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d. Order of inside address

d. Order of inside address

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- Dear Madam is used to address both single and married woman.

- Dear Sir or Madam is used to address a person of whom you know neither

the name nor sex.

If you know the name of the person, the salutation takes the form of

“Dear” followed by courtesy title and the person’s initial or his / her first name

e.g. Mr. J. Smith or Mr. John Smith.

g. Content

This was the most important part of the letter because it brought the reader

all the information you intend to make.

Opening paragraph

Opening paragraph sets the tone and gives the reader the first impression

of you and your company. In this paragraph, you will thank your correspondence

for his/ her letter, introduce yourself and your company, state the subject or set

out the purpose pf the letter, etc.

Main paragraphs

There was probably more than one main paragraph. It depended on the

subject of the letter. A simple subject needed one paragraph e.g. thanking a

customer for a cheque, or a complicated one, e.g. explaining how a group of

insurance policy works. The main paragraph concerned the points that need to

be made as answers you wish to give or questions you want to ask. This cans

carry widely with the type of letter that you are writing. In the paragraph, the

points must make clear and in a logical sequence.

Concluding paragraph

When closing the letter, you should thank the person for his/ her writing if

your letter is a reply and if you have not done so at the beginning. Encourage

further inquiries or correspondence and mention that you look forward to

hearing from your correspondence soon. You also may wish to restate, very

briefly, one or two of the most important points that you have made in the main

paragraph of your letter.


h. Complimentary close

This part ends the letter in a polite, formal way. The popular form was

“Your faithfully” for the letter begins with “Dear Sir; Dear Dies; Dear Madam;

or Dear Sir or Madam” and “Your Sincerely” for the letter begins with a

personal name as “Dear Mr. J. Smith; Dear Mrs. C. Turner; Mss. K. Bangor; or

Ms. G. Crawford”.

j. Signature block

The signature includes three items:

The signature was hand-written just below the complimentary close. The

writer’s typed name and position in the company follow it. The name could be

typed with the initial(s) or the given name (D. Jenkins or David Jenkins) and

accompanied with a courtesy title (Ms, Mrs, Miss, and Ms). If you did not give

the title, your correspondence wouldl not be able to identify your sex and may

give you a wrong title when replying. It was, therefore, safer to type your title.

In fact, including the title in the signature block was more common among

women than among men. It was partly because many women like to make it

clear either they were married (Mrs.) or unmarried (Mss.), or that their marital

status was not relevant (Ms.); and because there was still a tendency to believe

that important positions in a company can only be held by men.

1.3. Summary

This chapter reviewed theory of translation in general and business

translation in particular. There were many different definitions of translation,

showing different approaches to translation, however, emphasizing the

importance of the closest equivalence in meaning of the TL with the meaning of

the SL. Translation methods and translation errors were included to form the

basis for analyzing errors in business translation. Definitions of business letters

translation, significances and characteristics were clearly presented. Theoretical

background in this chapter will be of benefits for the researcher to analyze data

and suggest feasible recommendations for the research issue.



2.1. Participants

The participants of this study were 30 students of K12 English Pedagogy

at Department of Foreign Languages, Hung Vuong University. They finished the

third course of translation of a variety of aspects like education, politics,

agriculture, transportation, legal, culture, tourism… Especially, translation of

business letters was one of them.

This was an investigation which aims at finding out common errors in

terms of linguistics committed by the students in translating business letters

Vietnamese into English, then some solutions were given to help them avoid

these errors in the future.

The researcher analyzed and discussed the findings from test and

questionnaire for the students, then suggested recommendations to improve the

translation of business letters for K12 English Pedagogy students. It was hoped

that the findings from this thesis will be of some benefits to improve teaching

and learning business translation at Department of Foreign Languages, Hung

Vuong University.

2.2. Methodology

The researcher decided to conduct the study with method: quantitative


The quantitative method was used to emphasizing objective measurements

and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through









computational techniques. Survey questionnaires and test were chosen as the

instrument of data collection for this method.

2.3. Data collection instruments

Two instruments including test and questionnaires were used in order to

collect data for the research.


2.3.1. Test (see appendix 1)

The translation test was used to find out the student’s translation errors in

terms of linguistics in translating business letters from Vietnamese into English.

The researcher gave the students a paper of business letters (see Appendix

1).The paper was revised before applying to participants. There were 6 passages

for the test. The test was conducted in weekly class meeting. It took 90 minutes

to finish the translation.

The translation errors in terms of linguistics were classified basing on the

linguistic errors in translation of Newmark (1988) as bellow .As Newmark

(1988) point out, linguistic errors involve grammatical mistakes, punctuations,

spelling, tense, collocations, idioms and so forth. They were consented by most

translation scholars as the most comprehensive way of classifying translation


Table 2.1. Classification of errors in terms of linguistics in translation test









Kind of errors

The use of articles






Using correct grammar



Code of



















2.3.2. Questionnaires

The questionnaires were adapted from Nguyen Trong Dan (1997) who










correspondence”. Those questionnaires were conducted in Vietnam to ensure

the reliability of the questionnaire for the respondents.

The researcher designed a survey questionnaire with questions of

multiple-choice in order to find out student’s opinion, their perceptions of

business letters translation, then their errors and expectations in this aspect.


To design the questionnaire, the researcher reviewed literature on business

letters translation, making assumptions on the most common errors in business

letters translation in terms of linguistics. The questionnaire consists of 3 main

parts (see Appendix 4).

Part 1 was designed to get the students’ attitude and interest toward

Vietnamese – English business letters translation, consisting of question 1, 2, 3,

4, 5.

Part 2 was to figure out some common errors in terms of linguistics that

the students may commit when translating business letters from Vietnamese into

English, consisting of question 6.

Part 3 suggested students indicate possible causes for their problems in

Vietnamese – English business letters translation, consisting of question 7, 8, 9.

2.3. The research procedure

The researcher conducted the study in three steps in the order as follows:

In the first stage, 30 copies of the test were delivered to find out the errors

in terms of linguistics that students committed in translating business letters

from Vietnamese into English. It took 90 minutes to finish the test.

Next, 30 copies of questionnaire in English were delivered to the

participants of the study – students of K12 English Pedagogy to find out their

attitudes and interest toward Vietnamese – English business letters translation,

their understanding, errors and main causes to the errors. Before giving the

questionnaire copies to the respondents, the researcher explained the purpose of

the questionnaire and the importance of the participants to results of the study.

The researcher asked the respondents to read the questionnaire carefully and

answer individually with high consideration and responsibility. The respondents

were also encouraged to ask anything that they did not understand fully in the

questionnaire to get clearer and more understandable explanations and

clarifications from the reseacher.


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