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Table 127. Rise of Boiling Point Produced by Salts Dissolved in Water

Table 127. Rise of Boiling Point Produced by Salts Dissolved in Water

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134



TABLE 128.-FREEZING



MIXTURES



Column 1 gives the name of the principal refrigerating substance, A the proportion of that

substance, B the proportion of a second substance named in the column, C the proportion of a

third substance, 1

7the temperature of the substances before mixture, E the temperature of the

mixture, F the lowering of temperature, G the temperature when all snow is melted, when snow

is used, and H the amount of heat absorbed in heat units (calories when A is grams). Temperatures are in "C.

Substance



.



...



HzO-100

"

"

"



"



"



"



I'



"



'I



'I



"



I'



"

"



50

"



"



"



"



"



"



I'



"



'4



+



1



+ GHzO

I 1



srlpw O!l

"



"



"



"



"



"



I'



"



"



"



'I



'I



1.097

"

1.26

"

1.38

"

2.52

'' 4.32

"

7.92

"

13.08

"

.35

.49

"

.61

"

.70

"

.81

"

1.23

"

2.46



( !!



Alcohol at 4"

Chloroform ........ Ether ............. Liquid SO1 ........



NHINOa



1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1



Lowest temperature obtained.



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



.'



/J



C 9 2 s$id

'1



I'



"



"



"

"

"



.94

"

"



Snow "

HzO-1.20

Snow

HzO-1.31

Snow "

HzO-3.21

Snow

'I



10.7

13.3

13.2

10.7

10.8

10.8

13.6



'

NH4C1-25

"

'I



' l



CaCL



NH.NOr25



I'



'I



HzSO,

HzO

(66.1% HzSO,)



.D



C



B



A



NaCzH3OZ(cryst.) . 85

NHICl ............ 30

NaNOs ............ 75

Na2Sz03 (cryst.). ... 110

K I ................ 140

CaCL (cryst.) ...... 250

NH4NOa .......... 60

(NH,),SO, ........ 25

NH,CI ............ 25

CaCL ............. 25

KNOI ............. 25

NazSO, ........... 25

N a N 0 3 ........... 25

K S O , ............ 10

20

NazCOJ (cryst.)

KNO. ............. 13

CaCL ............. 30

NH,CI ............ 25

NH,NOa .......... 45

NaN03 ........... 50

NaCl .............



"



-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

0

0

0

0

0



E



15.4

18.4

18.5

18.7

22.5

23.2

27.2

26.0

22.0

20.0

- 20.0

19.0

17.0

- 1.9

.9

- 2.0

1.o

- 2.85 1.85

-10.9

9.9

-15.4

14.4

-16.75

15.75

-17.75

16.75

-21.3

20.3

-37.0

36.0

-36.0

35.0

-35.0

34.0

-30.0

29.0

-25.0

24.0

19.0

-20.0

-16.0

15.0

-



-



0



-



20

20

10

5

0

10

0

10

0

10

0



-30.0

-72.0

-77.0

-77.0

-82.0

5.0

- 4.0

- 4.0

- 4.0

- 4.0

-14.0

-14.0

-17.51

-17.5*

- 8.0

- 8.0



0



0

0



F



H



G



4.7

- 5.1

- 5.3

- 8.0

-11.7

-12.4

-13.6

-



.O



.O



-19.7

-39.0

-54.9*



17.0

27.0

133.0

273.0

553.0

967.0

52.1

49.5

40.3

30.0

46.8

88.5

192.3

392.3



-



33.0

21.0

34.0

40.5

122.2

17.9

129.5

10.6

131.9

.4

327.0



T A B L E 129.-ANTIFREEZlNG



SOLUTIONS



*



135



(For automobile radiators, etc.)

Percent by volume in water with freezing points a n d

specific gravities



10



Percent by volume



20



30



40



50



Typical commercial methanol

antifreeze ............... - 5.2"C

.986

Sp. gr. at 15"C/15"C ........



- 12.0"C

,975



- 21.1"C

,963



-3 2 . 2 ~

.950



- 45.0"C



Typical commercial ethanol

antifreeze ............... -3.3"C

Sp. gr. at 15"C/15"C.. . . . . . .

,988



- 7.7"C

.977



- 14.2"C



-2Z.O"C

.955



-30.6"C



.967



Commercial glycerine t

antifreeze ...............

Sp. gr. at 1S0C/15"C. . . . . . . . . .



1.6"C

1.023



- 4.7"C

1.048



- 9.5"C

I .074



- 15.4"C

1.101



-23.0"C

1.128



Tvoical

_ . commercial ethvlene

glycol t antifreeze ........ -32°C

Sp. gr. at 15"C/15"C ........

1.015



- 83°C

1.030



- 15.5"C

1.045



-24.3"C

1.060



-36.5"C

1.074



-



.935



.938



T h i s table was prepared f r o m data furnished by F. G. Church of the National Carbon Co., and A. J.

Kathman, of Procter Sr Gamble Co.

t Glycerine and ethylene' glycol a r e practically nonvolatile. All

types must be suitably inhibited to prevent cooling-system corrosion. Commercial antifreeze solutions

based on ethylene g!ycol (Prestone) and on glycerine (Zerex) a r e in use a t the present time.



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



136

T A B L E S 130-141.-HEAT



FLOW A N D T H E R M A L CONDUCTIVITY



T A B L E 130.-CONVERSION



FACTORS B E T W E E N U N I T S O F H E A T F L O W



-



joules

sec cmz

or

watts/cmz



cal

___



1 watts/cm2 = 1



2390



cal

- 4.185

sec cm2 -



1 -



1



hr mz



1



h r ft'



1 watt/in.2



8602.



