Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang
Algae as Food for Other Organisms
E. WALTER HELBLING ET AL.
a significantly higher concentration of UV-absorbing compounds when individuals
were feeding on the Rhodophyte Polysiphonia sp. than when they were feeding on
Chlorophytes. In A. valida (Fig. 6b), there was also an increase in the optical density
at 334 nm, being low when the organisms were feeding on Enteromorpha sp. and
significantly higher when they were feeding on Polysiphonia sp. Moreover, a higher
concentration of UV-absorbing compounds was found in A. valida compared with
that in I. baltica when feeding on Polysiphonia sp. This situation, however, was
reversed when the two crustacean species were collected from Chlorophyte species.
Survival experiments carried out with both species of crustaceans indicated a different ecological role of these compounds. In A. valida, and since a significant higher
survival was observed when organisms were feeding on Rhodophytes compared
with Chlorophytes, MAAs seem to provide an effective protection against UV-B
radiation. In I. baltica, however, mortality was high and not significantly different in
individuals feeding on rich and poor MAA diets. However, high amounts of MAAs
in eggs/embryos of I. baltica suggested that these compounds might provide protection to the progeny rather than to adults.
The results of the in situ experiments summarized above indicate that the studied
macroalgae are shade plants adapted to low light conditions during high tide
favored by strong absorption and scattering of solar radiation in the water column.
However, during low tide, organisms are damaged by high solar radiation exposure. Any further increase in solar UVR – for example, due to the continue decrease
of the stratospheric ozone layer or the extent of influence of the Antarctic ozone
‘hole’ over Patagonia – would worsen this situation, leading to more inhibition
of the algae. However, and so far, the studies have shown that the thalli protect
themselves by actively shutting down the photosynthetic electron transport to
recover during the subsequent low light phase. It is obvious that different species
are adapted to different heights on the coast, and it can be concluded that the
duration and intensity of solar radiation is a decisive factor in the habitat zonation
of macroalgae in the Patagonian region.
This work was supported by Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica
– ANPCyT (Project PICT N° 2005-32034 to VEV), Proalar (Project N° 2000-104 to EWH),
the United Nations Global Environmental Fund (PNUD Project N° B-C-39 to EWH),
Fundación Antorchas (Project A-13955/3 to EWH), the Deutsche Akademische
Austauschdienst (Project Proalar N° T332 408 138 415-RA to D.-P.H), and Fundación
Playa Unión. This is contribution N° 114 of Estación de Fotobiología Playa Unión.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EFFECTS ON MACROALGAE
Atkinson, R.J., Matthews, W.A., Newman, P.A. and Plumb, R.A. (1989) Evidence of the mid-latitude
impact of Antarctic ozone depletion. Nature 340: 290–294.
Blumthaler, M. and Webb, A.R. (2003) UVR climatology, In: E.W. Helbling and H.E. Zagarese (eds.)
UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge,
Boraso de Zaixso, A. (1995) Algas bentónicas de Puerto Deseado (Santa Cruz), Composición de la
flora luego de la erupción del volcán Hudson. Nat Patagon Cienc Biol. 3: 129–152.
Boraso de Zaixso, A., Cianca, M. and Cerezo, A.S. (1998) The seaweed resources of Argentina, In:
A.T. Critchley and M. Ohno (eds.) Seaweed Resources of the World. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo, pp. 372–384.
Boraso, A. and Zaixso, J.M. (2008) Algas marinas bentónicas, In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.) Atlas de sensibilidad ambiental de la costa y el Mar Argentino. Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable,
Casas, G.N. and Piriz, M.L. (1996) Surveys of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in
Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 213–215.
Casas, G.N., Piriz, M.L. and Parodi, E.R. (2008) Population features of the invasive kelp Undaria
pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae: Laminariales) in Nuevo Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina). J. Mar. Biol.
Assoc. UK 88: 21–28.
Díaz, S.B., Frederick, J.E., Lucas, T., Booth, C.R. and Smolskaia, I. (1996) Solar ultraviolet irradiance at Tierra del Fuego: comparison of measurements and calculations over full annual cycle.
Geophys. Res. Lett. 23: 355–358.
Dring, M.J., Wagner, A., Boeskov, J. and Lüning, K. (1996) Sensitivity of intertidal and subtidal red
algae to UVA and UVB radiation, as monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements: influence of collection depth and season, and length of irradiation. Eur. J. Phycol. 31: 293–302.
Franklin, L.A. and Forster, R.M. (1997) The changing irradiance environment: consequences for
marine macrophyte physiology, productivity and ecology. Eur. J. Phycol. 32: 207–232.
Frederick, J.E., Soulen, P.F., Diaz, S.B., Smolskaia, I., Booth, C.R., Lucas, T. and Neuschuler, D.
(1993) Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March
1991. J. Geophys. Res. 98: 8891–8897.
Häder, D.P. (1997) Penetration and effects of solar UV-B on phytoplankton and macroalgae. Plant
Ecol. 128: 4–13.
Häder, D.P., Lebert, M. and Helbling, E.W. (2000) Photosynthetic performance of the chlorophyte
Ulva rigida measured in Patagonia on site. Recent Res. Dev. Photochem. Photobiol. 4: 259–269.
Häder, D.P., Lebert, M. and Helbling, E.W. (2001a) Effects of solar radiation on the Patagonian macroalgae Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh – Chlorophyceae. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol.
Häder, D.P., Lebert, M. and Helbling, E.W. (2001b) Photosynthetic performance of marine macroalgae measured in Patagonia on site. Trends Photochem. Photobiol. 8: 145–152.
Häder, D.P., Lebert, M., Sinha, R.P., Barbieri, E.S. and Helbling, E.W. (2002) Role of protective and
repair mechanisms in the inhibition of photosynthesis in marine macroalgae. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 1: 809–814.
Häder, D.P., Lebert, M. and Helbling, E.W. (2003) Effects of solar radiation on the Patagonian Rhodophyte Corallina officinalis (L.). Photosynth. Res. 78: 119–132.
Häder, D.P., Lebert, M. and Helbling, E.W. (2004) Variable fluorescence parameters in the filamentous
Patagonian Rhodophytes, Callithamnium gaudichaudii and Ceramium sp. under solar radiation.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 73: 87–99.
Häder, D.P., Kumar, H.D., Smith, R.C. and Worrest, R.C. (2007) Effects of solar UV radiation
on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6:
Hanelt, D. (1998) Capability of dynamic photoinhibition in Arctic macroalgae is related to their depth
distribution. Mar. Biol. 131: 361–369.
E. WALTER HELBLING ET AL.
Hanelt, D., Melchersmann, B., Wiencke, C. and Nultsch, W. (1997) Effects of high light stress on
photosynthesis of polar macroalgae in relation to depth distribution. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 149:
Hargreaves, B.R. (2003) Water column optics and penetration of UVR, In: E.W. Helbling and H.E.
Zagarese (eds.) UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 59–105.
Helbling, E.W., Menchi, C.F. and Villafañe, V.E. (2002) Bioaccumulation and role of UV-absorbing
compounds in two marine crustacean species from Patagonia, Argentina. Photochem. Photobiol.
Sci. 1: 820–825.
Helbling, E.W., Barbieri, E.S., Sinha, R.P., Villafañe, V.E. and Häder, D.P. (2004) Dynamics of potentially protective compounds in Rhodophyta species from Patagonia (Argentina) exposed to solar
radiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 75: 63–71.
Helbling, E.W., Barbieri, E.S., Marcoval, M.A., Gonỗalves, R.J. and Villafaủe, V.E. (2005) Impact
of solar ultraviolet radiation on marine phytoplankton of Patagonia, Argentina. Photochem.
