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Effect of Seaweed Compost on Plant Growth and Its Potential Ecological Toxicity
RECYCLING OF THE SEAWEED WAKAME THROUGH DEGRADATION
Table 8. Changes of alginate contents during composting process
of wakame by the strain AW4.
3.18 ± 0.14
3.88 ± 0.29
2.61 ± 0.32
5.31 ± 0.71
4.83 ± 0.06
32.42 ± 0.14
32.20 ± 0.58
26.98 ± 0.74
17.54 ± 0.80
10.80 ± 1.26
Values of WSA and WIA are averages ± SD from two independent
introduced by Tiquia and Tam (1998) using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris).
Fresh samples of wakame compost were extracted with distilled water at a compost to water ratio of 1:9 and then filtrated. Diluted extract was applied onto a
filter paper in a Petri dish at 5 mL. Twenty seeds placed in the dish were incubated
in the dark. All germination experiments were conducted in triplicates with distilled water as control. The root length was measured after 3 days and the relative
root length (RRL) was calculated as follows:
Root Length in extract
Root Length in control
Changes of RRL after the incubation with different bacterial strains are
shown in Table 9. The medium was diluted 10–50 times with distilled water, since
the salt present in the medium may reduce the germination of plants. RRL values
with 1% wakame were 263.2% and 120.4% for strains A7 and AW4 after 25-fold
dilution, respectively. Among different dilution rates, 25-fold resulted in the highest
value of RRL, 194.5%. Higher RRL values for wakame and A7 culture medium
suggest that oligosaccharides produced during incubation with A7 might enhance
the elongation of plant roots, different from nonalginate-degrading bacteria like
AW4. The products of A7 treatment of alginate or seaweeds containing alginate may
therefore be used as a kind of fertilizer or enhancing material for phytoremediation.
The phytotoxicity of the compost samples after AW4 treatment was analyzed through a germination test in which the changes of RRL values of
Komatsuna (B. campestris) during culture with wakame extracts collected after
different composting times were monitored. Since salts inhibit plant growth, we
tried to examine the germination using compost extracts under different dilution
ratios. RRL values were lower than 50% under the dilution rate of 2 and increased
to more than 60% and 80% at dilutions of 10 and 100, respectively. Increasing
RRL values were caused by oligosaccharides that had been produced during
alginate decomposition in wakame (Iwasaki and Matsubara, 2000; Xu et al.,
2003). The present result demonstrates that the promotion effect of composted
wakame stimulated the plant growth, which is substantially important for the
application of the wakame compost.
JING-CHUN TANG ET AL.
Table 9. Changes of relatively root length (RRL) by using culture medium after incubation of
strains A7 and AW4.
A7 (1% wakame)
A7 (culture medium)
120.4 ± 8.3
66.0 ± 4.6
263.2 ± 5.1
144.2 ± 2.8
106.7 ± 11.2
58.5 ± 6.1
194.5 ± 14.4
106.6 ± 7.9
161.6 ± 5.4
88.6 ± 3.0
Values are average ± SD from three independent experiments. RRLCM and RRLDW indicate relative
values of root length that were calculated on the basis of culture medium and distilled water as control,
The ecological toxicity of seaweed compost was examined using a bioluminescence assay as described by Nagata and Zhou (2006) and Zhou et al. (2006).
A luminescent bacterium, V. fischeri DSM 7151, was grown in luminescence medium
(LM) containing 3 g/L of glycerol for 18 h. The change of luminescence intensity
after 30 min of incubation was monitored. INH% values (percentage of inhibition
efficiency) were calculated according to the following equation:
IT × IC0
INH% = 1 − t
IT0 × IC t
where INH%: percentage of inhibition efficiency, ITt: bioluminescence of sample
after contact time t, IT0: initial bioluminescence of sample, ICt: bioluminescence
of control after contact time t, IC0: initial bioluminescence of control.
For all the samples collected at different composting time, INT% values were
lower than 20. Especially, samples collected after 0, 1, and 3 days of composting
showed 0% toxicity, suggesting that the compost extracts stimulate, in turn, the
activity of V. fischeri. INT% values increased after 5–7 days of composting, that is,
the toxicity increased, probably because of the decrease of nutrient amounts with
composting time and intermediate metabolic substances with toxicity produced
during this period. INT% values of toxicity obtained were different from those
obtained with the germination assay, in which a decrease of phytotoxicity was
found with the succession of composting. Multiple approaches and further
related studies should be a prerequisite for a proper evaluation of ecological effect
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RECYCLING OF THE SEAWEED WAKAME THROUGH DEGRADATION
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Biodata of Arie S. Issar and Amir Neori, authors of “Progressive Development
of New Marine Environments – IMTA (Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture)
Professor Arie S. Issar is a Professor Emeritus at the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for
Desert Research (BIDR), and the Geological Department of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. He founded, and was the head of, the Water Resources Center in the BIDR from 1975 until his retirement in 1998. Professor Issar’s current
research focuses on the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle and
socio-economic systems, with the aim of developing conceptual models that can
mitigate the negative impact of global change. Professor Issar has published about
120 papers, edited five books of collections of papers and seven books in the fields
of geology, hydrogeology, climate change, and philosophy of science.
Dr. Amir Neori is a Senior Scientist at the Israel Oceanographic & Limnological
Research, Ltd., The National Center for Mariculture, Eilat, Israel. He obtained his
Ph.D. from the University of California San Diego – Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1986 in Marine Biology and continued his research in sustainable mariculture and algae in his present capacity. Dr. Neori’s scientific interests are in the area of
environmentally friendly aquaculture, algal aquaculture, reduction in aquaculture
environmental impact, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), and biofuel
from algae. He has published over 70 peer-reviewed publications.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Arie S. Issar
A. Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments,
Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 305–318
DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-8569-6_17, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010
PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
– IMTA (INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE) PRODUCTION
ARIE S. ISSAR1 AND AMIR NEORI 2
Ben Gurion University of the Negev, J. Blaustein Institutes for
Desert Research, Zuckerman Institute for Water Resources
Sede Boker Campus, 84990, Israel
Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research Ltd,
National Center for Mariculture, P.O. Box 1212, Eilat 88112, Israel
The impact of the accelerating global warming on natural and human environments
of arid and semi-arid zones is forecasted to be catastrophic. It is therefore doubtful
whether adherence to the principles of Sustainable Development can avert the
forthcoming catastrophes, especially in developing societies. The unavoidable
conclusion is that a different policy of development has to be drawn up, which will
ensure progress toward a safer way of life and at the same time alleviate the
consequences of environmental catastrophes.
The suggested name of this policy is “Progressive Development,” because it
involves, first and foremost, profound and sweeping changes in the human and
natural environmental resources of arid and semi-arid zones. These changes
will utilize (in contrast to some interpretations of “sustainability”) the still
undeveloped resources of human and natural environments (Issar, 2008).
In a nutshell, Progressive Development aims to pave a new road to the survival and
well-being of future generations, especially in arid and semi-arid zones of the Third
World, by giving priority to investment in the planning and development of new environments, while advancing the local populations in the dimension of knowledge by education.
2. Reduced Nutrient Supply to the Sea due to the Suppression
of Desert Dust Storms by Global Warming
Storms from the Sahara transport about 184 (Ginoux et al., 2001) to 259 (Tegen
et al., 2004) million tons of dust annually to the North Atlantic. The dust supplies the marine life with nitrogen, iron, phosphorus, and micronutrients – some
A new policy is proposed for the mitigation of impacts of climate change on
coastal regions, particularly in arid and semi-arid climates.
ARIE S. ISSAR AND AMIR NEORI
of which are common on land but scarce in the open ocean. This fertilization
stimulates oceanic primary production (Jickells et al., 2005). Since 1993, ten international research teams have completed relatively small-scale ocean trials demonstrating this effect (Carbo et al., 2005).
Algae, in particular phytoplankton but also seaweed, as well as aquatic
higher plants sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and the sea
to supply the ocean’s food chain with organic carbon and oxygen. A part of
the carbon taken up by the phytoplankton ends up on the bottom as dead
organic matter or in the carbonaceous skeletons of many organisms, including
calcareous algae, zooplankton (such as foraminifera), shellfish, and corals.
This process captures large quantities of atmospheric carbon for long periods
Investigations into the Quaternary paleo-climatology on a global scale show
that during cold periods, high-pressure systems over the Gobi and Sahara deserts
caused heavy dust storms, which led to iron oxide-rich and phosphate-rich “red
rains” in other regions (Issar, 2003a). Such rains are also documented from historical cold periods, when cyclonic storms passed the Sahara on their way to
southern Europe (Bücher, 1986). Once the global cooling process stopped, when
its prime driving forces disappeared or diminished and, as the atmosphere and the
oceans became warmer, carbon sequestration by phytoplankton dropped. These
conditions, characterizing postglacial periods, changed in response to the warming of the atmosphere and oceans (Issar, 2003a).
Evidence for the enhancement of dust storms by global cooling, especially
during the Last Glacial Period, has been found in both marine and continental
sediments. Loess deposits some tens of meters thick over the Sinai and Negev
(Issar and Bruins, 1983) and the clay component of the red soils in Jordan were
brought by rainstorms associated with intensive cyclonic lows (Lucke, 2007).
These storms moved into the Levant after crossing the Libyan and Egyptian
deserts. In the coastal plain of Israel, the continental deposits during humid periods were characterized by reddish silt or clay, whereas deposition during arid
periods was characterized by sand (Issar, 2001).
During cold periods, aeolian contribution from the Sahara to marine sediments in the SE Mediterranean reached 65%, while during warm periods about
70% of the deposits were “Nile particulate matter” (Schilman et al., 2001). A welldated core from 200 km off the Atlantic African coast near Mauritania revealed
a sudden reduction in velocity (or strength) of the trade winds above North
Africa, synchronous with the onset of global deglaciation and a decrease in
primary plankton productivity (Koopmann, 1981).
In eastern Asia, loess formations arose from dust accumulated during the
dry glacial periods, while during interglacial warm humid periods, soil layers were
characterized by higher iron concentration and low loess accumulation. A correlation was observed between the deposition of loess layers in continental China
and greater accumulation of aeolian material in the adjacent deep sea. During the
ice melt at the end of the Last Glacial Period, characterized by a reduction in