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In the first stage, 30 copies of the test were delivered to find out the errors in terms of linguistics that students committed in translating business letters from Vietnamese into English. It took 90 minutes to finish the test.

In the first stage, 30 copies of the test were delivered to find out the errors in terms of linguistics that students committed in translating business letters from Vietnamese into English. It took 90 minutes to finish the test.

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

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This chapter consists of data analysis and discussion which focus on

finding out common errors in terms of linguistics committed by the fourth-year

English pedagogy students in translating business letters from Vietnamese into

English.

Specifically, the research questions and results were analyzed and

discussed including:

- What are the common errors in terms of linguistics committed by the

fourth-year English pedagogy students in translating business letters from

Vietnamese into English?

- What are the suggested solutions?

The results were analyzed based on the research instruments including:

Translation test, Questionnaires.

3.1. The result from translation test

The test was designed basing on the linguistic errors in translation of

Newmark (1988). The errors in terms of linguistics that are collected from

translation test are presented as Table 3.1 below. Each error is discussed in

particular to show the errors as well as the existing causes in student’s poor

target texts.



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Table 3.1. The errors in terms of linguistics in the students’ translation test

Not

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8



Kind of errors



Code



The use of articles

Capitalization

Preposition

Punctuation

Spelling

Tense

Using correct grammar



errors

e1

e2

e3

e4

e5

e6

e7



Terminology



e8



Total



of



Number of cases



Percentage



78

55

40

7

35

0

20



(%)

24%

17%

12,3%

2,1%

10,75%

0%

6,15%



90



27,7%



325



100%



Error 1: The use of articles

As can be seen from the tables, up to 78 cases (24%) of the use of articles

were identified. It stands the second highest percent of all cases.

For example:

(1) “Chúng tôi muốn mời ông đến Grand Ballroom của khách sạn Hilton.

1 Lê Thánh Tông, Hà Nội, từ 6:30 pm đến 8 giờ tối vào ngày thứ sáu 11 tháng 6

năm 2000 nhân dịp sinh nhật Nữ Hoàng Elizabeth II.”

Student’s version: We would like to invite you to the reception held in

Grand Ballroom of Hilton Hotel. 1 Le Thanh Tong Street, Hanoi, from 6.30 p.m.

to 8.00 p.m. on Friday 11 June 2000 on the occasion of the Birthday of Queen

Elizabeth II.

Suggested version: We would like to invite you to the reception held in the

Grand Ballroom of the Hilton Hotel. 1 Le Thanh Tong Street, Hanoi, from 6.30

p.m. to 8.00 p.m. on Friday 11 June 2000 on the occasion of the Birthday of Her

Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

The student thoughts that using article is unnecessary, but it was not right

in this situation. The article “the” must be used because the noun “Grand

Ballroom” and "Hilton Hotel" is name of countries. We use "the "before the

names of shops or places where we go for services when they are the ones we



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usually go to. Moreover, the passage mention to “Grand Ballroom" and "Hilton

Hotel" that is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific.

Another example:

(2) “Vào ngày 07 tháng 11 năm 2013, chúng tôi đã mua được 2000 mét

vải. Chất lượng của lô hàng của bạn không khớp với đặc điểm kỹ thuật đặt hàng

của chúng tôi”

Student’s version: “On November 07, 2013 we received 2000 meters

cloths. A quality of your shipment does not suitable with our order

specification”

Suggested version:” On November 07, 2013 we purchased 2000 meters

suit cloths. The quality of your shipment does not match with our order

specification”

The article “a” must be replaced by article “the” because the noun

“quality” is specified before.

(3)” Hiện nay chúng tôi đang nhận được nhiều đơn đặt hàng từ khắp nơi

trên thế giới và có khả năng chúng tơi sẽ hết hàng dự trữ trong những ngày tới”

Student’s version: “Now we are receiving a lot of orders from all over the

world and there is a opportunity we will run out of stock”

Suggested version: “At present we are receiving a lot of orders from all

over the world and there is an opportunity of our running out of stock one of

these days.”

The article “a” must be replaced by article “an” because “a” before a

singular noun beginning with a consonant sound. While “opportunity” is a

singular noun beginning with a vowel sound “o”.

