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 Effect of Seaweed Compost on Plant Growth and Its Potential Ecological Toxicity

 Effect of Seaweed Compost on Plant Growth and Its Potential Ecological Toxicity

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RECYCLING OF THE SEAWEED WAKAME THROUGH DEGRADATION



301



Table 8. Changes of alginate contents during composting process

of wakame by the strain AW4.

Time (h)



WSA (%)



WIA (%)



TA (%)



WSA/WIA



0

24

72

120

168



3.18 ± 0.14

3.88 ± 0.29

2.61 ± 0.32

5.31 ± 0.71

4.83 ± 0.06



32.42 ± 0.14

32.20 ± 0.58

26.98 ± 0.74

17.54 ± 0.80

10.80 ± 1.26



35.60

36.08

29.60

22.85

15.63



0.10

0.12

0.10

0.30

0.45



Values of WSA and WIA are averages ± SD from two independent

experiments.



introduced by Tiquia and Tam (1998) using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris).

Fresh samples of wakame compost were extracted with distilled water at a compost to water ratio of 1:9 and then filtrated. Diluted extract was applied onto a

filter paper in a Petri dish at 5 mL. Twenty seeds placed in the dish were incubated

in the dark. All germination experiments were conducted in triplicates with distilled water as control. The root length was measured after 3 days and the relative

root length (RRL) was calculated as follows:

RRL (%)=



Root Length in extract

× 100

Root Length in control



(1)



Changes of RRL after the incubation with different bacterial strains are

shown in Table 9. The medium was diluted 10–50 times with distilled water, since

the salt present in the medium may reduce the germination of plants. RRL values

with 1% wakame were 263.2% and 120.4% for strains A7 and AW4 after 25-fold

dilution, respectively. Among different dilution rates, 25-fold resulted in the highest

value of RRL, 194.5%. Higher RRL values for wakame and A7 culture medium

suggest that oligosaccharides produced during incubation with A7 might enhance

the elongation of plant roots, different from nonalginate-degrading bacteria like

AW4. The products of A7 treatment of alginate or seaweeds containing alginate may

therefore be used as a kind of fertilizer or enhancing material for phytoremediation.

The phytotoxicity of the compost samples after AW4 treatment was analyzed through a germination test in which the changes of RRL values of

Komatsuna (B. campestris) during culture with wakame extracts collected after

different composting times were monitored. Since salts inhibit plant growth, we

tried to examine the germination using compost extracts under different dilution

ratios. RRL values were lower than 50% under the dilution rate of 2 and increased

to more than 60% and 80% at dilutions of 10 and 100, respectively. Increasing

RRL values were caused by oligosaccharides that had been produced during

alginate decomposition in wakame (Iwasaki and Matsubara, 2000; Xu et al.,

2003). The present result demonstrates that the promotion effect of composted

wakame stimulated the plant growth, which is substantially important for the

application of the wakame compost.



302



JING-CHUN TANG ET AL.



Table 9. Changes of relatively root length (RRL) by using culture medium after incubation of

strains A7 and AW4.



Dilution rate

RRLCM

RRLDW



AW4



A7 (1% wakame)



A7 (culture medium)



25

120.4 ± 8.3

66.0 ± 4.6



25

263.2 ± 5.1

144.2 ± 2.8



10

106.7 ± 11.2

58.5 ± 6.1



25

194.5 ± 14.4

106.6 ± 7.9



50

161.6 ± 5.4

88.6 ± 3.0



Values are average ± SD from three independent experiments. RRLCM and RRLDW indicate relative

values of root length that were calculated on the basis of culture medium and distilled water as control,

respectively.



The ecological toxicity of seaweed compost was examined using a bioluminescence assay as described by Nagata and Zhou (2006) and Zhou et al. (2006).

A luminescent bacterium, V. fischeri DSM 7151, was grown in luminescence medium

(LM) containing 3 g/L of glycerol for 18 h. The change of luminescence intensity

after 30 min of incubation was monitored. INH% values (percentage of inhibition

efficiency) were calculated according to the following equation:

  IT × IC0  

INH% = 1 −  t

  × 100%

  IT0 × IC t  



(2)



where INH%: percentage of inhibition efficiency, ITt: bioluminescence of sample

after contact time t, IT0: initial bioluminescence of sample, ICt: bioluminescence

of control after contact time t, IC0: initial bioluminescence of control.

For all the samples collected at different composting time, INT% values were

lower than 20. Especially, samples collected after 0, 1, and 3 days of composting

showed 0% toxicity, suggesting that the compost extracts stimulate, in turn, the

activity of V. fischeri. INT% values increased after 5–7 days of composting, that is,

the toxicity increased, probably because of the decrease of nutrient amounts with

composting time and intermediate metabolic substances with toxicity produced

during this period. INT% values of toxicity obtained were different from those

obtained with the germination assay, in which a decrease of phytotoxicity was

found with the succession of composting. Multiple approaches and further

related studies should be a prerequisite for a proper evaluation of ecological effect

of composting products.



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RECYCLING OF THE SEAWEED WAKAME THROUGH DEGRADATION



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Biodata of Arie S. Issar and Amir Neori, authors of “Progressive Development

of New Marine Environments – IMTA (Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture)

Production”

Professor Arie S. Issar is a Professor Emeritus at the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for

Desert Research (BIDR), and the Geological Department of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. He founded, and was the head of, the Water Resources Center in the BIDR from 1975 until his retirement in 1998. Professor Issar’s current

research focuses on the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle and

socio-economic systems, with the aim of developing conceptual models that can

mitigate the negative impact of global change. Professor Issar has published about

120 papers, edited five books of collections of papers and seven books in the fields

of geology, hydrogeology, climate change, and philosophy of science.