1



3171.



1



= 3.153 X lo-' 7.535 x



2.713



3.704



x lo-'



1

2546.



1333.



P a r t 1.-Various



491.5



27.00



1.448 X lo-'



7.500 x 10.'



3.928 x 10-4



2.035



1



5.179



x



1



,1931



Substances



Substance,

temperature 'C



kt



cgs

Lime



.000112

,0111

,012

.00050



6.452



C O N D U C T I V I T Y OF V A R I O U S S U B S T A N C E S



T A B L E 131.-THERMAL



Substance,

temperature "C

Aniline B P 183, - 160..

Carbon gas ...........

Carbon' graphite ......

Carborhndum .........



.3687



6905.



.I918



watts/in.*



hp/ft*



1.246



1.327 x 10' 5.212



36000.



= 1.163 x lo-' 2.778 x



= 8027

= .I550



1 hp/ft2



Btu

hr ft2



k?oca!

hr m2



sec cm2



kr

cgs



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..00029



Substance,o

temperature C

Q y r t z 1 to axis, -190.



kt

cgs

,0586



Quartz I1 to axis,

Rock salt. 30.. . . . . . . . . ,0150

Rubber, vulcanized,

-160



Fire-hrick ............ ,00028

Fluorite, -190 ........ .093

Fluorite, 0 ......

Glycerine, -160



. .00068



Naphthol, 0 . . . . . . . . . . ,00062

Nitrophenol M P 114,

-160



. . . . . . . . . . . . ,00106



Nitrophenol. 0 . . . . . . . . ,00065

Paraffin M P 54, -160.. ,00062

Paraffin, 0 ............ .a0059



P a r t 2.-Rocks



..



23.RxlO-3

15.9

27.9



500

0



sn



26.2



loo

200



Zi:?



...

...



23.0

28-18

27.2



0

100



31.6

29.2

22-18



Granite

Granite

Quartz

ite,



gneiss..

schist..

monzonCalif.. .



Basalt



...........



'6



cmdea



.00026



'5



Temp. watts

Rock

"C

cm deg

Limestone:

Japan ......... 25 to

9 x 10-3

Penna.

II to bed . . . 0 34.5

1 to bed.. . 0 25.5

9.2

Chalk . . . . . . .;

Marble (17 varieties) ..... 30 32.21

Black ....... 124 16

White ...... 125 14

Sandstone, Boreland bore . . 17 41.8

Soapstone . . . . . . . . 34



Typ. %



Barre, Vt..



Snow! fresh, dens.=.ll.

Vaseline. 20

Vulcanite . . . .



Conduc.

tivity, K



Conductivity, K

Rock

C

Granite ....... 100



. . . . . . . . . . . . ,00033



Rubber, 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . ,00037

Rubber, para



Conductivity, K

T$mp. 2

!%5

C cmdeg



Slate:

30 2 0 ~ 1 0 - ~

Wales ...

Penna.

I to bed . . . 0 19.4

Madoc ...... 120 16

Shale ......... . . . 17-10

Silty clay ..... 17 15.4

Fireclay, Boreland bore . . 17 18.3

Rocksalt.

Holford . . . . . . 17 72



Birch, Francis, Handhook of physical constants, Geological Society of America, 1942. Used by permission.



T A B L E 132.-THEAMAL

k!

Substance "C



cgs



0



.OOlSO



20



.00143



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



C O N D U C T I V I T Y OF W A T E R A N D S A L T S O L U T l O N S

Solution

in water

CuSO,



KCI



N:CI



Density



"C



kt

cgs



1.160

1.026

1.178



4.4

13.

4.4

26.3



,00118

,00116

.00115

,00135



-



Solution

in water

H??O.

Zn?04



kt

Density

1.054

1.180

1.134

1.136



"C

20.5

21.



4.5

4.5



cgs

.00126

.00130

.00118

.00115



TABLE 1 3 3 . 4 O N V E R S I O N FACTORS B E T W E E N UNITS O F H E A T FLOW FOR DIFFERENT GRADIENTS

cal

cm

-see cmz "C



1Calcm=

seccm* "C

1



%=

cm' "C



1



kR1!!!=

hrm' "C



1 - Btu ft_=



ft'hr "F



1



1

1



k &=

ft' "C



hnft=

fta "F



-



1.

.23%



"C



kgcal m

-hr m

' "C



hp &.



Bto f t

ft* hr 'F



4.185



360



241.9



1.



86.02



57.78



ft* "C



2.053

.4907



hp f t

-ft' "F

9.503 x 10"



2.271 x



lo-'



x 10-4



1.163 X lo-*



1.



6.720 x lo-'



5.703 X lod



2.640



4.134X lod



1.730 x 10"



1.488



1.



8.487 x lo-*



3.929 x lo-'



117.8



1.



4.629 x lo-'



2546.



21.60



212.0



1.8



.4871

10.52



ft* "F



1 watts in.-- 9.407 x 10-'



C



c d



2.778 X lo-*



hp &= 8764



in.



watts Em

__-



2.039

44.03

3.668

.3937



175.4

3787.

315.5

33.87



22.76



.1931



1.

8.333 x lo5

8.939 X lod



watts in.

in.' 'C



hp in.



F"F

1.141



10.63



.2727



2.540



3.170



lod



4.717 x lo-*

.5558

12.00

1.

.lo73



2.953 x lo-'

4.394

5.178

111.8

9.316



1.



c



w

v



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Table 127. Rise of Boiling Point Produced by Salts Dissolved in Water

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