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d. Order of inside address
- Dear Madam is used to address both single and married woman.
- Dear Sir or Madam is used to address a person of whom you know neither
the name nor sex.
If you know the name of the person, the salutation takes the form of
“Dear” followed by courtesy title and the person’s initial or his / her first name
e.g. Mr. J. Smith or Mr. John Smith.
This was the most important part of the letter because it brought the reader
all the information you intend to make.
Opening paragraph sets the tone and gives the reader the first impression
of you and your company. In this paragraph, you will thank your correspondence
for his/ her letter, introduce yourself and your company, state the subject or set
out the purpose pf the letter, etc.
There was probably more than one main paragraph. It depended on the
subject of the letter. A simple subject needed one paragraph e.g. thanking a
customer for a cheque, or a complicated one, e.g. explaining how a group of
insurance policy works. The main paragraph concerned the points that need to
be made as answers you wish to give or questions you want to ask. This cans
carry widely with the type of letter that you are writing. In the paragraph, the
points must make clear and in a logical sequence.
When closing the letter, you should thank the person for his/ her writing if
your letter is a reply and if you have not done so at the beginning. Encourage
further inquiries or correspondence and mention that you look forward to
hearing from your correspondence soon. You also may wish to restate, very
briefly, one or two of the most important points that you have made in the main
paragraph of your letter.
h. Complimentary close
This part ends the letter in a polite, formal way. The popular form was
“Your faithfully” for the letter begins with “Dear Sir; Dear Dies; Dear Madam;
or Dear Sir or Madam” and “Your Sincerely” for the letter begins with a
personal name as “Dear Mr. J. Smith; Dear Mrs. C. Turner; Mss. K. Bangor; or
Ms. G. Crawford”.
j. Signature block
The signature includes three items:
The signature was hand-written just below the complimentary close. The
writer’s typed name and position in the company follow it. The name could be
typed with the initial(s) or the given name (D. Jenkins or David Jenkins) and
accompanied with a courtesy title (Ms, Mrs, Miss, and Ms). If you did not give
the title, your correspondence wouldl not be able to identify your sex and may
give you a wrong title when replying. It was, therefore, safer to type your title.
In fact, including the title in the signature block was more common among
women than among men. It was partly because many women like to make it
clear either they were married (Mrs.) or unmarried (Mss.), or that their marital
status was not relevant (Ms.); and because there was still a tendency to believe
that important positions in a company can only be held by men.
This chapter reviewed theory of translation in general and business
translation in particular. There were many different definitions of translation,
showing different approaches to translation, however, emphasizing the
importance of the closest equivalence in meaning of the TL with the meaning of
the SL. Translation methods and translation errors were included to form the
basis for analyzing errors in business translation. Definitions of business letters
translation, significances and characteristics were clearly presented. Theoretical
background in this chapter will be of benefits for the researcher to analyze data
and suggest feasible recommendations for the research issue.
CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY
The participants of this study were 30 students of K12 English Pedagogy
at Department of Foreign Languages, Hung Vuong University. They finished the
third course of translation of a variety of aspects like education, politics,
agriculture, transportation, legal, culture, tourism… Especially, translation of
business letters was one of them.
This was an investigation which aims at finding out common errors in
terms of linguistics committed by the students in translating business letters
Vietnamese into English, then some solutions were given to help them avoid
these errors in the future.
The researcher analyzed and discussed the findings from test and
questionnaire for the students, then suggested recommendations to improve the
translation of business letters for K12 English Pedagogy students. It was hoped
that the findings from this thesis will be of some benefits to improve teaching
and learning business translation at Department of Foreign Languages, Hung
The researcher decided to conduct the study with method: quantitative
The quantitative method was used to emphasizing objective measurements
and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through
computational techniques. Survey questionnaires and test were chosen as the
instrument of data collection for this method.
2.3. Data collection instruments
Two instruments including test and questionnaires were used in order to
collect data for the research.
2.3.1. Test (see appendix 1)
The translation test was used to find out the student’s translation errors in
terms of linguistics in translating business letters from Vietnamese into English.
The researcher gave the students a paper of business letters (see Appendix
1).The paper was revised before applying to participants. There were 6 passages
for the test. The test was conducted in weekly class meeting. It took 90 minutes
to finish the translation.
The translation errors in terms of linguistics were classified basing on the
linguistic errors in translation of Newmark (1988) as bellow .As Newmark
(1988) point out, linguistic errors involve grammatical mistakes, punctuations,
spelling, tense, collocations, idioms and so forth. They were consented by most
translation scholars as the most comprehensive way of classifying translation
Table 2.1. Classification of errors in terms of linguistics in translation test
Kind of errors
The use of articles
Using correct grammar
The questionnaires were adapted from Nguyen Trong Dan (1997) who
correspondence”. Those questionnaires were conducted in Vietnam to ensure
the reliability of the questionnaire for the respondents.
The researcher designed a survey questionnaire with questions of
multiple-choice in order to find out student’s opinion, their perceptions of
business letters translation, then their errors and expectations in this aspect.
To design the questionnaire, the researcher reviewed literature on business
letters translation, making assumptions on the most common errors in business
letters translation in terms of linguistics. The questionnaire consists of 3 main
parts (see Appendix 4).
Part 1 was designed to get the students’ attitude and interest toward
Vietnamese – English business letters translation, consisting of question 1, 2, 3,
Part 2 was to figure out some common errors in terms of linguistics that
the students may commit when translating business letters from Vietnamese into
English, consisting of question 6.
Part 3 suggested students indicate possible causes for their problems in
Vietnamese – English business letters translation, consisting of question 7, 8, 9.
2.3. The research procedure
The researcher conducted the study in three steps in the order as follows:
In the first stage, 30 copies of the test were delivered to find out the errors
in terms of linguistics that students committed in translating business letters
from Vietnamese into English. It took 90 minutes to finish the test.
Next, 30 copies of questionnaire in English were delivered to the
participants of the study – students of K12 English Pedagogy to find out their
attitudes and interest toward Vietnamese – English business letters translation,
their understanding, errors and main causes to the errors. Before giving the
questionnaire copies to the respondents, the researcher explained the purpose of
the questionnaire and the importance of the participants to results of the study.
The researcher asked the respondents to read the questionnaire carefully and
answer individually with high consideration and responsibility. The respondents
were also encouraged to ask anything that they did not understand fully in the
questionnaire to get clearer and more understandable explanations and
clarifications from the reseacher.
CHAPTER 3: MAJOR FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION