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Table 237. Mechanical Properties of Hardwoods Grown in United States

Table 237. Mechanical Properties of Hardwoods Grown in United States

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T A B L E 237.-MECHANICAL



Static bending



u-



2

Place of growth of

material tested



Birch, Alaska paper

(Betula papyrifera neolaskana) Alaska

Birch, gray *

(Betula populifolia)

N. H.

Birch. DaDer

(Bet& pbpyrifera)

Wis., N H.

Birch, sweet

( B e t d a lenta)

Pa.. N. H.

Birch, yellow '

(Betula lutea)

Pa., Vt., Wis.

Black-mangrove *

(Avicen&a nitida)

Fla.

Buckeye, yellow

(Aesculus octandra)

Tenn.

Buckthorn, cascara *

(Rhamnus pwshiana)

Oreg.

Bustic, willow *

(Dipholis salicifolia)

Fla.

Butterbough *

(Exothea. paniculata) .

.. "

Butternut

(Juglans cinerea)

Tenn., Wis.

Button-mangrove*

(Gonocarpus erectus)

Fla.

California-laurel

(Umbelldaria californica)

Oreg.

Catalpa, northern

(Catalpa speciosa)

Ind.



.



..........

.. .........

...............

...............

...........

..........

........

....... ..

.... ..

.............

.........

....

...........



8

2s c



0



'.6- mmm0



B



:ts

2;

.z 8



$4 g

.z c a



_"g



58



.55



63



8



Common and botanical name



-



P R O P E R T I E S O F HARDWOODS GROWN I N U N I T E D S T A T E S (continued)



;?;



BB



t3



.-tQg

u p-d

>

g & 20

z?-



Impact

bending



.ON.



.-



I

.



\



u.0



:;



-E



;a.



wo



I



:,x



$8



g?



z-,$



38



13,600



.51



35



65



.55



53



zg

1 L



N.



.E



4

?. .



.

*.

b<



.il



-d



L



Compression



.*d



0



cI



t d

92

M

;.



-- .*

2.E



fL. c

E



59



u +*



w*



2;



&Mil



2.5%



'B

6



'B



1,900



1.85



13,700



5,290



820



1,400



660



9,800



1,150



1.46



10,400



2,670



920



1,340



-



38



12,300



1,590



1.80



12,400



3,610



740



1,210



-



.65



46



16,900



2,170



2.72



24,800



6,330



1,340



2,240



950



67



.62



43



16,600



2,010



2.89



17,200



6,130



1,190



1,889



920



42



.83



58



16,400



2,090



2.03



-



141



.36



25



7,500



1,170



1.26



10,OOO



3,010



440



960



520



61



.52



36



8,700



960



2.14



10,200



3,460



1,310



1,610



-



44



.88



62



-



-



-



18,400



4,950



56



.so



56



14,900



1,910



2.34



-



4,520



2,530



2,260



-



104



.38



27



8,100



1,180



1.59



11,200



4,200



5,110



1,170



440



47



.71



50



10,260



1,580



1.70



70



.55



39



8,000



940



1.85



10,700



3,520



1,400



1,860



870



72



.41



29



9,400



1,210



1.08



11O

, OO



2,740



570



1,130



570



E



Meager data, may not be fully representative of species.



(continued)



'c:



-



-



-



2,360



-



1,630



- -



- -



- -



v)



2



TABLE 237.-MECHANICAL



Cherry, black

(Prunus serotina) .. . .

Cherry, pin

(Pruxus pennsylvanica) .

Chestnut, American

(Castanea dentata) . . . . . .

Chinquapin, golden

(Castampsis chrsofihylla)

Cottonwood, eastern

(Populus deltoides) . . .

Cottonwood, northern black

(Popidus trichocarpa hastata) .

Cucumber tree

(Magnolia accuminata) . ,

Dogwood, flowering

(Cornus florida) ,..

Dogwood, Pacific

(Cornw nuttallii)

Doveplum *

(Coccolobis laurifolia)

Elder, blueberry *

(Sambucrcs glauca) ...

Elm, American

(Ulmus americana) . . . .

Elm. rock

(Ulniits thomasi) ., ..

Elm, slippery

(Ulniirs fulva) . . .. . . .

Eucalyptus, bluegum

(Eucalyptus globidus) . . . .. ..



..



PROPERTIES O F HARD WOODS GROWN I N U N I T E D STATES (continued)



...... Pa.

. . .... Tenn.

. .... Md., Tenn.

... .. Oreg.

. . ...... Mo.

Wash.



. .... Tenn.

.......... ''

... ......... Oreg.

. ... .... Fla.

.. ......

. . .... N. H., Pa., Wis.

. ........ Wis.

.. . . . . . . Ind.. Wis.

. Calif.

"



55



.so



35



12,300



1,490



3.11



13,600



5,960



850



1,700



560



3,900



520



1,030



320



3,780



760



1,080



460

-



46



.39



27



8,500



1,270



1.51



10,100



122



.43



30



8,600



1,230



1.78



10,700



134



.46



32



10,700



1,240



3.11



10,900



4,150



680



1,260



111



.40



28



8,500



1,370



1.39



7,300



3,490



470



930



580



132



.35



24



8,300



1,260



1.25



9,800



3,270



370



1,020



330



80



.48



33



12,300



1,820



1.98



14,700



4,840



710



1,340



660



1,920



2,260



-



4,300



1,650



1,720 1,040



4,640



2,920



3,860



760



4,030



850



1,510



660



4,700



1,520



1,920



-



62



.73



51



14,900



1,530



3.10



14,600



52



.64



45



10,500



1,470



2.02



10,500



-



52



.78



55



13,000



1,290



2.67



124



.52



36



9,200



1,030



1.56



89



.so



35



11,800



1,340



2.53



-



-



10,500



-



- -



48



63



44



14,800



1,540



2.45



85



.53



37



13,000



1,490



2.35



15,300



4,760



1,010



1,630



530



.74



52



16,000



2,370



3.28



20,500



8,190



1,720



1,840



-



79



(continued)



v)



2



T A B L E 237.-MECHANICAL



PROPERTIES OF HARDWOODS GROWN I N U N I T E D STATES (continued)



-I



I

v)

0



Static bending



zD



g



2



-.

."

\



I

<



I?



5g g&



$jYI

0.0



Lc



F



zg



ti?

2P o,sg



22



0



$e"Z



c)



-I



D

m

I

m

Ln



Place of growth of

material tested



.-:$



LGZ



$g

.gel



g L ,C%Z

Eugenia, redberry *

(Ezcgenia confusa) ..

. Fla.

41

.87

False-mastic

(Sideroxylon foetidissimirm) .. "

39

.93

Fig, Florida strangler *

(Ficus surca)

.. . .. ''

88

.44

Gumbo-limbo

'I

(Bursera simaruba) . , . . . . .

99

.31

Hackberry

(Celtis occidentalis) . . . . . . ... Ind., Wis.

65

.53

Hawthorn, pear *

(Crateagtrs calpodendron) . .. Wis.

63

.68

Hickory, bitternut

Ohio

66

.66

(Carya cordifonnis) .

Hickory, mockernut

.72

Pa., Miss., W. Va.

59

(Carya tomentosa) . . .. .

Hickory, nutmeg

.60

74

(Carya myristicaefonnis) .. . Miss.

Hickory, pignut

(Carya glabra)

.. . .. W. Va., Miss., Ohio, Pa. 54 .75

Hickory, shagbark

Miss., Ohio, W.Va., Pa. 60

.72

(Carye ovata)

Hickory, shel!bark

.69

Ohio, Miss.

61

(Carya lacmniosa)

Hickory, water *

.62

80

(Carya aqriatica)

.. Miss.

Holly, American

82

.57

(Ilex opaca) ................. Tenn.

Honeylocust

63

Ind., Mo.

(Gleditsia tricanthos)

Common and botanical name



. . .. . . . .



. ...... . . . .



. ..

.

..

. . . . .. ...

. ... ..

..

. . . . . . ...

...............

.. .. . .......

... . . ..... .

........ .



-



Impact

bending



2".

.-C



*

Compression



YI."



OJ\

-



.e



N.



