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Table 3.1: The errors in the students’ translation test

Table 3.1: The errors in the students’ translation test

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3.1.1. Error 1: Word collocation

Of all errors in word choice made by students, "Word collocation" appeared

frequently most (240/808) and occupied the highest proportion (29.7%).

Example 1: In 3rd paragraph with social – cultural topic, the phrase “bảo

tồn giá trị của Di sản”.

There were still a few of students who translated the phrase to “conserve

the heritage” or“maintain the heritage”, whereas the precise collocation should

be “preserve / protect the heritage”.

Example 2: in the 1st paragraph, the sentence “người ta dùng chiếc chày

nhỏ đập vào miếng thịt cho lớp than bị cháy xém rơi xuống và làm thịt mềm”,

16/40 students also made collocation error in translating the phrase.

Source text: Người ta dùng chiếc chày nhỏ đập vào miếng thịt cho lớp

than bị cháy xém rơi xuống và làm thịt mềm

Student’s translation: People use a small pestle to beat the meat to burn

down coal and soft meat. (S25’s translation)

Suggestion version: People use the small pestle to beat the meat to remove

burnt charcoal and soften the meat.

3.1.2. Error 2: Misuse of preposition

As the above table shown, there are 215 cases (26.6%) which get problem

with “Misuse of preposition”.

Example 1:

Source text: Quần đảo này hình thành một khu phức hợp bởi nhiều hệ

sinh thái đa dạng.

Student’s version 1: The archipelago formed a complex by a variety of

ecosystems. (S35’s translation)

Student’s version 2: The islands formed a complex from many diverse

ecosystems. (S34’s translation)

Suggestion version: This archipelago is an ecological complex with

diverse natures and landscapes



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Example 2: The phrase “Nằm ở phía Bắc Malaysia” was translated by the

students as “Located North Malaysia”. In this phrase, the student commited

prepositon error beacause of missing word “on”. The inexact phrase is “On the

north part of Malaysia”.

3.1.3. Error 3: Misuse of synonyms

It can be seen that a word can have many meanings; and vice versa, one

meaning can be expressed by many other words. The misuse of synonyms is

unavoidable. In the study, students also misused synonyms when they were

translating. There were about 126 errors (15.6%) of synonyms found in the

students’ assignments and test papers. This error type occurred when the

students depended largely on the meaning in dictionary to choose the word

without paying attention to the context of the sentence.

Example 1: there was a phrase “Khu di tích Nguyễn Sinh Sắc” and most of

the students translated the phrase it with incorrect and inexact phrases as

“Nguyen Sinh Sac vestiges”, “Nguyen Sinh Sac vestiges zone”, “Nguyen Sinh

Sac relic district”, “Nguyen Sinh Sac relic region”, “Nguyen Sinh Sac vestiges

region”, “Nguyen Sinh Sac tomb” or “Nguyen Sinh Sac mausoleums” while the

key is “Nguyen Sinh Sac relic area”. In this case, most of the students had

mistakes about misuse of synonyms when translated “khu” into “zone”,

“region”, “areal” and “district”, and the word “di tích” into “vestiges” and

“relic”. They did not realize that although those words have some near points

about meaning in dictionaries, they are only used suitably in some certain

situations.

Example 2: The Vietnamese word “những chiếc thùng” in the 1st passage

was translated by the some students as “cartons”, “barrels” or “boxes”whereas

the key is “baskets”. The students had the error about the misuse of synonyms,

the real meaning of those words is totally inappropriate with this case, so the

most suitable word is “baskets”.

Example 3: In the Vietnamese clause “Cách nướng độc đáo này giúp thịt

trâu không bị cháy mà vẫn chín đều tận bên trong”, the phrase “chín đều tận



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bên trong” made 15 of students commit synonym error. They translated the

phrase “chín đều” as “ripe”, “soften” or “ripen”. However, using “ripe”,

“soften” or “ripen” in this sentence isn’t exact choice. Suggested translation

sentence is “This unique method keeps the buffalo meat from burning but inside

is cooked evenly”.

3.1.4. Error 4: Misuse of part of speech

This error covers a part of these cases. There are 118 cases among the total

cases. It takes 14.6% among the total.

