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Table 652. Charge on Rain and Snow

Table 652. Charge on Rain and Snow

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616



T A B L E 653.-ATMOSPH

Element



Symbol



Air-conductivity

total ........... X = A+



Ratio of positive

to negative

conductivity



....



Means



+ X-



X+/X-



esu X lo-' Variations determined chiefly by

local factors

Sea :

2.6

"

"

Variations small and chiefly irregular

Free air ................. .Ratio of value at various altitudes to that at surface

Okm 1

6km20

3 " 8

9 " 38

Land:

Sea:



..



+



........



p=n,/n-



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



Variations



Land : 1 to 5



Air-earth current

density ........ i = XP/30000 Land:

Sea:

Density of small

ions : Positive

n+

Land:

Sea:

Negative.

nLand:

Sea:

(n+ n-)/2 Free air

Ratio of positive

to negative ionic

density



Units



Range

Percent of mean

Land: 64 to 317 volfs/m Annual

22 to 145

Diurnal

35 to 120

Sea:

128

Annual

13

Diurnal

35

Free air .................. Percentage of surface values at

various altitudes

OkmlOO

6km8

3 " 17

9 " 4



P



Potential gradient.



ERIC-ELECTR IC D A T A



Land:

Sea:



1.12

1.26



7.0

11.0



esu X 10.'



750

600

650

500



ionslcm'

'1



'I



................. .Values at various



1.23

1.23

(continued)



altitudes

2 km 1300

4 " 1900

5 " 2300



TABLE 653.-ATMOSPHERlC-ELECTRlC

EI ement



Space-charge, over land. .



Symbol

P



Means



x lo-''



(For h = height in km)



Mobility of small ions :

Positive .............



k , = X+/300 en+

k+



............



k-



Rate of formation of

ion-pairs .............



9



Negative



At surface: *

1900

Free air:



- 2000 to

p = - (%/1.2~)



0 to 3 km

3to6

6to9



+



P



9.0

0.9

0.4



Land :

0.9

Sea :

1.6

Land :

1.o

Sea :

1.7

Over land:

Ra and Th

products in air

a rays

4.6

B rays

0.2

Y rays

0.15

Radioactive

matter in the

earth's crust

B rays

0.1

Y rays

3.0

Penetrating

radiation 1.5

Total

9.55

At sea:

Penetrating

radiation 1.5

( ? ) .07

Total

2.2



The sign and magnitude of surface values are exceedingly variable from place to place.



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



617



DATA (concluded)

Units



lO-'O esu/cma



"

'I

'I



cm sec-I volt-' cm-'

"



"

II



ions cm-' sec-'

"

'6



'

'I

'6



618 TABLES 654-659.-ATOMIC



AND MOLECULAR DATA



Just ri few years ago it was held that the universe was made up of 92 elements and that probably these elements were made of two elementary particles.

While most of these 92 elements had been identified and their properties

studied, there were several that had not been identified and thus very little

was known directly about their properties.

As a result of a great amount of study and investigation, during the past

few years the number of known elementary particles has been extended to

seven or eight (see Table 720), and all the elements missing from the periodic

table (see Table 658) have been identified and some of their properties

studied.1g9 In addition to this, the number of elements has been extended to

five or six beyond uranium and some of the properties of these elements have

been studied. (See Table 658.)

It is now generally considered that the elements are made up of electrons,

protons, and neutrons. Each element now has three designations : the name ;

the atomic number, 2 , i.e., the charge on the atomic nucleus and the mass nuniher, A,which is the number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus

of the atom and extends from 1 for hydrogen (or the neutron) to 246 for the

isotope of californium. This mass number is not too definite since, in many

cases, several atoms have isotopes of the same mass number.

Atoms of number greater than 83 and certain isotopes of eight atoms of

lower atomic number, are unstable in that they break down into other isotopes,

i.e., they are radioactive. (See Table 732.) There are in all about 1,220

different isotopeslggthat have been identified and have had some of their

properties studied. Of these only 274 are stable. A number of atoms

( 2 = 43, 61, 85, 93, 94, 95, 96) are so unstable that they are not now found

on the earth. Two of the isotopes, A = 5, and 8, have so short a life that it is

almost impossible to detect them. A radioactive material with a life shorter

than about

sec and longer than about 10 l4 years will be unobservable

as such.

The values given for certain physical dimensions of molecules, atoms, or

nuclei depend upon the definition of the particular dimension and the method

used in its calculation. Diameters may be calculated from Van der Waal's

equation, from viscosity, and from certain force relations. Some values are the

results of assuming the atom or nucleus to be a sphere. While these various

methods give results that do not differ too much, neither are the results in

good enough agreement for one to feel that the answer is final. The following

tables give some results of physical dimension obtained by various means of

calculation.

Seaborg and Perlman, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 20, p. 585, 1948.

mBethe, H. A,, Elementary nuclear theory, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1947. Reprinted

by permission.

188



T A B L E 654.-CONVERSION

Units



FACTORS FOR U N I T S O F MOLECULAR E N E R G Y



Erg/molecule



1 erg/molecule = 1

1 joule/mole = 1.660349X10-'T

1 cal/mole = 6.94690 XIO-'

1 electron-volt/

molecule = 1.601992)<10-'2

1 wave.No (cm-') = 1.985776)<10-'e



Joule/mole



Cal/mole



Electron-volt/

molecule



(cm-1)



t



6.02283X101e 1.43491XIOIR 6.2422 X10" 5.03581x10"

1

239006

1.036427x10-6 8.36121~10-~

4.1840

1

4.33641 lo-'

.349833



x



96.4853)<10'

11.95999



2.30605)<10' 1

2.85851

1.239567x lo-'



This tahle adapted from data furnished by the National Bureau of Standards.

where the values given are for Y = unity



SMlTHSONlAN PHYSICAL TABLES



Wave No



*



t This



8.06734X10'

1



means hv/molecule



TABLE 655.4NTERNATIONAL ATOMIC WEIGHTS

At



Element



Symbol



Actinium ........ Ac

Aluminum ....... A1

Americium ....... Am

Antimony ........ Sb

Argon ........... A

Arsenic .......... As

Astatine ......... At

Barium .......... Ba

Berkelium ....... Br

Beryllium ........ Be

Bismuth ......... Bi

Boron ........... B

Bromine ......... Br

Cadmium ........ Cd

Calcium ......... Ca

Cf

Californium

Carbon .......... C

Cerium .......... Ce

Cesium .......... Cs

Chlorine ......... C1

Chromium ....... Cr

Cobalt ........... Co

Copper .......... Cu

Curium ........... Cm

Dysprosium

Dy

Erbium .......... E r

Europium ........ Eu

Fluorine ......... F

Francium ........ F r

Gadolinium

Gd

Gallium .......... Ga

Germanium ...... Ge

Gold

Au

Hafnium

Hf

Helium .......... H e

Ho

Holmium

Hydrogen ........ H

Indium .......... In

Iodine ........... I

Iridium .......... Ir

Iron ............. Fe

Krypton ......... Kr

Lanthanum ...... La

Lead ............ Pb

Lithium ......... Li

Lutetium ........ Lu

Magnesium ...... Mg

Manganese ...... Mn

Mercury ......... H g



.....



......



......



............

........

........



No

89

13

95

51

18

33

85

56

97

4

83

5

35

48

20

98

6

58

55

17

24



27



29

%

66

68

63

9

87

64

31

32

79

72

2

67

1

49

53

77

26

36

57

82

3

71

12

25

80



Atomic

weight



..



227

26.98

[2431

121.76

39.944

74.91

[2101

137.36

U451

9.013

209.00

10.82

79.916

112.41

40.08

12463

12.010

140.13

132.91

35.457

52.01

58.94

63.54

r2433

162.46

167.2

152.0

19.00

12231

156.9

69.72

72.60

197.2

178.6

4.003

164.94

1.0080

114.76

126.91

193.1

55.85

83.80

138.92

207.21

6.940

174.99

24.32

54.93

200.61



.



Element



Symbol



Molybdenum ..... Mo

Neodymium ...... Nd

Neon ............ Ne

Neptunium ...... NP

Nickel ........... Ni

Niobium ......... Nb

Nitrogen ........ N

Osmium ......... 0 s

Oxygen ......... 0

Palladium ....... Pd

Phosphorus ...... P

Platinum ........ Pt

Plutonium ....... P u

Polonium ........ P o

Potassium ....... K

Praseodymium ... Pr

Promethium ..... Pm

Protactinium ..... P a

Radium ......... R a

Radon ........... Rn

Rhenium ......... Re

Rhodium ........ Rh

Rubidium ........ Rb

Ruthenium ....... Ru

Samarium ....... Sm

Scandium . . . . . . . . Sc

Selenium ........ Se

Silicon .......... Si

Silver ...........

Sodium ..........

Strontium ....... Sr

Sulfur ........... S

Tantalum ........ T a

Technetium ...... T c

Tellurium ........ T e

Terbium ......... T b

Thallium ........ TI

Thorium ......... T h

Tliulium ......... Tm

Tin ............. Sn

Titanium ........ T i

Tungsten ........ W

Uranium ........ U

Vanadium ....... V

Xenon ........... Xe

Ytterbium ....... Yb

Yttrium ......... Y

Zinc ............. Zn

Zirconium ....... Zr



AN",



619

At



Atomic

weight



42

60

10

93

28

41

7

76

8

46

15

78

94

84

19

59

61

91

88

86

75

45

37

44

62

21

34

14

47

11

38

16

73

43

52

65

81

90

69

50

22

74

92

23



95.95

144.27

20.183

[2371

58.69

92.91

14.008

190.2

16

105.7

30.975

195.23

12421

210

39.100

140.92

[1451

231

226.05



No



m



186.31

102.91

85.48

101.7

150.43

44.%

78.96

28.06

107.880

22.997

87.63

32.066 t

180.88

[991

127.61

159.2

201.39

232.12

169.4

118.70

47.90

183.92

238.07

50.95

131.3

173 0 1

88.92

65.38

91.22



%



39

30

40



Y W i c h e r s Edward Journ. Amer . Chem Sac vol . 74. p . 2447 1952 .

A value &en in brackets denotes the mass ';umber of the isdtope of longest known half life

t Because of natural variations in the relative abundance of the isotopes of sulfur, the atomic weight of this

element has a range of k.003.



SMlTHSONlAN PHYSICAL TABLES



.



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