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Table 3.5: Benefits of CL in doing project

Table 3.5: Benefits of CL in doing project

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project (%)

Figure 3.6: The frequency of using cooperative learning in

doing projectThe frequency of using group writing (%)



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PART I: INTRODUCTION

1. Rationale

Recently, cooperative learning (CL) has been a proper solution to enhance

learner’s performance. It has been widely believed that there are some sound

reasons to take CL into implementation but not other methods. Obviously, as

one of the most popular structures of learners-centered approach in the recent

years, cooperative activities have been widely used in language classroom,

especially in encouraging learner’s participation and improving their motivation

in learning. First, CL is highly appraised for their contribution to student's

achievement. It is beneficial both for academic achievement and the

development of the learners social and learning skill. Second, CL has a rigorous

foundation on research. Studies have been conducted and come to a conclusion

that CL are associated with achievement, high thinking level, self esteem, liking

for the subject matter, for schools and the intergroup relations. Furthermore,

many studies have proved that cooperative learning has positively influenced

students’ project-based learning (PBL) performance (William, 2003; Noel &

Robert, 2003; Graham, 2005). CL has enormous advantages over traditional one

because traditionally, students only communicate with the teacher about their

learning but in CL classrooms students are involved in group work and

discussions, which not only improves doing project assignments accuracy but

also betters their problem solving skills as well as establish a social atmosphere

and meaningful learning.

However, the real situation is always different from theory. According to

my observation, many students at Cam Khe High School find project a difficult

task, they find project hard to do, they only deal with tasks in class and they

don’t often learn at home. Moreover, most teachers often skip this part because

they found difficult to design classroom activities to attract students’

participation. They encounter lots of challenges in finding appropriate methods



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to learn this part. And they often ask students to finish this part at home without

checking what their students had done. Obviously, students themselves often

neither study at class nor at home. One of the difficulties of students when

learning in doing project because this is a difficult task to them and it is absolute

new to them.

Moreover, despite the benefits of CL, there is still inadequate research on

the issue, especially in the context of Vietnam. Similarly, at Cam Khe High

School, there has been no research on the subject of improving students in doing

project by cooperative learning. For this reason, the researcher decided to carry

out a research on “A study on the using of cooperative learning in doing

project assignments of grade 10 students at Cam Khe High School”

2. Previous researches

2.1. In the world

Ahangari and Samadian (2014)conducted a study about “The effect of

cooperative learning activities on writing skills of Iranian EFL learners”. 50

students of Islamic Azad University were selected for their experimental study.

The outcomes of the study confirmed the effect of cooperative learning activities

on improving the components of writing skills such as content, organization,

vocabulary, language use and mechanics. The researchers suggested that writing

performance can be improved through small-group cooperative interaction

among peers in a supportive and stress-reduced environment.

Ilhan Ilter (2014) also had a study on “The efficacy of project-based

learning approach on Social Studies Education: Conceptual achievement and

academic motivation.” In this research, an experimental study was carried out in

social studies 4thgrade students' to develop students' conceptual achievement and

motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the

effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. The findings

indicated a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental group

on the concept achievement and motivation. Students who participated in the



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PBL environments not only enriched and expanded their knowledge but also

achieved a higher level of motivation than the control group. The PBL in team

format activities were provided to promote the experimental group students'

motivation to succeed academically and to develop their conceptual

achievement. The results demonstrated that the PBL improved students'

understanding regarding social studies concepts and helped them achieve the

behaviors which were aimed academically. The experimental group's intended

behaviors in academic motivation at the beginning of the experimental treatment

turned into performed behaviors at the end.

2.2. In Viet Nam

The study titled “ The effects of cooperative learning activities on

improving writing skills of EFL students at International school, Vietnam

National University a quasi experimental research” of (Tran Thi Lan Huong

2013) was conducted as an attempt to examine the perceptions of first-year EFL

learners towards CL to investigate their participation level and quality in CL,

find out possible influential factors on their participation, pinpoint teachers’

monitoring strategies to motivate students to participate in activities, and

recommend several pedagogical implications to motivate and balance their oral

participation.

The study titled “The Effect of Project-Based Learning on Student

Performance” by of ( Nguyen Thi Huyen Trang (2016 ) This study analyzed

the effectiveness of an alternate pedagogical approach in the form of standardsfocused project-based learning (PBL) teaching model in psychology classes.

Both the control and experimental groups initially adopted a negative attitude

when presented with an alternate method of learning. They viewed the group

project as an unnecessary task although the literature contradicts their initial

perception. Data analyzed found that the experimental group that engaged the

project and took responsibility for the learning of their peers scored significantly

higher on the multiple-choice exam when compared to the control group. No



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significance was found in the second experimental group where majority of the

students did their part, but did not report feeling a sense of responsibility for the

learning of their peers. Key indicators for higher academic performance were: 1)

high self-efficacy; 2) high level of perceived control; and 3) growth mindset.

This is the first time the study “A study on the using of cooperative

learning in doing Project assignments of grade 10 students at Cam Khe High

School” is carried out in Cam Khe district. Different from other studies, it

focuses on studying CL in teaching and doing project assignments whereas the

above studies focus on different aspects.

3. Research purposes

The study aims at:

- Investigating the current situation in of teaching and learning “Project” part

in English 10 textbook at Cam Khe High school.

- Applying CL in teaching “Project” part in English 10 textbooks.

- Evaluating the effectiveness of CL in teaching “Project” part in textbook for

grade 10 students.

- Proposing some suggestions to improve CL activities for teaching and learning

project of grade 10 students at Cam Khe High school.

4. Research questions

In order to achieve the above-mentioned purposes, the study seeks to answer

the following questions:

1. How is “Project” part in English 10 textbooks is being implemented at Cam

Khe High School ?

2. How isto apply “ Cooperative learning” applied in doing “Project” part in

English 10 textbooks?

3. Is that activity effective in enhancing student’s performance in doing

project?

5. Methodology



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5.1. Research methods

In order to accomplish this graduation paper systematically and

adequately, the quantitative and qualitative methods were used.

In the quantitative methods, two survey questionnaires were used to collect

information and evidence for the study:

-The survey questionnaires were for 42 grade 10 students at Cam Khe High

school.

At the same time, in the qualitative method, two teachers’ interviews were used

to help the author confirm the results got from the survey questionnaires.

5.2. Research procedure

The research has been done with the following steps:

- Firstly, identify the rationale of the study by using the related documents to

give background of CL, doing “project” assignments and their related aspects.

- Secondly, study the current situation in doing project lessons for grade 10

students at Cam Khe High school.

- Thirdly, find out the effectiveness and difficulties when using CL in doing

project assignments.

- Lastly, propose some solutions in using CLfor grade 10 students in doing

project assignments based on the real situation.

56. Significance of the study

Although the study was conducted on a small scale with a particular

group of grade 10 students at Cam Khe high school, the researcher hoped that

its findings could be of great significance. This study is a contribution to an

understanding of the applicability of the cooperative learning to the teaching of

English in general and the teaching of projectwriting for academic purposes in

particular in the context of a Vietnamese high school. Besides, the findings of

the study will make a small contribution to the improvement in using CL in

doing project assignments of teachers and students of English in general and

those of Cam Khe High school in particular. In addition, the research also helps



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the teachers and students apply CL more effectively, which may make doing

project assignments lessons more interesting, and students’ presenting skills are

hopefully improved.

67. Scope of the research

Due to time constraints, instead of studying the current situation of using

cooperative learning activities in a larger context, this study only focuses on

applying cooperative learning in doing project assignments for 42 students of

grade 10A4 at Cam Khe High school. Moreover, in this paper, due to the lack

of time and effort, I would solely discuss the use of CL in doing project

assignments, not the other parts of the lessons to determine its effectiveness

more clearly in the small context of grade 10 students at Cam Khe High

school.

78. Design of the research

The research consists of three parts.

Part 1: Presents the overview of the study including the rationale for the

research,



previous



researches,



research



purposes,



research



questions,



significance of the research, the scope of the research as well as the structure of

research.

Part 2is sub-divided into four chapters:

Chapter 1 is the literature review. In this chapter, the literature on

cooperative learning and doing project are stated.

Chapter 2 focuses on the subjects of the study, discusses the instruments

and presents the data collection, analysis and research procedures.

Chapter 3 in which the current situation in applying cooperative learning

for grade 10 students at Cam Khe high schoo l lare provided.

Chapter 4 focuses on giving some major findings of the study and

suggesting some techniques for better using CL for grade 10 students in doing

project assignments.



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Part 3 summarizes the study. Also in this part, the implications for

classroom practice, the limitations of the study and suggestions for further

studies are clearly presented.