$2



g2



61



16,200



2,040



.-E

2

i

.d

-



65



10,200



1,780



1.39



14,100



31



7,200



800



1.03



-



-



-



- -



21



4,800



740



.85



6,300



1,720



560



800



360



37



11,000



1,190



1.72



13,700



3,710



1,100



1,590



580



:---:g

'L



'O

-3-



V

o$



z-



E

."

\

e



-



-



2,790



1,850



-



3,940



2,830



1,470



710



.-*E

-.d



-



47



14,600



1,270



2.50



46



17,100



1,790



2.73



23,600



51



19,200



2,220



3.41



20,200



-



-



1,580

2,070

2,140

1,930



- -- 1,740



42



16,600



1,700



2.04



52



20,100



2,260



3.23



25,200



-



2,450



2,150



50



20,200



2,160



3.01



19,300



-



2,170



2,430



48



18,100



1,890



2.29



22,800



-



2,220



2,110



43



17,800



2,020



2.88



-



5,400



1,910



40



10,300



1,110



1.88



12,500



3,380



1.130



-



14,700



1,630



2.74



15,400



5,250



2,280



(iontinued)



-



- -



2.250



680

900



TABLE 237.-MECHANICAL



-



N



PROPERTIES OF HARDWOODS GROWN I N U N I T E D STATES (continued)

Static bending

7

-



Impact

bending

DI



E

.\



sp

U



Compression



e



.-&



Y



Common and botanical name



Hophornbeam, eastern

(Ostrya virginianu)

Wis.

Hornbeam, American *

(Carpinus caroliniana)

Mass.

Leadwood *

(Krugiodendron ferrezlm)

Fla.

Locust, black

(Robinia pseudoacacia)

Tenn.

Madrone, Pacific

(Arbutus menriesii) ...

Calif., Oreg.

Magnolia, Fraser

(Magnolia frareri)

Tenn.

Magnolia, southern *

(Magnolia grudifiora)

La.

Mangrove *

(Rhizob h r a manole)

Fla.

- .

Maple, b;gleaf

Wash.

(Acer mucrofihyllum)

Maple, black *

(Acer nigrurn)

Ind.

Maple, red

(Acer ru b rm) ............... N.H., Pa., Wis.

Maple, silver

(Acer sacchwiwm)

Wis.

Maple, striped *

(Acer bennrv~vanicunt)

Vt.

Maple, sigar

(Acer sacchururn)

Ind., Pa., Vt., Wis.

Mountain-laurel*

Tenn.

(Kalmia latifolia)



... .......

.......



52



.70



49



14,100



1,700



2.96



14,200



5,780



1,500



48



.70



49



12,200



1,080



.77



10,300



3,330



2,000



.....



32



1.15



81



18,200



2,980



1.02



16,500



3,400



2,860



2,410

- 1,790



.......

.......



40



.69



48



19,400



2,050



4.62



21,100



6,800



2,260



2,480



640



68



.65



45



10,400



1,230



2.46



10,400



4,040



1,620



1,810



-



...........



89



.44



31



10,100



1,400



1.86



13,800



4,180



620



1,150



660



105



.so



35



11,200



1,400



1.90



13,600



3,420



1,060



740



39



.96



67



21,700



2,950



3.80



-



1,530



6,170



3,300



2,860



-



-



4,790



930



1,730



540



.......

.........

........

...............



-



.d



Place of growth of

material tested



..........

.......



............

..... .......



72



.48



34



10,700



1,450



1.66



65



.57



40



13,300



1,620



2.39



13,500



63



.54



38



13,400



1,640



2.84



-



66



.47



33



8,900



1,140



1.90



12,400



35



.46



32



10,900



1,360



1.08



11,400



58



.63



44



15,800



1,830



2.76



20,600



.68



48



11,100



1,200



3.44



14,300



62



(continued)



4,600



1,250



1,820



670



4,650



1,240



1,850



-



4,360



910



1,480



500



800



1,320



-



1,810



2,330



-



5.390



-



1,820



TABLE 2 3 7 1 M E C H A N l C A L PROPERTIES



-



OF HARDWOODS GROWN IN U N I T E D STATES (continued)

Static bending



2



1



C



8



?&?

Place of. growth of

material tested



Common and botanical name



Oak, black

(Quercus nigra) .............

Oak, black

(Quercus velutino)

... ...

Oak, bur

(Quercus macrocarba) .

. ..

Oak, California black

(Quercus Kelloggii) . . . . . . . . .

Oak, canyon live

(Quercus chrysolepsis) . . . . . .

Oak, chestnut

.

(Quercus montana) . . . .

Oak, Gambel

(Quercus gambelli)

.

Oak, laurel

..

(Quercus laurifolia)



ai

.zg



g!i



8

+

.-ST

$2Y

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G 6%



0



B



lu)

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us

GZ 5 =.M28g-



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Compression



-.

.\



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a”



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5.2



g?



.-



g2



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-22



OE



2



-2 .<4



e.5.i

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k&



&!is



81



.63



44



15,400



2,020



2.24



18,800



3,960



1,260



2,020



920



80



.61



43



13,900



1,640



2.15



14,400



4,750



1,150



1,910



-



70



.64



45



10,300



1,030



2.37



14,600



3,580



1,480



1,820



680



106



.57



40



8,700



990



2.28



8,800



3,300



1,440



1,470



770



Calif.



62



.77



54



12,900



1,610



3.15



13,000



6,110



2,260



2,290



-



.. . . . Tenn.

.... . ..... Ariz.

. . . .... La.

Oak, live

(Qiiercus virginiane) .. ....... Fla.



72



.66



46



13,300



1,590



2.88



18,600



4,420



1,040



1,490



-



61



.73



51



8,500



680



2.30



14,100



-



84



.63



44



12,600



1,690



2.02



14,700



4,640



1,310



1,830



50



.89



62



18,400



1,980



2.19



21,300



5,120



3,510



2,660 1,010



........... Ark.,



80



.63



44



14,300



1,820



2.33



17,600



4,580



1,250



1,780



800



72



.72



50



10,300



1,100



2.28



11,900



3,960



2,110



2,020



830



75



.63



44



14,000



1,730



2.22



12,300



4,620



1,260



2,080 1,050



69



.67



47



13,200



1,510



2.25



17,600



3,700



1,760



1,840



780



65



.67



47



17,400



1,910



2.92



16,100



5,550



1,380



1,890



870



90



.59



41



10,900



1,490



1.44



15,300



2.910



1,080



1,390



510



...



.. Ark., Wis.



. . ..



.



.



Oak, northern red

(Quercus borealis)



La.



Wis.

Oreg., Calif.



Ind., La., N.H.,

Tenn.



Oak, Oregon white

(Quercus garryana) .. .

..

Oak, pin

(Quercus palzistris) . , . . ....

Oak, post

(Querczis stellata) . . . . . .. .. .

Oak, scarlet

(Querctrs coccinea) . . .

Oak, southern red

(Quercus falcata) . ... .

.



.... . Oreg.

. . Mass.

. Ark., La.

.. . . .. .. Mass.

. . ... . La.



(continued)



2,070



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cn



c.



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OZI'I



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(pdilflf/U03)



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18'2



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318Vl.



lo



5



T A B L E 237.-MECHANICAL



Static bending



-0



I



t!



5



$1;;

p

:



:&?



$&i$

sf



25;

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2

r,

".



-



PROPERTIES OF HARDWOODS GROWN I N U N I T E D S T A T E S (concluded)



H

i

z

s



SZ



r

W



Place

of.growth

material

testedof



Common and botanical name



Serviceberry, downy

(Ainelanchier arborea)

Silverbell, Carolina

(Halesia Carolina) ... .

Sourwood

(Oxydendrum arboreum)

Sugarberry

(Celtis laevigata)

,

Sumach, staghorn *

(Rhus typhina) . . .. . .

Sweetgum

(Liquidambar styraciflua)

Sycamore, American

(Platanus occidentalis)

Tupelo, black ; blackgum

(Nyssa sylvatica) . . ..

Tupelo, water

(Nyssa aquatica) .....

Walnut, black

( J ~ g l a n snigra) . . , . .. . .

Walnut, little *

(Jiiglans rupestris) . ..

.

Willow, black

(Salix nigra) ......... .......

Willow, Pacific

(Salix lasiaiadra) ..

.....

Witch-hazel *

(Hamamelis virginiana) . .. .

Y ellow-poplar

(Liriodeitdron tulipifera) ....



. . ... . . Tenn.

.......

.... . ''

.. ......... Mo.

. . .. .... Wis.

.... Mo.

.... . .. Ind., Tenn.

.. . . .... Tenn.

....... La., Mo.

. . .... KY.

....... Ariz.

. ... ..

.



.



"



MA'



gg



*.



.\



.i*.

*C

y1.-



a\



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:;- 2g

-e o



-a



04



ze



a *



2

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Impact

bending

N



Compression



c:



0



c



C

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e

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4

g g&



.e g5



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-52



g?



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$0,



$2



-u f



48



.74



52



16,900



1,880



3.44



21,000



6,340



1,790



1,590



-



70



.45



32



8,600



1.320



1.46



13,300



3,580



680



1,180



480



69



.55



38



11,600



1,540



2.44



17,200



4,400



1,080



1,500



520



62



.51



36



9,900



1,140



2.18



11,600



3,970



1,240



1,280



-



z.z



2



I



-



45



.47



33



10,200



1,190



2.81



-



81



.49



34



11,900



1,490



2.57



16,800



4,700



860



1,610



800



83



.49



34



10,000



1,420



1.66



10,500



3,710



860



1,470



720



55



34



9,600



1,200



2.54



14,500



3,470



1,150



1,340



500



97



.so

.so



35



9,600



1,260



2.41



12,500



4,280



1,070



1,590



700



81



.55



38



14,600



1,680



3.70



16,400



5,780



1,250



1,370



6990



67



.57



40



14,200



1,480



2.60



11,100



-



-



Mo., Wis.



139



.37



26



6,200



720



1.94



7,700



2,020



480



1.050



460



Oreg.



105



.44



31



8,500



1,310



1.37



11,000



3,120



630



1.160



530



. Tenn.



70



.61



43



15,200



1,460



3.17



-



61



.40



28



9,200



1,500



1.43



13,500



1,100



520



Ky., Tenn.



3,550



1,010



- -



1,370

580



lu



Ul



G,



v)



2



T A B L E 238.-MECHANICAL



P RO PER TIES



OF S O F T WOODS G R O W N I N U N I T E D S T A T E S **



I

v)

0



z



'



Static bending

Impact

bending



D

2



Common and botanical name



Compression

, -A- f



Place of growthof

material tested



Alaska-cedar

(Chaniaecgparis noofkatensis) Alaska, Oreg.

Baldcypress

(Taxodium distichrim)

La., Mo.

Douglas-fir (coast type)

(Pseudotsiiga taxifolia) .. .

Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Douglas-fir (intermediate type)

(Pseitdotsiiga taxifolia) .... . Mont., Idaho, Calif.

Douglas-fir

(Rocky Mountain

type)

(Pseudotsiiga taxifolia) . . . Wyo., Mont.

Fir., aloine

=

(Abies lasiocarpa) . . . .

Colo.

Fir, balsam

(Abies balsamea) . . .. .. ..

Wis.

Fir, California red

(Abics magtzijica) . ..

.. Calif.

Fir, corkbark

(Abies lasiocarpa arisonica) . N. Mex.

Fir, grand

Mont., Oreg.

(Abies grandis) . . . .

Fir. noble

(jlbies procera) . . . .

Oreg.

Fir, Pacific silver

(Abies amab i l k ) . .. .

Wash.

Fir, white

(Abies concolor) ... ......

Calif., N.Mex.

Hemlock, eastern

(Tsicga cartadensis) . . . . .

Wis., Tenn., N.H., Vt.



.

. . ......

. . ..

..



. . ..

.... ....

....

. . . ....

..



. . . . ......

. ........

....

. . . ...



38



.44



31



11,100



91



.46



32



36



.48



34



48



.44



31



38



.43



47



1,420



2.06



12,200



5,210



770



1,130



360



10,600



1,440



2.15



10,400



4,470



900



1,000



270



11,700



1,920



1.96



12,700



6,450



910



1,140



300



11,200



1,640



1.87



11,600



5,540



920



1,130



340



30



9,600



1,400



1.60



12,100



4,660



820



1,070



330



.33



23



7,100



900



-



7,000



3,740



600



1,020



117



.36



25



7,600



1,230



1.23



7,800



3,970



380



710



180



116



.39



27



10,800



1,540



1.48



10,900



4,160



650



1,090



390



62



.30



21



6,900



1,030



1.09



8,200



3,820



470



840



280



94



.40



28



9,300



1,630



1.22



12,000



4,420



620



930



240



36



.38



26



10,100



1,580



1.59



11,200



4,960



640



980



220



66



.38



27



9,400



1,530



1.40



11,400



4,660



490



1,050



-



115



.37



26



9,300



1,380



1.72



10,800



3,590



600



930



260



111



.40



28



8,900



1,200



1.79



10,700



4,020



800



1,060



* * For reference, see footnote 7 7 , p. 246.



(continued)



lA



5



TABLE 238.-MECHANICAL



PROPERTIES OF SOFT WOODS GROWN



IN UNITED STATES (continued)



-I



I



Static bending

P



0

lA



I

z

D



c



i



3



I

'0



<



32s



K?

0



F



2:



-I



D

r

m

m



lA



Place of growth of

material tested



Common a n d botanical name



Hemlock, mountain

(Tsuga wcrteitsiaiia) . . . . . . . .

Hemlock, western

(Tsiiga hctcropltylla) . . . . . . . .

Incense-cedar, California

(Libocedriis decurrens) .. . . . . .

Juniper

(Junifirrzts pachyphloea) . . . .

Larch. western

( L a r k occidciitalis) .

. .

Pine, eastern white

( P h i s strobits) . . ... .... ...

Pine, jack

(Piitits baiiksiaiia) . .

Pine, Jeffrey

(Piizirs j r ffrey i ) . . . . .

.

Pine. limber *

(P'iriirs flcxilis) . . .. . .. ... . .

Pine, loblolly

(Piriiis tacda) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pine, lodgepole

( P h i s c,oiifor.tnlatifolio) . . . .

Pine, longleaf

(Piriifs pa[itsfr-is) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pine, pitch

(Piriits rigido) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



.



.



:



SZ+

.+my)

$22



5a y )

o

L a

E



$4:



* c

2;

'y0:



'Zga



255

0.E E



25%



r;'

.;;

*.-



&a



I

J



..



C O



.r*



--



2



I



6.-



E

._.



-S Fic



Compression



..E



urn



L.S;



Impact

bending



g"eX>

w*-



2 E c

c';



5! m



r



EEf



c.-x



$2..

&'3.5



.;



ccg>

t-"**-



SL



&>"



Mont., Alaska



62



.47



33



11,200



1,320



2.36



13,300



4,620



1,030



1,230



320



Wash., Alaska, Oreg.



74



.42



29



10,100



1,490



1.82



12,400



5,340



680



1,170



310



108



.37



-



8,000



1,040



1.67



9,600



4,760



730



880



270



40



.51



36



6,700



650



2.74



5,600



58



.55



38



13,900



1,960



1.99



15,600



5,620



980



1,410



430



73



.35



25



8,600



1,240



1.51



9,700



3,670



510



900



310



60



.43



30



9,900



1,350



1.43



12,200



3,380



600



1,170



420



101



.40



28



9,300



1,240



2.43



12,500



4,240



790



1,210



380



68



.40



28



9,100



1,170



2.13



11,400



-



720



800



220



Fla., Md.. N. C., S. C.,

Va.

\$'yo., colo., Mont.



81



.51



36



12,800



1,800



1.92



12,100



4,820



980



1,370



470



65



.41



29



9,400



1,340



1.97



9,600



4,310



750



880



290



La., Jliss., Fla., S. C.



63



.58



41



14,700



1,990



2.44



15,400



6,150



1,190



1,500



470



Tenn., Mass.



79



.49



31



10,800



1,430



1,62



12,600



3,960



1,010



1,360



480



Oreg., Calif.



. . Ariz.

. . . . . . . Mont., Idaho, Wash.

.. Wis., Minn.. N. H.

. . . .. . .. . . Wis., Minn.

. . . . .... Calif,

..

N. Mex.

..



.9



0



* Nenger data, may not be fully representative of species.



(cortfiitircd)



d



-



1,700



- -



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