Error 2: Capitalization

Looking at the collected data, we see that “capitalization” stands the third

highest percent of cases of errors with 17% (55 cases). For example:

For example:

(4) “ Tên phần: VAN KIỂM SOÁT SOLENOID”

Student’s version:”Name : solenoid valve”



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Suggested version:” Part name: SOLENOID CONTROLLED VALVE”

The student must keep the nature of source text and truly transfer it to target

text. The noun “VAN KIỂM SOÁT SOLENOID” should be translated as

“SOLENOID CONTROLLED VALVE” to match with the context of the

document and to show the respect between two parties as well as languages.

Another example:

(1) “Chúng tôi muốn mời ông đến Grand Ballroom của khách sạn Hilton. 1

Lê Thánh Tông, Hà Nội, từ 6:30 pm đến 8 giờ tối vào ngày thứ sáu 11

tháng 6 năm 2000”

Student’s version:“ We want to invite you come to the grand ballroom of the

hilton hotel.1 Lê Thánh Tông street, hà nội, from 6.30 to 8.00 pm on friday 11

june 2000”

Suggested version: “We would like to invite you to the reception held in the

Grand Ballroom of the Hilton Hotel. 1 Le Thanh Tong Street, Hanoi, from 6.30

p.m. to 8.00 p.m. on Friday 11 June 2000”

Similarly, “grand ballroom of the hilton hotel.1 Lê Thánh Tông street, hà

nội, from 6.30 to 8.00 pm on friday 11 june 2000” must be transferred to “Grand

Ballroom of the Hilton Hotel. 1 Le Thanh Tong Street, Hanoi, from 6.30 p.m. to

8.00 p.m. on Friday 11 June 2000”

Error 3: Preposition

As the above table shown, there is 12,3% cases which get problem with

“Preposition”. For example:

(6) “Rất mong ngài hãy xem hồ sơ xin việc của tơi ứng tuyển cho vị trí

làm việc được đăng trên tờ Guardian vào ngày 30 tháng 11…. Tôi đã trải qua

một khóa học và có được chứng nhận, nó thích hợp với vị trí mà ngài đang tuyển

dụng.”

Student’s version:” Please see my CV in application to the post

advertised in the Guardian in 30 November… My degree course has prepared

me to this position

Suggested version:” Please find enclosed my CV in application for the



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post advertised in the Guardian on 30 November….The nature of my degree

course has prepared me for this position”

The phrases “ứng tuyển cho vị trí làm việc” must be translated as “for the

post advertised” instead of “to the post advertised”. Moreover, the phrases “vào

ngày 30 tháng 11” should be translated as “on 30 November” because the

preposition used to specify days and dates must be used “on”.

Error 4: Punctuation

This error covers a small part of these cases. There are only 7 cases among the

total 325 cases who committed the “Punctuation”.

The cases of this error hold an insignificant number with 2%. 7 cases of

punctuation errors are almost caused by no use of period at the end of passage.

Sometimes the student neglected the comma that used to divide, identify the

clauses, sentence parts. This error is clearly presented in some students’

translation that being attached with Appendix. Furthermore, the meaning of the

letters is incompletely or even incorrectly conveyed because of the wrong

position of punctuation. For instance:

(4) “Tôi đang viết để đặt hàng mới như sau:

Tên phần: VAN KIỂM SOÁT SOLENOID

Đặc điểm kỹ thuật: DG5V-H8-8C-P7-H-84-JA

Thương hiệu: TOKIMEc JAPAN

Số lượng: 01 bộ

Giá: 780 USD / đơn vị

Giao hàng: 12 ~ 14 tuần

Xin vui lòng giải thích thêm: Giá: Ex kho của chúng tôi không bao gồm bất kỳ

chi phí vận tải

Xin vui lòng xác nhận nếu bạn có thể cung cấp cho chúng tơi càng sớm càng

tốt”

Student’s version:

” I'm writing to set new order as follows:

Section name: SOLENOID valves



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Technical specification: DG5V-H8-8C-P7-H-84-JA

Brand: TOKIMEc JAPAN

Quantity: 01 set

Price: 780 USD / unit

Delivery: 12 ~ 14 weeks

Please add to add price. Ex of we do not include any shipping

Please confirm if you can provide them for the first as well”

Suggested version:

“I am writing to place new order as below:

Part name: SOLENOID CONTROLLED VALVE

Specification:



DG5V-H8-8C-P7-H-84-JA



Brand:



TOKIMEc JAPAN



Quantity:



01 Set



Price:



USD 780.00 per unit



Delivery:



12~14 weeks



Please explain more: Price: Ex our warehouse excluding any freight charges

Please confirm if you can offer us as soon as possible.”

