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Table 899. Tides, Sea Level, Level Net

Table 899. Tides, Sea Level, Level Net

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780

T A B L E 900.-THE



EARTH'S ROTATION:



ITS VARIATION



From observations, Spencer Jones (Monthly Notices, Roy. Astron. SOC.,vol. 99, p. 541,

19.39) deduces as the best value of the apparent solar acceleration 2S"/(century)'. Lunar

theory predicts 12.0"/(century)2 leaving part attributable t o tidal friction IO"/(century)*.

Estimates of tidal friction losses (Jeffreys, Philos. Trans., A , vol. 221, p. 239, 1920) :



... .6X10::

1.1



Irish Sea . . . . .

Eng. Channel

North Sea .....

Yellow Sea . . . .



1.7

1.1



erg/sec

"



"



I'



"



"



So. China S e a . . -XlO::

Okhotsk Sea . . . . 4

Bering Sea .... 15.0

Malacca Str. . . 1.1



.



erg/sec

"

"

"



"



''



.



Hudson Str. . . .ZXlO:: er,!sec

Hudson Bay . . . Fox Strait ..... 1.4 "

"

Bay Fundy . . . .4 "

"



.



Other contributions are small. Total for spring tides 22 X 10'' erg/sec. 1.1 X 10" erg/sec

average, corresponding to about 7" secular acceleration per century per century. If 52

is earth's angular velocity of rotation, dO/dt = - 2.5 X 10-"/sec2. O = 7.3 X lo-' rad./sec.

S2 changes by lo-' of its amount in 3 X 10" sec or 10' years. The day should have

lengthened by 1 sec in 120,000 years.

The fluctuations in the earth's rate of rotation indicated by astronomical evidence are

of a quite greater order of magnitude. Moreover the changes vary in sign whereas frictional effects should not. The observations come from deviations of the sun and moon

frcm their gravitational orbits, the transits of Mercury, and eclipses of Jupiter's satellites.

Changes in the speed of rotation of the earth rotation seem the only explanation. This

may be due to shifts of matter within or on the earth. The following figure by Brown

indicates that in 1928 the earth was about 25 sec ahead of its average rotational motion

during the last three centuries. The greatest apparent change in the loss or gain of one

sec in a whole year. (1 part in 30,000,000.)



FIG.36.-Irregularities



in the earth's rotation derived from the

moon's motions.



Tidal friction should make the earth rotate more slowly and the moon recede from the

earth. The rate of dissipation of energy by friction is about 1.4 X 10" erg/sec. The earth's

rotation from this cause should have slowed by 4 hours during geologic time. The moon

should continue to recede until its period of revolution and that of the earth's rotation are

equal to 47 of our present days. The moon should then gradually approach the earth,

ultimately coming within Roche's limit (about twice the earth's radius) breaking up

possibly into a ring like Saturn's.

W J



Jeffreys. The earth, Macmillan, 192Y; Innes. Changes in the length of the day, Scientia, vol. 42,

1927. Jo lrn. Roy. Astron. SOC. Canada, vol. 24. p. 177,

6. M. Cl&mence. U. S. Naval Observatory.



p. 69. 1917. llrown Nature vol. 119 p. 200



1930. Keviied by



S M I T H M N I A N PHYSICAL TABLES



T A B L E 9 0 1 . 4 E NE R A L C O N V E R S I O N F A C T O R S



Density



Area (See Tables 31-33)

Multiply



acre

are

cir mils

ft'



in.'



barrel

tushei



chaldrons

(US., dry)

firkin

ftS

ft'

gallon



hogsheads

liter

Ib of HzO

pt (liquid)

qt (dry)

qt (liquid)



by



40.47

1.60X lo2

4.356X 10'

1OJ

5.067X1Od

9.290x loz

6.452



Multiply



to obtain



g/ft'

g/liter

g/cm'

g/cm'

lb/1000 ft'

Ib/ft'

Ib/in?

siug/ft'



are

rodZ

ftZ

mz

cmz

cm2

cm2



Capacity units (See Tables 31-33)

31.5

gal

1.244

f t'