Example 1: The phrase“hình thái đặc sắc về trải nghiệm không gian khác

nhau”with correct and exact phrases is “sensational experiences from the

different space”. However, some of the incorrect translation extracted from the

test results were “sensation experiences from the difference space”,

“sensational experiences from the difference space”, “sensation experiences

from the different space”.

Example 2: the phrase“nhiều hệ sinh thái đa dạng” was translated many

versions by students such as: “diversity ecosystems”; “variety ecosystems”.

However, the exact version is “diverse natures/ecosystems”.

3.1.5. Error 5: Name of organization

“Name of organization” errors were also frequently made by students in

Vietnamese-English cultural translation. In the study, students made about 109

errors. These errors made up for 13.5% of all errors.

Some of the proper names of groups, organizations or job titles found in

the 3rd paragrahp were “Bộ văn hóa”, “Khu di tích Phủ Chủ tịch tại Hà Nội” the

appropriate translations were “The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism”,

“Ho Chi Minh's Vestige in The Presidential Palace Area”. Just only 5/40

students got the exact equivalence of these proper names and the rest of the

students tested either translated them wrong or just simply gave them up.

Example 1: The pharse “Bộ Văn hóa”

Student’s version 1: Cultural Department (S23’s translation)



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Student’s version 2: Culture, Sports and Tourism Department (S26’s

translation)

Suggestion version: The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism.

Example 2: The phrase “Khu di tích Phủ Chủ tịch tại Hà Nội”

Student’s version 1: Presidential Palace Historical Site in Hanoi. (S18’s

translation)

Student’s version 2: Ho Chi Minh Relic in Hanoi. (S26’s translation)

Suggestion version: Ho Chi Minh's Vestige in The Presidential Palace Area

3.2. The results from questionnaires

3.2.1. The students’ attitude towards translation and word choice in

translating culture texts

Table 3.1: The students’ attitude towards translation and word choice in

translating culture texts

No



Question



Answer



Number of Percentage

student’s



1



Is culture

translation

important?



2



Is word choice in

translating

important?



3



Vitally important

Important

Neither important nor



answer

25

12

3



62.5%

30%

7.5%



unimportant

Unimportant

Vitally unimportant

Vitally important

Important

Neither important nor



0

0

8

32

0



0%

0%

20%

80%

0



0

0

0

28

9



0

0

0%

70%

22.5%



0

3



0%

7.5%



unimportant

Unimportant

Vitally unimportant

What do you think Easy but not interesting

Difficult but interesting

about translation of

Difficult

and

not

cultural texts?

interesting

Easy and interesting

Normal



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The above table shows the students’ view about the importance of cultural

translation. Basing on the data, 62.5% students agree that cultural translation is

so vitally important in our lives. Meanwhile, up to 30% (12 students) who have

the same opinion. There is only three students (7.5%) that present the students’

neutral opinion. The answer to this question reveals that all of the students also

understood the importance of cultural translation.

Moreover, when students were asked the importance of word choice in

translating, 80% of the students agreed that word choice in translating is

important. In addition, there are 7 cases (20%) thought that word choice is

vitally important.

Cultural texts translation activity has never been an easy task, this is

demonstrated through the answers of the students in question 3. When the

students were asked about how they feel about learning translation, most of

them (70%) answered that translation is difficult but interesting. It can be

inferred that although translation is a difficult subject for them to master, they

still feel interested in learning it and thus they will try their best to learn and

practice translation as much as they can. There are only 7.5% of the students

thought that translation subject is a normal subject. It's not too difficult and not

enjoying. Besides, 22.5% of the students chose the answer English is both

difficult and not interesting. No one thought that translation is easy but; not

interesting or interesting.

3.2.2. The students’ difficulties and common errors in translating VietnameseEnglish texts

To resolve this question, five research questions 4, 5, and 6 were analyzed.

Question 4: In your opinion, what kind of translation is more difficult to

you in translating cultural documents?

A. English – Vietnamese translation

B. Vietnamese – English translation

Table 3.2: Difficulties in types of translation texts



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Table 3.1: The errors in the students’ translation test

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