Photobiol. 81: 807–818.
Holm-Hansen, O., Lubin, D. and Helbling, E.W. (1993) Ultraviolet radiation and its effects on organisms in aquatic environments, In: A.R. Young, L.O. Björn, J. Moan and W. Nultsch (eds.) Environmental UV Photobiology. Plenum, New York, pp. 379–425.
Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H., Schuch, N.J., Pinheiro, D.K. and Harris, J.M. (1996) Evidence for an ozone hole
perturbation at 30° south. Atmos. Environ. 30: 1481–1488.
Korbee Peinado, N., Abdala Díaz, R.T., Figueroa, F.L. and Helbling, E.W. (2004) Ammonium and
UV radiation stimulate the accumulation of mycosporine like amino acids in Porphyra columbina
(Rhodophyta) from Patagonia, Argentina. J. Phycol. 40: 248–259.
Korbee Peinado, N., Figueroa, F.L. and Aguilera, J. (2006) Acumulación de aminốcidos tipo
micosporina (MAAs): biosíntesis, fotocontrol y funciones ecofisiológicas. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat.
Madronich, S. (1993) The atmosphere and UV-B radiation at ground level, In: A.R. Young, L.O.
Björn, J. Moan and W. Nultsch (eds.) Environmental UV Photobiology. Plenum Press, New York,
Martin, J.P. and Cuevas, J.M. (2006) First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in
Southern Patagonia, Argentina. Biol. Inv. 8: 1399–1402.
Menchi, C.F. (2001) Bioacumulación de compuestos potencialmente protectores de la radiación ultravioleta (RUV) en crustáceos herbívoros del mesolitoral, Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina.
Molina, M.J. and Molina, L.T. (1992) Stratospheric ozone, In: D.A. Dunnette and R.J. O'Brien (eds.)
The science of global change: The impact of human activities on the environment. American Chemistry Society, Washington DC, pp. 24 –35.
Niyogi, K.K., Grossman, A.R. and Björkman, O. (1998) Arabidopsis mutants define a central role
for the xanthophyll cycle in the regulation of photosynthetic energy conversion. Plant Cell. 10:
Orce, V.L. and Helbling, E.W. (1997) Latitudinal UVR-PAR measurements in Argentina: extent of the
“ozone hole”. Global Planet. Change 15: 113–121.
Piriz, M.L., Eyras, M.C. and Rostagno, C.M. (2003) Changes in biomass and botanical composition
of beach-cast seaweeds in a disturbed coastal area from Argentine Patagonia. J. Appl. Phycol.
Richter, P., Gonỗalves, R.J., Marcoval, M.A., Helbling, E.W. and Häder, D.P. (2006) Diurnal changes
in the composition of Mycosporine-like Amino Acids (MAA) in Corallina officinalis. Trends
Photochem. Photobiol. 11: 33–44.
Siegenthaler, U. and Sarmiento, J.L. (1993) Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the ocean. Nature 365:
Villafañe, V.E., Barbieri, E.S. and Helbling, E.W. (2004) Annual patterns of ultraviolet radiation effects
on temperate marine phytoplankton off Patagonia, Argentina. J. Plankton Res. 26: 167–174.
Biodata of Masahiro Notoya, author of “Production of Biofuel by Macroalgae
with Preservation of Marine Resources and Environment”
Masahiro Notoya is currently a Professor in the Laboratory of Applied Phycology in the
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan. He obtained
his Ph.D. from Hokkaido University in 1978. Professor Notoya’s scientific
interests are in the areas of ecology of macroalgal and seagrass communities,
i.e., “Moba ecology,” integrated multitrophic aquaculture, algal bioremediation,
biotechnology of useful algae, algal breeding technology, taxonomy, phylogeny
and physiology of algae, and the life history of Porphyra.
A. Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments,
Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 217–228
DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-8569-6_13, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010
PRODUCTION OF BIOFUEL BY MACROALGAE WITH PRESERVATION
OF MARINE RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT
Notoya Research Institute of Applied Phycology, Mukojima-4,
Sumida-ku, Tokyo 131-8505, Japan
Biofuel production and environment are issues of concern in the world. First,
the author describes the real needs of biofuel, and what kind of materials can
serve this purpose. This is followed by the argument that under the present
global circumstances, macroalgae are the most effective raw material for biofuel
production. Seaweeds are the most important in the marine ecosystem for the
preservation of marine bioresources and seawater quality by preventing pollution
and eutrophication, and also in the absorption and fixation of CO2 aided by
solar energy. The validity of macroalgae is also explained by various additional
useful substances found in their tissues, and by having high productivities compared with terrestrial plants and commercial crops. Algae can be produced in
the coast and unused vast ocean area within the exclusive economic zone. Finally,
the author’s idea for the construction of an effective production system of
macroalgae is explained.
2. Environmental Destruction and Bioenergy Production
Threats to human life on a global scale in the near future is thought to include
environmental destruction, shortage of drinking water and food, water pollution by
the contamination of chemical substances or radioactivity, and energy problems.
Most of these problems are due to unjustified destruction of natural environments,
and they originated by spendthrift economy of mass production/consumption. It is
also considered that a key factor of present global warming is CO2 emissions
and other greenhouse gases emitted artificially by the excessive use of fossil fuel
(fourth IPCC report). The need of energy production (bioenergy, physical energy
from solar light, wind) with environmental conservation approaches without
discharging CO2 is required. Therefore, in biofuel production, the technology
using a lot of energy and discharging a lot of waste for producing the raw materials and for the conversion process for fuel is not suitable. Furthermore, neither
the technology of changing food into energy nor the technology that uses a life
place should be used.
3. Biofuel Production and Global Environment
Recent increases in atmospheric CO2 levels are also caused by the anthropogenic
environmental destruction, such as the excessive consumption of fossil fuels,
deforestation, and development of farmland. Thus, to enhance the accumulation
of CO2 in a forest, stopping deforestation and developing farmland have been
recommended among immediate measures to be taken in every corner of the world,
until now. However, recently measures are moving to control the consumption of
the fossil fuel and production of carbon-neutral energy.
Wood, weeds, corn, sugarcane, palm, sunflower, and rapeseed have all
been evaluated as raw materials for carbon-neutral energy, such as alcohol or
diesel engine oil. Physical energies have also been considered, such as solar, wind,
geothermal, tidal, and current power. However, the energy for transportation
that can replace petroleum should be liquid, or gas fuel. Land crop resources for
carbon-neutral energy have also been used. However, land comprises only about
30% of the surface of the earth, and this includes mountains, deserts, and areas
close to lakes and rivers; and besides using it as a region of economic activity,
land also serves as a human being’s region of livelihood, such as the city,
farmland, and pasture. There was a feeling that not enough area has been allotted for the production of biofuel resources. Moreover, the shortage of food
material in the world at present should be taken into consideration as well as the
rapid increase in global population in the near future. Therefore, using up land
space for the production of biofuel resources is considered a problem given the
expected food crisis in the near future; thus all land space should be solely used
for food production.
On the basis of the above-mentioned facts, production of biofuel resources
should use marine plants rather than terrestrial plants. Especially in Japan, the
small islands with a large exclusive economic zone require the development of
technologies for large-scale culture of macroalgae on the coastal and offshore
areas, such that the production of biofuel from macroalgae does not compete
with that of food and does not destroy the environment. From our experimental
trials, it was estimated that the annual bio-ethanol production was 20 million
kiloliters from 10,000 ha (or 100 km2). This corresponds to about one third the
amount of petrol used annually in Japan. Our project has estimated that a production
of biohydrogen of about 4.7 m3/t wet weight of Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura is