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Table 330. Viscosity of Pure Hydrocarbons

Table 330. Viscosity of Pure Hydrocarbons

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OF GLASS



TABLE 331.-VISCOSITY



330



(Temperature variation)

Part 1.



Loglo? (poises) at

Glass



500°C



600°C



700°C



80OOC



900°C



1000°C



1

2

3

4



13.76



9.85



7.03



...



...



15.20

13.82



12.35

10.85



9.82

8.55



5.42

5.84

5.38

5.74

7.87

6.81



3.60

5.52



...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...



4.37

4.79

4.29

4.48

6.48

5.68

1.55

2.17



...

...

...

...

...



...

...

...

...

...



...

...

...



...



...



...



...

...

...



9.49



...

...

...

...



1200°C



1300°C



4.16

3.65



.69

1.16



...

...

...



...



...

...



4.71



6.02

5.70



5.79

4.48



...

...



...



7.30



1100°C



3.89

..

4.06

3.97

3.70



3.34

3.47



2.91

3.01

2.89

2.60



2.67

2.31

2.40



ZnO



PbO



A1203



Part 2.



Composition (weight percentages)

Glass



SiO.



1



69.73

72.6

70.12

67.3

81.O

75.0

65.0

60.0



8



B&



...



1.43

...



2.00

13.00

15.00



...

...

...

...



9



10

11

12

13

147

15



10"

7.5



56

73.18



...



Na20



K20



20.96

16.0

21.1

14.0

4.00

5.0

7.5

5.0

15.30

15.30

16.88

7.50

10

4

19.35



trace



CaO



...

1.7

...



.68

trace



...

...

...



...



...



5.0



...



...

*..



...



3.57

.I8

.35



5.69

9.03

8.79



10



...



.21



6.26



Part 3.-Commercial



...

...

...



...



...

...

...



6.70



...

7.0

...

...

...

...

...

...

...



...



...

...

...



7.5



...

...



9.05

6.40

8.77

7.0



...



.18*

1.0 *

.02

2.50

2.0



...

...



...

...



5.0

20.0

30.0



...



.91*

.85*

1.72*

1.30*

5

2.5

1.19*



...

...

22.00

...

...

...



glass t



Loglnq (poises) at

7.00



Glass

desiunatinn



Manufactiirrr

.

..



C$e



..



c



0010-Potash soda lead. Corning Gl:ss W y k s

6.51

0120-Potash soda lead.

,,

,,

,, . . 6.62

1710-Hard !ime

.

.

.

..

"

<'

"

7720-I3oros~l~cate....

'I

.....

"

"

'' 7740-Pyrex

"

. 9.82

Plate glass

Blue Ridfi-e Glass Corp.. . . .

Window glass .....,

Libby-Owens-Ford

"



......

.........



...............



......



8.00



c



.



5.35

5.41

10.45

6.80

7.87



........



8.35



...



9.00



c



4.52

4.57

7.95

5.66

6.48

5.00

5.06



1;OO



1JOO



10200



IjOO



3.86

3.89

6.28

4.82

5.52

4.03

4.14



3.36

3.36

4.93

4.16

4.77

3.41

3.41



2.91

2.91



2.53

2.53

3.22

3.20

3.67

2.46

2.48



c



c



c



3.92

....



3.65

4.16

2.87

2.90



c



1n:o

C

2.22

2.22

2.62

2.86



...



2.07

2.14



'2'Babcock, C. L., Journ. Amer. Cer. SOC. vol. 17, p. 329 1934. English Journ. SOC.Glass Techn., vol. 7,

p. 25, 1923; vol. 8, p. 205 1924. vol. 9. p. 83.' 1925; vol. 10, <. 52, i926- Lillie H. R Journ. Amer. Cer. SOC.,

vol. 14. p. 502, 1931: Huther, Jburn. .\mer. Cer. Soc., vol. 17, p. 121, 1634; L h e , H:'R., unpublished data.

t Glass 14 contains 20 perH,Os. Glasses 11 and 12 contained 0.50 and 0.34 percent BaO, respectively.



'



crnt IlaO.



$ Data by H.



R. Lillie, Corning Glass Works Laboratory.



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



TABLE 332.-VISCOSITY



OF GASES



33 1



Variation of viscosity with pressure and temperature



According to the kinetic theory of gases the coefficient of viscosity 7 = j ( p c l ) , p being

the density, 7 the average velocity of the molecules, I the average path. Since 1 varies

inversely as the number of molecules per unit volume, p l is a constant and q should be

independent of the density and pressure of a gas (Maxwell's law). This has been found true

for ordinary pressures ; below %o atmosphere it may fail, and for certain gases it has been

proved untrue for high pressures, e.g., C 0 2 a t 33" and above 50 atm. See Jeans, "Dynamical Theory of Gases."

If B is the amount of momentum transferred from a plane moving with velocity U and

parallel to a stationary plane distant d, and s is a quantity (coefficient of slip) to allow for

the slipping of the gas molecules over the plane, then 7 = ( B / U ) (d+2s) ; s is of the same

magnitude as I, probably between .7 (Timiriazeff) and .9 (Knudsen) of it; at low pressures d becomes negligible compared with 2s and the viscosity should vary inversely as

the-pressure.

c depends only on the temperature and the molecular weight. c v a r i e s as the V F , but q

has been found to increase much more rapidly. Meyer's formula, vt = vo(l

a t ) , where a

is a constant and 7 0 the viscosity a t O"C, is a convenient approximate relation. Sutherland's

formula



+



is the most accurate formula in use, taking into account the effect of molecular forces. It

holds for temperatures above the critical and for pressures following approximately Boyje's

I

law. I t may be thrown into the form T = K T / q - C which is linear of T and T'/q,

with a slope equal to K and the ordinate intercept equal to -C. Onnes (see Jeans) shows

that this formula does not represent helium a t low temperatures with anything like the

accuracy of the simpler formula v = vo( T/273.1)" = AT".

The following table'*5 contains the constant a of Meyers formula, C and K of Sutherland's formula, n and A of the exponential formula, and the temperature range for which

the constants of the latter two are applicable.

Gas



Temperature

range 'C



Air ..................

23

Ammonia ............. - 77

Argon ................ -183

Benzene ..............

0

Carbon dioxide ........ - 98

Carbon monoxide ......

Chloroform ...........

Ethylene ..............

Helium ............... -258

Hydrogen ............ -258

Kiypton ..............

Mercury .............. -218

Methane ..............

18

Neon .................

Nitrogen ............. -191

Nitrous oxide .........

Oxygen .............. -191

Water vapor ..........

0

Xenon ...............



to

to

to

to

to



750

441

827

313

1052



., .

...

...



to 817

to 825



...



to 610

to 499



to



...

825

...



to 829

to 407



...



a x 108



2.90



...



1.78



...



3.48

2.69



...



3.50



...



...



...

...



2.69

3.45



C



117.9

472

133

403

233

102

454

226

97.6

70.6

188

996

155

252

102

313

110

659

252



Kxlw



tI



AXlW



14.82

15.42

19.00

10.33

15.52

13.5

15.9

10.6

15.13

6.48



.754

.041

.766

.974

.868

.74



2.490

.274

2.782

.299

1.057



.653

.678



4.894

1.860



63.00

9.82



1.082

.770



.573

1.360



13.85

17.2

16.49

18.31



.702

.93

.721

1.116



3.213



...



...



...



...

...

...



...



...



...

...

...



...



...

...



3.355

.170



...



125 Dushman. S., Vacuum technique, p. 37, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1949; Banerjea, G. B., and

Plattanaik, B., Zeit. Physik. vol. 110, p. 676, 1938: Partington, J. R., Phys. Zeit., vol. 34, p. 289, 1933;

Fisher, Phys. Rev., vol. 24, 1907.



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



OF GASES A N D V A P O R S



T A B L E 333.-VISCOSITY



332



P a r t 1.-Viscosity



of vapors



The values of 7 given in the table are 10' times the coefficients of viscosity in cgs units.

Substance



Acetone ...............

Alcohol, Methyl . . . . . . .

Alcohol, Ethyl . . . .. . .

Alcohol, Propyl, norm..

Alcohol, Isopropyl . . . . .

Alcohol, Butyl, norm.. . .

Alcohol, Isobutyl . . . . . . .

Alcohol, Tert. butyl. . . . .

Ammonia ..............

Ben;ene . . .. .. . . .. . . . ..



.



.



Temp.

"C



.

.

.



18.0

66.8

78.4

97.4

82.8



116.9

108.4

82.9

20.0

0.

............... 19.0

............... 100.0

Carbon bisulfide . . . . . . . 16.9

Carbon monoxide . . . . . . 20.0

Chlorzform ,........... 0.0

............. 17.4

'

...... ....... 61.2

Ether ................. 0.0



.



Substance



7



Ether . . . .



78.

135.

142.

142.

162.

143.

144.

160.

108.



16.1

................. 36.5

Ethyl chloride . . . . . . . . . 0.

Ethyl iodide .......... 72.3

Ethylene

. .. . . . .. . 0.0

270.0

Mercurv . . . . . . . . , .

..._...........300.0

1

.............. 330.0

'

.............. 360.0

.............. 390.0

Methane . .. . . . .. . . . . . 20.0

Methyl chlyide . . . . . . . . 0.0

. . . . . . . 15.0

. . . . . . . . 302.0

Methyl iodide . . . . . ,

44.0

Wafyr v a y r .......... 0.0

...... .... 16.7

"

.......... 100.0



..



70.



.. .

. ...



.



79.

118.

92.4

184.0

95.9

102.9

189.0

68.9



P a r t 2.-Viscosity



.. . . . . . . . . . ..



Temp.

"C



.

.

. . ..



7



73.2

79.3

93.5

216.0

96.1

489.

532.

582.

627.

671.

120.1

98.8

105.2

213.9

232.

90.4

96.7

132.0



of gases and vapors'w



(Temperature variation)

Viscosity in millipoises

T:mp.



C



-200

-150

-100

- 50

0

50

100

150

200



250

300

350

400

500

600

...

700

800

900

1000

1100



Air



Argon



.053

...

...

.081

.111

...

.139

...

.175

...

.193

.241

.216

.269

.297

.237

.256 .321

.346

.275

.367

.293

.389

.310

.410

.327

.357

.450

384

.488

.~

.521

.411

.554

.437

.463

...

,499

...

.511

...



Carbon

dioxide



...

...



.087

.112

.135

.159

.181

.203

,225

,245

,262

.280

.299

.331

.362

.391

.417

.421

.465



Chlo- ,

Hydrorine .HeliumI

gen



...



...



...

...

...



.147

.167

.189

.208

.228



...



...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...



...

...

...



...

...



.207

.228

.247

.267

.285

.305

.323

.341

.375

.408

.438

.467



...



...



.033

.047

061

.073

.083

.093

.lo2

.111

.120

.129

,137

.145

.153

.167

,181

.195

.208



...

...

...



Nitrogen Oxygen



...

...

...

...



...



.189

.207

226

.245

.263

.280

.296

.311

.341

.367

.391

.414



...

...

...



...

...

...

...

...



.217

.241

.264

.287

.309

.330

.349

,368

.403

.435

.466

,494



,

Xenon



.222 (15°C)

Nitric oxide

.179 (O'C)

Nitrous oxide

.138 (0°C)

Krypton

.246 (15°C)

Carbon monoxide

.163 (0°C)

Ammonia

.096 (0"C)



...

...

...



'=Based on data from Landolt and BGrnstein, 3d supplementary vol., pt. 1, p. 184, 1935.



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



333

T A B L E 334.-PRESSURE



E F F E C T O N VISCOSITY O F P U R E LIQUIDS'n



This table gives logloof the relative viscosity as a function of pressure and density, the viscosity

at 30°C and atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For each compound first line log

at 30°C,

second line at 75"C, third line q30/q,E.

Pressure kg/cmz

Substance



'



Methyl

alcohol



. . . . . . . . ..



Ethyl

alcohol



. . . . . . . .. .



n-Propyl

alcohol



. . .. . . . . . .



n-Butyl

alcohol . . . . . . . . .



.



n- Amy1



.



alcohol . . . . . . . . .



n-Pentane



. . . . . . . ..



n-Hexane



.. .... ....



Ethyl

chloride . . . . .

Ethyl

bromide

Ethyl

iodide

Acetone

Glycerine

CCl,



....



,



,



. .. . . . .. .,



. . . . . . . .. . .,

.. . . . . . . .. ..

.. . .. . . .



. ...............



Chloroform



.. . . . ....



cs, . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .

,



Ether



. . . . . . .. . . .. ..



Benzene



. . .. . ... .. ..



Toluene



. . . . . . . . . . ..



Eugenol



. . . . . . . . ..