2.1504X 10'

in.'



amu



cat

erg

36

9

7.48

28.32

3.7854XlO'

.1337

2.31 x 10'

3.7853

8

4

8.423

63

1.000028X10'

1.602x lo-'

27.72

.1200

28.88

67.20

57.75

1.164



cm'

ft'



electron-volt

ft'-atm

ft-lb



in?



liter

pt (liquid)

qt (liquid)

ft'

gal

cm'

ft' of HzO

in.' of H 2 0

gal

in.'

in.'

in.'

qt ( d r y )



In this table the calorie = 4.185 jilules and the Btu



= 252



ft-poundal

g-cm

hp-hr



calories (See Table 7 ) .



(continued)



by



35.31

8.345X10d

62.43

1.94

1.602

1.602x10-*

27.68

,5153

32.17



to obtain



g/m'

Ib/gal

Ib/ft'

slug/ft'

kg/ 100 ma

dcm'

g/cm'

g/cm2

Ib/ft'



Electrical units (See Tables 6-8)

9.32XlO'

Mev

1.492X10d

ergs

Energy units (See Tables 7, 654)

4.185x 10'

erg

9.4801x10-"

Btu *

2.389x10-'

cal *

1.O197X1O6

g-cm

7.376X 10"

ft-lbs

2.373x10-0

ft-poundals

624x10'

Mev

1.602x lo-''

erg

28.32

liter-atm

1.356X10'

ergs

3.766>(10-'

kw-hr

.3238

cat

32.17

ft-poundal

1.285X loJ

Btu

4.214)<10'

ergs

3.108~10-*

ft-lb

9.806X lo2

erg

2.684x 10"

ioule

2.545X 10'

Btu

6.413X1OZ

kg-cal

.7457

kw-hrs



T A B L E 901.-G



E N E R A L CON V E RSI 0 N FACTORS (continued)



Energy units (copttiitued)

Multiply



by



joule



kg-cm

Iw-hr

3Iev

pound-foot

poundal-foot

quantum (A = .6 p )



107

9.48ZX

, .10"

23.73

,7376

3.021X10'8

9.807x 105

7.233x

3 . 6 ida

~

3.414X 10'

8.602x lo"

1 . 6 0 210.'

~

1.3553XlO'

4.2130 x 10'

3.310X10-'*



Heat flow units (See Tables 129-130)

to obtain



Heat content (See thermal units)



ergs

Btu

ft-poundals

ft-lbs

quanta ( A = .6 p )

ergs

ft-lb

joule

Btu

cal

ergs

ergs

ergs

ergs



Illumination (See Tables 71-72)

Multiply



lu/ft'



aal!rnin

liter/min



dyne

newton t

pound (see lb)

poundal

pound (weight)

gram (weight)



Flow

4.720x 10'

,1247

.4720

2 . m 10-3

~

5.885X lo-'

4.403x

Force

7 . 2 3 3 10-5

~

2.248x 10-o

1.0197x

105

1.3827x 10'

4.448X lo5

9.81 x 10'



cm3/sec

pal Iser

--0



-



~



-



to obtain



f t -candles



Linear units (See Tables 31-33, 522)

1 10-10

m

1x

cm

1 x 10-4

barleycorns

1/3

rn.

cubits

1.5

ft

ells

45

Ill.

1.143X1O2

cm

ft

30.48

Cm

12

in.

ft

,3048

m..

.

1/3

yd

6

fathom

ft

furlong

.125

mile

2.20x102

yds

hand

4

in.

league

1 /3

nautical mile

light yrs

9.4602~

1017

cm

line

1/12

in.

m

39.37

in.

mil

10.~

in.

mile (statute)

5.280x 10'

ft

mile (nautical)

6.08O2x1O3

ft

micron ( p )

10-3

mm

10-4

cm

parsec

3.1X10's

cm

span

9

in.

A



Energy flow (See Tables 129-130)



f t3/min



by



1



1



liter/sec

ft3/sec

ft3/sec

gal/sec

poundal

poundweight

kg weight

dyne

dyne

dyne

dyne



Gravitational



micro

milli



cm/sec2

ft/sec2

iThe unit of force in the M K S system.



(continued)



x



Metric system prefixes (See Tables 31-33)

.000001

.oo1



T A B L E 901.-G E N E R A L CO NVE RSI 0N FACTORS (continued)

Pressure units (continued)



Metric system prefixes (coiltiilrrrd)

Multiply



by



centi

deci

_..~

deka

hecto

kilo

myra



.01



....



Multiply



to obtain



atm



.1



i.n.



1.oox 10'

1.00x10:

1.oox10



......



mega



1.00X10"



reams



Paper measure

5.00X 10'



bar

sheets



Photometric units (See Tables 66 and 69-74)

Btu/min

cal/min

ft-lb/sec



hP



Power units

12.96

1.758)<10-'

5.145X10-z

6.975X lo-'

1.82XlO-*

42.43

.7457

5.50X 10'



m o

.. -.



kw



atm



10.69

7.457X10'

1oJ

1.341



barye



f t-lb/sec

kw

f t-lb/see

kw

hP

Btu/min



cmHg



kw

ft-lb

Btu Isec

kq c'al/min

watts

watts

hP



dynes/cmz



by



1.01325x 10"

33.90

1.0332X103

1.0332X10'

76x10-'

7.6OX1O2

2.1168)<103

.9869

7.5O1x1O2

1.0197X loa

1.O 197x 10'

1O6

10"

1.0197

1.00

9.869X lo-'

7.50~10-'

1.316)<10-*

,4461

1.3596Xloz

27.85

.1934

1.333X lo'

1 . 4 5 0 5lo-'

~

2.0888x lo-'

9.869x lo-'

10"



2.953K10-'



Pressure units (See Table 260)

1.033X10a

g/cm'

Ib/in.'

14.70

cmHg (0°C)

76

Tor

7.60X 10'

kg/cmz

1.0332

in. H g (0°C)

29.921

1.01325XlO"

dynes/cm2

1.01325

bar



ft of water



in. Hg



(corttinued)



.8826

3.048K10'

,.

62.43

.4335

3.342XlO-*

3.386X lo'



to obtain



barye

ft water (4°C)

cm water (4°C)

Wm'

PHg

mmHg

Ib/ftz

atm

mmHg



g/cm'

kdm'

dynes/cm2

barye

kg/cm2

dyne/cm'

atrn

mmHg

atm

ft of H,O

kg/m2

Ib/ft2

lb/in.*

dynes

lb/in.2

Ib/ft2

atm

bar

in. H g (0°C)

kg/m2

mmHg

atm

in. H g

kp./mZ

lb7ft'

Ib/in.2

atm

dynes



T A B L E 901.-GENERAL



C O N V E R S I O N FACTORS (continued)



Pressure units (c .ontinued)



kg/m'

kg/cm2

kips/in.'

lb/ft2

lb/in.l



1.133

3.453X10'

70.74

.

.

.4913

2.458x

7.355x10-2

25.40

,5808

5.203

3.613~10-'

1.422x 10.9681

.7030

10s

4.725X104

6 . 8 0 3 ~10''

7.03x10-'

7.03X lo-'



m.zn

.



mmHg



psi

Tor



ohms-cm



Temperature (See Table 1)



to obtain



by



1.3332X 10'

1.3158X 1029.97

1.3595

1.3595X1Od

1

1

1

1/760



Resistivity

6.016x loa



Multiply



ft of water

kdm'

Ib/ft2

Ib/in.'

atm

in. Hg

kg/m'

oz/in.'

Ib/ft'

Ib/in.'

lb/in.'

atm

kg/mmz

1b:in.l

atm

atm

kg/cm'

Wmm'

g/cmZ

dynes

atm

Ib/mz

g/cm'

kg/cm'

Tor

lb/in.P

mmHg

atm



deg F/in.

deg C/cm

Btu



Btu/lb

Btu/fta

Btu/(lb

cal



ohms-mil-ft t



Speed

knot



1

1



T This means the resistance



nautical mile/hr

6080.2 ft/hr

of a wire 1 f t long and 1 mil in diameter.



year 5

day

9 Tropical year.



(continued)



O F )



by



2187

4.572



to obtain



"C/cm

"F/in.



Thermal (heat) units (See Tables 1, 7)

2.52X102

cal

7.782k 10'

ft-lb

3.929x io-.

hphrs

2.929)<10-'

kw-hrs

2.5026XlO'

ft-poundals

1.0546x 10s

joules

1.0754x 10'

kg-m

10.41

liter-atm

,5556

cal/g

8.898x Wa

cal/cm*

8.898

kp. cal /ma

1

C&(g "C)

.4267

kg-m

4.185

joule

4.185x10'

ergs

4.130~

liter-atm

3.968x lo4

Btu

3.088

ft-lb

1.559x lo-"

hp-hrs

1.163 X 10"

kw-hrs

1.264x 10''

quanta (k = .6 a)

1.8

Btu/lb

3.968

Btu

lo3

cal

1

cal cm-' min-'

1/60

cal cm-* sec-'

6.97x lo-'

watt/cm'

Time (See Tables 3, 729)

3.155715XlO'

sec

8.64X10'

sec



T A B L E S(il.-GENERAL



CONVERSION FACTORS (concluded)



Weight (mass) units



Volume units (See Table 31)

Multiply



in.'

f ta



ft'//sal

ga1/(1000 ft')



s/100 kg

e/m'



gaI/ton



by



to obtain



16.387

2.8317><10'



cm'

cms



Volume capacity

7.482

13.37

.02

,437

.4172



ms/kl

]/lo0 ma

lb/ton

grains/fts

liter/( 100 kg)



Weight (mass) units (See Table 31)

3.168

grains

carat (1877)

2.053)<10'

mg

2.00x 1v

carat (metric)

mg

1.772

drams (av)

g

02

6.25~

9.807)<102

dynes

g



Multiply



kips

Ib

Ib (troy)

slug



slug (metric)



fts of gas/lb

fts of water

(4°C)



by



15.43

1 x lo-'

1 os

3.527~10-'

2.205x 10103

7.00x 1oJ

4.536X1OZ

16

,8229

1

32.17

9.80X lo2

Weight per volume

6.243

62.43



to obtain



02



lb



Ib



grains

g

02



lb (av)

gee Ib

lb



msof gas/100 k g



lb.



Index terms



Links

10

56

743

10

729

20

20

20



Abampere

Abbreviations: common units of measurement

constellations

Abcoulomb

Aberration constant

Abfarad

Abhenry

Absolute units (see under name of unit)

Absorption (see also Transmission):

for air (atmosphere)

components

moist

for crystals

for filters

for gases, long wavelengths

for glass

red pyranometer

various

for mass: γ-rays

X-rays

for materials for blackening receivers

for radiant energy

for screens, color

for various materials

for water

of gases by liquids

of vapors by liquids

of various radiations: alpha rays

beta rays

cathode rays

gamma rays

radiant energy

X-rays

critical

Abundance (see Elements, chemical): elements

isotopes

Abvolt

Acceleration: angular

gravity (see Gravitation)

linear

Acoustics (see also Sound)

architectural

attenuation coefficient

definition of terms

hearing

differential sensitivity

distribution of hearing losses

sensitivity of ear

reverberation time

calculations

optimum



538

538

546

517

535

552

512

537

512

687

694

548

517

535

535

536

360

360

672

672

672

672

549

693

701

625

655

12

4

714

6

309

315

315

315

314

314

315

314

315

315

316



787



20



20



546



545

536 537



535-546



684

690

690

687

694 701

626 627 628 629

20



Index terms



Links



Acoustics, Continued

room type

sound type

Actinium

Beta-ray spectrum

Activity (power)