In a nutshell, this part has presented the background, and significance of

the study. These contribute to the purposes and the research questions of this

study in teaching and studying doing project assignments at Cam Khe High

school. The present study also provided the scope of the study. An outline of

this study was given in the last of this part.



PART 2: CONTENT

CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND



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The purpose of this chapter is to provide information pertaining to this research,

which was obtained from reviewing the related literature and studies.

1.1. An overview of cooperative learning

1.1.1. Definition of cooperative learning

Since cooperative learning has recently drawn much interest and becomes

popular, a number of researches have been done to investigate the effectiveness

of this approach of teaching. It is beneficial to discover the definition of the term

cooperative learning (CL) to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the

approach. In general, CL is a strategy for group instruction which is under the

learner-centered approach. In detail, CL is ‘'an instructional program in which

students work in small groups to help one another master academic content.

They are a team whose platers must work together in pairs or groups to achieve

the goals successfully" (Brown, 2002).

In language learning contexts, CL is defined as within-class grouping of

students usually of different level of foreign language proficiency who learn to

work together on specific tasks for projects in such a way that all students in the

group benefit from the interactive experience. Students work together to

maximize their own and each other’s learning. According to Johnson and

Johnson (2005), CL is a teaching strategy in which small teams use a variety of

learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject, each member is

responsible for learning and helping classmates until they all understand and

complete the assigned task.

According to Stahl (2006), during the past decade, cooperative learning

has emerged as the leading new approach to language teaching. Numerous

research have revealed that CL tends to enable to achieve higher academic test

scores, higher self-esteem, greater numbers of positive social skills, greater



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understanding of the content and skills they are studying. CL is especially

beneficial to language learners due to the fact that they are provided

comprehensive input m appropriate ways and in a supportive and motivating

environment (Kagan 2008). Additionally, Olsen and Kagan report some benefits

of the strategy-for language learning. First, in traditional classrooms, teachers

give students little time to produce language, especially weak students. On the

contrary, in cooperative classes, most of class tune is devoted to students ’

activities, and then they have many of chances to produce language, resulting in

their activeness and better communication. Furthermore, CL impacts positively

on language acquisition because small groups enrich language classroom with

comprehensible and accurate input. To sum up, as CL enhances language

development and the learning of concepts and contents, assigning students to

different groups is necessary for them to benefit more from English language

role models.

In conclusion, cooperative learning is an approach to group work that

minimizes the occurrence of those unpleasant situations and maximizes the

learning and satisfaction that result from working on a high-performance team.

A large and rapidly growing body of research confirms the effectiveness of

cooperative learning in higher education. Relative to students taught

traditionally with instructor-centered lectures, individual assignments, and

competitive grading cooperatively taught students tend to exhibit higher

academic achievement, greater persistence through graduation, better high-level

reasoning and critical thinking skills, deeper understanding of learned material,

greater time on task and less disruptive behavior in class, lower levels of anxiety

and stress, greater intrinsic motivation to learn and achieve, greater ability to

view situations from others’ perspectives, more positive and supportive

relationships with peers, more positive attitudes toward subject areas, and higher

self-esteem. Another nontrivial benefit for instructors is that when assignments



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are done cooperatively, the number of papers to grade decreases by a factor of

three or four.

1.1.2. Benefits of cooperative learning in language education

CL is a good way to maximize learners’ academic achievement as well as

their social skills. Especially, highly structured CL enables them to improve their

own apprehension of the key materials while developing good relationship with

peers by encouraging and assisting them.

Firstly, according to Gillies & Ashman( 2003), the most obvious benefit

of CL for students fells into academic achievement. Most of the researches

conducted into the effectiveness of CL have positive findings. CL activities

supply learners with structured chances to collaborate to reach the common

goals in language acquisition. They help each others to benefit from their

contribution to the learning process. Working in groups enables learners to

provide each other with information, suggestions, reminders and motivation.

They not only achieve better results, develop their thinking and leadership skills

but also enjoy their learning with positive views towards other learners, good

self-esteem and a sense of belonging to a group.

Graham (2005)& Gillies & Ashman ( 2003), CL strategy was found to be

useful for both language education and other aspects such as motivational and

communicative activities, good relationship with participants and stress

overcoming.

Moreover, according to Gabriele (2007), in CL classrooms, lower students

learn much from strong partners because when working individually they may

get stuck, but collaborating with better students enable them to understand the

materials more easily.

In the second place, according to Graham(2005),cooperative learning

betters students socially and emotionally. CL helps learners to become better

communicators and listeners, cooperative members as well as effective leader of



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