1



500



1000



2000



4000



6000



8000



10000



.094 .167 .286 .471 .616 .750 .874

9.769 9.862 9.933 .043 .208 .334 .448 .555

1.702 1.706 1.714 1.750 1.832 1.914 2.004 2.084

.OOO

,107 .200 .363 .617 329 1.023 1.211

9.657 9.772 9.873 .045 .289 .473 .634 .778

2.203 2.163 2.123 2.080 2.128 2.270 2.449 2.710

.ooo .151 .283 .494 .836 1.131 1.402 1.667

9.598. 9.754 9.880 .on .368 .6io .827 1.033

2.523 2.495 2.529 2.630 2.938 3.319 3.758 4.305

.OW .175 .321 .554 .934 1.289 1.609 1.912

9.548 9.724 9.867 ,089 .312 .690 .941 1.172

2.845 2.838 2.858 2.932 3.343 3.991 4.679 5.521

.ooo ,188 .341 ,607 1.060 1.448 1.811 2.164

9.540 9.723 9.871 .lo5 .466 .772 1.049 1.313

2.884 2.917 2.951 3.177 3.926 4.742 5.781 7.096

.OOO ,181 .315 .524 .847 1.112 1.360 1.615

9.811 .014 .163 .380 .676 .908 1.119 1.313

1.545 1.469 1.419 1.393 1.483 1.600 1.742 2.004

,000 ,184 .332 .561 .914 1.224 1.514 1.803

9.803 .028 ,171 .379 .701 .961 1.198 1.426

1.574 1.432 1.449 1.521 1.633 1.832 2.070 2.382

.OOO

.134 .242 .405 .649 .837 1.008 1.172

9.850 ,017 ,131 285 .514 .683 334 .977

1.413 1.309 1.291 1.318 1.365 1.426 1.493 1.567

.om .121 ,222 .387 .631 .854 1.043 1.223

9.806 9.959 .072 .235 .472 .653 .816 .978

1.567 1.452 1.413 1.419 1.442 1.589 1.687 1.758

.OOO

.115 218 .385 .656 .888 1.108 1.330

9.837 9.954 .057 227 .467 .672 .854 1.030

1.455 1.449 1.445 1.439 1.545 1.644 1.795 1.995

.OOO

.135 226 .373 60.5 304 .987 1.160

9.895 ,017 .113 245 .445 .610 .762 .898

1.274 1.312 1.297 1.343 1.445 1.563 1.679 1.828

.OOO

.134 .260 .497 .936 1.346 1.741 2.133

8.810 8.920 9.023 9.204 9.529 9.818 .094 .369

15.49 16.37 17.26 19.63 25.53 33.73 44.36 58.08

.ooo .190 .351 .493

(1500) h c m a

9.760 9.949 ,100 .349 .542

1.738 1.742 1.782

.ooo .110 211 .386 .660 .884

9.858 9.985 .094 ,251 .480 .691 .914 1.141

1.387 1.334 1.309 1.365 1.514 1.560

,000 ,090 .160 .307 SO9 .674 .840 1.010

9.875 9.972 .051 .180 .372 .527 .671 .808

1.334 1.312 1.285 1.340 1.371 1.403 1.476 1.592

.OOO

.189 .324 .514 ,792 1.042 1.261 1.469

9.878 ,024 ,149 .344 ,601 306 ,986 1.155

1.324 1.462 1.496 1.479 1.552 1.722 1.884 2.061

.OOO

,173 ,347

9.765 9.938 .081 ,308 .498

innnni \kg/cn

1.718 1.718 1345

,000 .145 .274 .497 .897 1.285 1.699 2.177

9.796 9.939 .065 .267 .597 .896 1.186 1.504

1.607 1.618 1.698 1.995 2.449 3.258 4.710

,288 .541 1.081 2.273 3.007

1.652 (3000) (5000) kg/cm*

9.429 9.616 9.810 .143 ,805 1.520 2.343

3.724 4.699 5.383 8.670 29.38

.000



Bridgman, P. W., Proc. tlcad. Arts and Sci., vol. 61, p. 59, 1926.

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



12OOb



.998

.655

2.203

1.390

.919

2.958

1.915

i.223

4.920

2.208

1.396

6.518

2.495

1.562

8.570

1.846

1.493

2.254



130



.00520

.01003

.01779

,02237



.00220



1.646



.00296



1.323

1.111

1.633

1.400

1.123

1.892

1.549

1.200

2.234



.00368



1.031

.628



.00540

.00285

3.8



.00845

.00519

1.189

.946

1.750

1.670

1.311

2.286



.00352

.00212

.00566



1.832



.00523



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Table 330. Viscosity of Pure Hydrocarbons

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