacher can organize a game:

Slap the board. Teacher write some word related to the writing topic such as:

character, actor, scene, director, cartoon, etc. After that, teacher reads loudly the

words, students have to listen and slap that word as fast as possible, then elicit

student to the new lesson. Students either are provided and reviewed vocabulary

or feel more interested and comfortable to begin the lesson. Teacher can base on

the topic and unit to choose suitable games (lucky numbers, cross words, jumper

words, so on). Besides, instead of teaching new words in traditional way, teacher

can show some pictures or real objects to express the meaning of the new word,

then teacher ask students to give example with the new word to make sure their

students understand and know the usage of the new words. For instance, unit 14

The World Cup, teacher can show pictures about defender, forward, midfielder,

goalkeeper to teach new words instead of providing Vietnamese meaning.

Teacher should have other activities to make the task in textbook more

attractive and interesting. Sometimes, they can replace very difficult tasks to easier

ones with same content for weak students. They also change some unnecessary and

impractical topics to be suitable for all level of students. Teacher should make

themselves and use some teaching aids to enrich their lessons. The topics in the



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textbook should be added with more interesting aspects and more suitable interests

that students care about.

3.4.3. Enhancing students’ background knowledge and language

knowledge

According to Fisher & Frey (2009), teachers could enhance students’

background knowledge in a number of ways. As an instructor, part of the

teacher’s role in observing instruction is to determine whether students’

background language knowledge was activated. In other words, it’s not enough to

look for instructional techniques, classroom management procedures, grade-level

content, and background knowledge development. Putting all of this to use

requires attention to the ways in which background knowledge is activated during

a lesson. To understand how background knowledge activation works, a close

glance to spreading activation should be paid.

Firstly, the students who are lacking behind should be offered additional

support and material as often as possible and similarly students that already are

very good at English should be given additional tasks and material to work

on. Also, teacher should provide information and knowledge about the topics before

asking students.

Secondly, students should be asked to study in groups and in pairs to learn

from better classmates. Besides, it had been hoped that English would be

practiced not only in class but also in life. They should be more active and

confident to take part in some extra- activities or English club at school.

Finally, students must practice English regularly such as watching film,

listening to music in English to improve their vocabulary, they have to do

grammar exercises and should practice English every day.

3.5.



Summary

In conclusion, chapter 3 showed the result of the study about 5 factor that



demotivate students’ English learning, they were learners’ factor, teacher factor,

environmental factor, reduced self-confidence and learning content and materials.



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Figure 3.3: Teaching and learning environment

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