E-mail: issar@bgu.ac.il

Dr. Amir Neori is a Senior Scientist at the Israel Oceanographic & Limnological

Research, Ltd., The National Center for Mariculture, Eilat, Israel. He obtained his

Ph.D. from the University of California San Diego – Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1986 in Marine Biology and continued his research in sustainable mariculture and algae in his present capacity. Dr. Neori’s scientific interests are in the area of

environmentally friendly aquaculture, algal aquaculture, reduction in aquaculture

environmental impact, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), and biofuel

from algae. He has published over 70 peer-reviewed publications.

E-mail: neori@ocean.org.il; aneori@gmail.com



Arie S. Issar



Amir Neori



305

A. Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments,

Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 305–318

DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-8569-6_17, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010



PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

– IMTA (INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE) PRODUCTION



ARIE S. ISSAR1 AND AMIR NEORI 2

1

Ben Gurion University of the Negev, J. Blaustein Institutes for

Desert Research, Zuckerman Institute for Water Resources

Sede Boker Campus, 84990, Israel

2

Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research Ltd,

National Center for Mariculture, P.O. Box 1212, Eilat 88112, Israel



1. Introduction

The impact of the accelerating global warming on natural and human environments

of arid and semi-arid zones is forecasted to be catastrophic. It is therefore doubtful

whether adherence to the principles of Sustainable Development can avert the

forthcoming catastrophes, especially in developing societies. The unavoidable

conclusion is that a different policy of development has to be drawn up, which will

ensure progress toward a safer way of life and at the same time alleviate the

consequences of environmental catastrophes.

The suggested name of this policy is “Progressive Development,” because it

involves, first and foremost, profound and sweeping changes in the human and

natural environmental resources of arid and semi-arid zones. These changes

will utilize (in contrast to some interpretations of “sustainability”) the still

undeveloped resources of human and natural environments (Issar, 2008).

In a nutshell, Progressive Development aims to pave a new road to the survival and

well-being of future generations, especially in arid and semi-arid zones of the Third

World, by giving priority to investment in the planning and development of new environments, while advancing the local populations in the dimension of knowledge by education.

2. Reduced Nutrient Supply to the Sea due to the Suppression

of Desert Dust Storms by Global Warming

Storms from the Sahara transport about 184 (Ginoux et al., 2001) to 259 (Tegen

et al., 2004) million tons of dust annually to the North Atlantic. The dust supplies the marine life with nitrogen, iron, phosphorus, and micronutrients – some

A new policy is proposed for the mitigation of impacts of climate change on

coastal regions, particularly in arid and semi-arid climates.

307



308



ARIE S. ISSAR AND AMIR NEORI



of which are common on land but scarce in the open ocean. This fertilization

stimulates oceanic primary production (Jickells et al., 2005). Since 1993, ten international research teams have completed relatively small-scale ocean trials demonstrating this effect (Carbo et al., 2005).

Algae, in particular phytoplankton but also seaweed, as well as aquatic

higher plants sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and the sea

to supply the ocean’s food chain with organic carbon and oxygen. A part of

the carbon taken up by the phytoplankton ends up on the bottom as dead

organic matter or in the carbonaceous skeletons of many organisms, including

calcareous algae, zooplankton (such as foraminifera), shellfish, and corals.

This process captures large quantities of atmospheric carbon for long periods

of time.

Investigations into the Quaternary paleo-climatology on a global scale show

that during cold periods, high-pressure systems over the Gobi and Sahara deserts

caused heavy dust storms, which led to iron oxide-rich and phosphate-rich “red

rains” in other regions (Issar, 2003a). Such rains are also documented from historical cold periods, when cyclonic storms passed the Sahara on their way to

southern Europe (Bücher, 1986). Once the global cooling process stopped, when

its prime driving forces disappeared or diminished and, as the atmosphere and the

oceans became warmer, carbon sequestration by phytoplankton dropped. These

conditions, characterizing postglacial periods, changed in response to the warming of the atmosphere and oceans (Issar, 2003a).

Evidence for the enhancement of dust storms by global cooling, especially

during the Last Glacial Period, has been found in both marine and continental

sediments. Loess deposits some tens of meters thick over the Sinai and Negev

(Issar and Bruins, 1983) and the clay component of the red soils in Jordan were

brought by rainstorms associated with intensive cyclonic lows (Lucke, 2007).

These storms moved into the Levant after crossing the Libyan and Egyptian

deserts. In the coastal plain of Israel, the continental deposits during humid periods were characterized by reddish silt or clay, whereas deposition during arid

periods was characterized by sand (Issar, 2001).

During cold periods, aeolian contribution from the Sahara to marine sediments in the SE Mediterranean reached 65%, while during warm periods about

70% of the deposits were “Nile particulate matter” (Schilman et al., 2001). A welldated core from 200 km off the Atlantic African coast near Mauritania revealed

a sudden reduction in velocity (or strength) of the trade winds above North

Africa, synchronous with the onset of global deglaciation and a decrease in

primary plankton productivity (Koopmann, 1981).

In eastern Asia, loess formations arose from dust accumulated during the

dry glacial periods, while during interglacial warm humid periods, soil layers were

characterized by higher iron concentration and low loess accumulation. A correlation was observed between the deposition of loess layers in continental China

and greater accumulation of aeolian material in the adjacent deep sea. During the

ice melt at the end of the Last Glacial Period, characterized by a reduction in



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