In this case, the student’s translation may make the reader get confused

that “the writer request Ms. Tricia to explain more about price". Meanwhile, the

source text said that the writer provides his price Ex warehouse excluding any

freight charges.

Error 5: Spelling

As the above table shown, there is only 2,9% cases which get problem with

“spelling”. For example:

(5)” Vào ngày 07 tháng 11 năm 2013, chúng tôi đã mua được 2000 mét

vải. Chất lượng của lô hàng của bạn không khớp với đặc điểm kỹ thuật đặt hàng

của chúng tôi”

Student’s version:” On November 07, 2013 we purchased 2000 meters

cloths. The quality of your shipment does not suitable with our order



44



specification”

Suggested version:” On November 07, 2013 we purchased 2000 meters

suit cloths. The quality of your shipment does not match with our order

specification”

In this example, the student committed spelling error in two words

“suitable” and “match”. They must be fixed as “suitable” and “match”.

Another example:

(5)” Chất lượng của lô hàng của bạn không khớp với đặc điểm kỹ thuật

đặt hàng của chúng tơi. Vì việc sử dụng vải chất lượng thấp sẽ làm hỏng thiện

chí kinh doanh của chúng tơi,”

Student’s version:” The quality of your goods does not fit with our order.

Since the use of bad quality cloth will damage our business….”

Suggested version:” The quality of your shipment does not match with our

order specification. Since the use of low quality cloth will damage our business

goodwill”

The words “bad” and “fit” must be fixed as “low” and “match”.

Error 6: Tense

The above table indicated that there is no case of “tense” error. It easily

understood because almost business letters are designed in the form of simple

present tense. Obviously, it is not the matter to the students.

Error 7: Using correct grammatical and structures

This error occupies 6,15 % (20 cases) among the total 325 cases.

For example:

(6) “Để hồn tất khóa học đòi hỏi cần nhiều sự nghiên cứu độc lập, sự chủ

động, nỗ lực của bản thân và nhiều kỹ năng khác”

Student’s version: “It involved a great deal of independent research,

requiring initiative, motivate myself and a wide range of skills”

Suggested version: “It involved a great deal of independent research,

requiring initiative, self-motivation and a wide range of skills”

There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence: independent



45



research, requiring initiative, motivate myself. The first two phrases end with a

noun. The last one ends with a verb. With the parallelism broken in the last

phrase the entire sentence is weakened.

It should be changed: “It involved a great deal of independent research,

requiring initiative, self-motivation and a wide range of skills”

(5) “Chúng tôi tin chắc rằng đây là điều kiện chào hàng tốt nhất của cơng

ty chúng tơi mà khơng có hãng nào có thể đưa ra những điều kiện tốt hơn được.”

Student’s version We sure that this is the best offer we can make and no

other firm can offer you better more than terms like this..”

Suggested version” We are sure that this is the best offer we can make and

no other firm can offer you better terms like this.”

In this sentence, it is not “We sure that this is the best offer” the right answer

must be:” ” We are sure that this is the best offer”. Moreover, the student’s

translation is structure wrong “better than”. It must be fixed “you better terms

like this”.

Another example:

(2)” Chúng tôi mong đợi đơn đặt hàng sớm của quý ngài”

Student’s version: “we looking forward to hearing from you soon”

Suggested version: “we look forward to hearing from you soon”

In this sentence of students is use structure wrong. Correct structure is “look

forward to hearing from…”

It should be changed: ““we look forward to hearing from you soon”

Error 8: Terminology

Up to 90 cases of misuse terminologies were identified. Among those, common

terminological errors are illustrated as the following table:



46



Source text

Catalo



Inappropriate use of terms

Catolo



Suggestions

The Latest



Passage

2



Giao hàng

Ship

Van kiểm sốt Solenoid valve



catalogue

Delivery

SOLENOID



5

1, 6



Solenoid



CONTROLLED



u cầu hồn Request for money of 12000$.