Adsorption, heats of

charcoal

Aeronautics

air flow

compressible

force, parameters

illustrations

isentropic

formulas

normal-shock

formulas

oblique-shock

parameters (force) and Mach numbers

speed vs. pressure

supersonic

types

vs. Mach number

vs. Reynolds number

bodies moving through a liquid

forces on

angle of attack

aspect ratio

depends upon

for air: attitude to wind

center of pressure

drag coefficient

lift coefficient

Mach number

and flow paramcters

pressure, dynamic

vs. air speeds

Reynolds number

critical

shape of body

speed

surface, roughness

turbulence of air

sample bodies:

airfoils

air flow around

angle of attack

Mach number

Reynolds number

surface roughness

flow parameters



788



317

317

228

685

4

632

632

337

337

348

337

349

348

348

348

348

348

350

338

348

339

349

349

337

337

339

339

337

337

339

339

339

337

342

338

358

337

341

337

338

337

337



633

633

349

343



352



349

352



340 342

340

350



353

352

352

352

352

352 353

353



Index terms



Links



Aeronautics, Continued

vs. Mach number

force coefficients

illustrations

cylinders, nonrotating

drag coefficient

aspect ratio

Mach number

Reynolds number

inclination of axis to wind direction

flat plates, thin

force coefficients

angle of attack

drag

lift

Mach number

Reynolds number

local skin friction

moment thickness

skin friction

laminar flow

Reynolds number

turbulent flow

miscellaneous bodies

drag coefficient

Reynolds number

various bodies

forces on

spheres

drag coefficient

Mach number

Reynolds number

forces on

pressure coefficient

Reynolds number

critical

sphere size

standard atmosphere for

basis of

characteristics of

extension of

properties

ratio specific heats

velocity of sound in

viscosity

kinematic

Age, earth

moon

radioactive materials

strata

universe



789



353

353

352

340

340

340

340

340

341

339

339

339

339

339

340

340

343

344

343

343

343

343

343

343

343

343

343

341

341

342

342

342

342

341

341

341

345

345

347

347

347

345

347

347

347

741

741

679

741

710



341

341 342

341



340



345



344

344



348



Index terms



Links

592

599

605

592

592

265

596

269

69

69

337

348

163

592

602

602

604

599

601

604

532

546

278

592

720

720



Air (see also Atmosphere)

aqueous vapor, pressure in atmosphere

sea-level

composition, ground level

up to F2 layer

compressibility

density of moist air

dry, thermal properties

effects on weighing

corrections

flow (see under Aeronautics)

compressible

heat capacity

height

humidity, relative

determination

dry-bulb temperature

maintenance

various vapor pressures

wet and dry temperature

index of refraction

infrared transmission

Joule-Thomson effect in

mass

different values

with direction of sight

moist:

density, calculated

relative

transmission

saturated water vapor

pressure

weight

sound, speed in

thermal conductivity

thermal properties

dry

transmission of radiation

components

ultraviolet

viscosity, kinematic

weight

Albedos (see Astronomy)

Alcohol: compressibility

Density, mixtures with water

melting point, with pressure

vapor pressure

viscosity

Alloys: alnico

aluminum

Babbitt



596

598

546

600

600

601

306

142

270

269

538

538

538

345

592

737

282

302

118

370

320

454

192

226



790



597 598

270



603 604



720



594



270

546



220



Index terms



Links



Alloys: alnico, Continued

brazing

carboloy

conductivity, electrical

super

thermal

copper

density

Heusler

latent heat of fusion

low melting point

composition

magnetic

alnico

Heusler

permalloy

silmanal

superpermalloy

melting points

low

miscellaneous

resistivity

soldering

special purpose

thermal emf vs. lead

thermal expansion

invar

low expansion

special purpose

Alnico

Alpha particles (see also Radioactivity)

charge

characteristics

high-speed, artificial radioactive sources

natural radioactive sources

ionization

mass

range in air

relative stopping power of selected

substances

velocity

Alpha-ray spectra, artificial radioactive

substances

natural radioactive substances

Altitude, by barometer

Aluminum: alloys, properties

atomic weight

boiling point

conductivity

mechanical properties

melting point



223

224

390

394

138

198

293

458

165

125

125

458

454

458

453

454

453

125

125

217

384

223

220

379

149

221

221

220

454

664

50

672

682

681

672

49

672

684

672

682

681

613

192

619

117

404

192

117



791



391



225

225



672 680

680 681



684



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