VALVE

Request for cash 5



lại tiền mặt là



refund of



12000 đơ la

Lơ hàng

Consignment

Thiện chí kinh



12000$.

shipment

business



doanh

Hết hàng dự trữ Out of stocks



goodwill

running out of 3



Thương hiệu

Mark

Loại 1 theo tiêu Grade number 1 of Vietnam



stock

Brand

4

Grade number 1 3



chuẩn Việt nam



Vietnam



5

5



standard

Hối phiếu kí Payable on arrival according the Draft at 30d/s 1

phát thanh tốn conditions



under



sau



irrevocable



30



theo



điều kiện trong



Letter of Credit



tín dụng, thư

khơng



hủy



ngang

Đặc điểm kỹ Characteristics



Specification



thuật

Mặt hàng

Hồ sơ xin việc



Article

2

CV (Curriculum 6



Items

job application



4



Vitae)

Students usually tend to translate terminologies with the literal sense or

understand these terms by their limited knowledge about special aspects,

especially a political aspect like business. For example, the word “giao hàng” in

passage 4 must be translated as “delivery” instead of using “ship”, or “send”. In



47



the context of business, translators have to pay attention to the use of terms in

order to make the target text more professional as well as match with the

context. Hence, students were in need of enhancing their knowledge about

business aspect and its terminologies.

Conclusion

The result from test indicated that most students committed errors in terms of

linguistics in translating business letters from Vietnamese into English.

27.70%



30%

24.00%



25%

20%



17.00%

12.30%



15%

10%



6.15%

2.10%



5%

0%



e

Th



u



se



Column2



10.70%



a

of



c le

rt



s

a

pit

Ca



n

to

il za



o

ep

Pr



on

s it



n

Pu



on

at

u

ct



lin

el

p

S



g



0.00%

e

ar

ns

m

e

T

am

gr

t

c

rre

o

gc

in

s

U



r

Te



m



y

og

ol

n

i



Chart 3.1. The students’ linguistic errors in translation test (%)

Terminology covered the highest number with 90 cases that accounts for

27,7%. Taking the second place was the use of articles with 78 cases. In

addition, capitalization, preposition and spelling also seize high percent in order

as 17%; 12,3%, and 10,75%. The remaining errors such as using correct

grammar and punctuation hold insignificant percent. Besides, there was no case

of tense error



48



3.2. The result from questionnaires

3.2.1. The students’ attitude and interest toward Vietnamese – English

business letters translation

Question 1: Is business letters translation so important in our live?

In order to collect information about the students’ attitude and interest

toward Vietnamese – English business letters translation, question 1 was

designed to ask students if business letters translation is important role in our

lives or not. The collected data is presented in the following column chart:



45.60%



50.00%

45.00%

40.00%

35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%



ta

Vi



25.60%

Column2



18.30%

8.10%



2.40%



lly



rta

po

m

i



nt



rta

po

m

I



N



eit



nt



he



rt

po

m

ri



r

no

t

an



rta

po

m

i

un



nt

U



nt

rta

o

p

nim



lly

ta

Vi



rta

po

m

i

un



nt



Chart 3.2. The students’ attitude towards the importance of business letters

translation (%)

The above chart described the students’ view about the importance of

business letters translation. Basing on the data, 25,6% students agreed that

business letters translation was so vitally important in our lives. Meanwhile, up

to 46,6% (14 students) who have the same opinion. On the other hand, the

numbers of students who regarded business letters translation was unimportant

was 8,1%. There is only one student (2,4%) said that it was vitally unimportant.

The remaining figure is 18,3% (6 students) that present the students’ neutral

opinion.



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In the first stage, 30 copies of the test were delivered to find out the errors in terms of linguistics that students committed in translating business letters from Vietnamese into English. It took 90 minutes to finish the test.

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