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Table 31. Fundamental Units of Length, Area, Volume, and Mass

Table 31. Fundamental Units of Length, Area, Volume, and Mass

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

61

FOR CONVERTING U. S. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES*



TABLE 32.-TABLES



t o customary



P a r t 1.-Metric



Capacity



7

Linear

l$eters to

inches



Meters to

feet



hleters to Kilometers

yards

to miles



litersor

cut+

centi.

meters

tofluid

drams



Centiliters

to

fluid

ounces



Decaliters

to

gallons



Liters

to

quarts



Hectoliters

tu

hshek



1 39.3700 3.28083 1.093611

2 78.7400 6.56167 2.187222

3 118.1100 9.84250 3.280833

4 157.4800 13.12333 4.374444

5 196.8500 16.40417 5.468056



0.62137

1.24274

1.86411

2.48548

3.10685



2

3

4



5



0.27

0.54

0.81

1.08

1.35



0.338

0.676

1.014

1.353

1.691



1.0567 2.6418 2.8378

2.1134 5.2836 5.6756

3.1701 7.9253 8.5135

4.2268 10.5671 11.3513

5.2836 13.2089 14.1891



6

7

8

9



3.72822

4.34959

4.97096

5.59233



6

7

8

9



1.62

1.89

2.16

2.43



2.029

2.367

2.705

3.043



6.3403

7.3970

8.4537

9.5104



236.2200

275.5900

314.9600

354.3300



19.68500

22.96583

26.24667

29.52750



6.561667

7.655278

8.748889

9.842500



1



>



1



Milligrams to

grains



Kilo.

grams to

grains



Hectograms to

ounces

avoirdupois



Kilograms to

wunds

avoirdupois



0.1550

0.3100

0.4650

0.6200

0.7750



10.764

21.528

32.292

43.055

53.819



1.196

2.392

3.588

4.784

5.980



2.471

4.942

7.413

9.884

12.355



1

2

3'

4

5



0.01543

0.03086

0.04630

0.06173

0.07716



15432.36

30864.71

46297.07

61729.43

77161.78



3.5274

7.0548

10.5822

14.1096

17.6370



2.20462

4.40924

6.61387

8.81849

11.02311



0.9300

1.0850

1.2400

1.3950



64.583 7.176

75.347 8.372

86.111 9.568

96.875 10.764



14.826

17.297

19.768

32.230



6

7

8

9



0.09259 92594.14

0.10803 108026.49

0.12346 123458.85

0.13889 138891.21



21.i644

24.6918

28.2192

3 1.7466



13.22773

15.43236

17.63698

19.84160



Quintals to

pounds av.



Milliers

or

tonnes to

pounds av.



Iiilograms to

ounces

troy



Cubic



6

7

8

9



17.0269

19.8647

22.7026

25.5404



Mass



Square

Squafe

centiSquare

Square

meters

meters

meters

to square to square to square Hectares

tuacres

feet

yards

inches



2

3



15.8507

18.4924

21.1342

23.7760



Mazs



Cubic

centimeters

to cubic

inches



Cubic

decimeters

to cubic

inches



meters to

cubic

feet



Cubic

meters to

cubic

yards



0.0610

0.1220

0.1831

0.2441

0.3051



61.023

122.047

183.070

244.094

305.117



35.314

70.269

105.943

141.258

176.572



1.308

2.616

3.924

5.232

6.540



1

2

3

4

5



220.46

440.92

661.39

881.85

1102.31



2204.6

4409.2

6613.9

8818.5

11023.1



32.1507

64.3015

96.4522

128.6030

160.7537



0.3661

0.4272

0.4882

0.5492



366.140

427.164

488.187

549.210



211.887

247.201

282.516

317.830



7.848

9.156

10.464

11.771



6

7

8

9



1322.77

1543.24

1763.70

1984.16



13227.7

15432.4

17637.0

19841.6



192.9045

225.0552

257.2059

289.3567



Cubic



I n the United 5t:;tes since 1893 all units in the above table have been derived from the

same standards c i h:gth a:!d mass. Therefore all equivalents (except those ii?volving the

liter) depend oiily [ i n :iurrierical definitions. T h e liter is the volume of one kilogram of

pure water at ttie tFmpcratcre of its maximum density and under a pressure equivalent t o

760 millitneters of nir;cury. T h e liter was determined by the International :3ureau of

Weights arid Measures in 1910 to equal 1.000027 dm3. (National Bureau of Standards.)

.Quoted



from sheets issued by the Kational Bureau of Standards



(corttinzred)



SMITHMNIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



62

TABLE 32.-TABLES



FOR C0NVERTI:NG U. S. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

(continued)



Part 2.-Cuetornary



to metric

Capacity



Linear

Inches

to

millimeters



Yards to

meters



Miles

to kilometers



3

4

5



25.4001 0.304801

50.8001 0.609601

76.2002 0.914402

101.6002 1.219202

127.0003 1.524003



0.914402

1.828804

2.743205

3.657607

4.572009



1.60935

3.21869

4.82804

6.43739

8.04674



6

7

8

9



152.4003 1.828804 5.486411

177.8004 2.133604 6.400813

203.2004 2.438405 7.315215

228.6005 2.743205 8.229616



9.65608

11.26543

12.87478

14.48412



1



7



L



Feet to

meters



1



i



3

4

5

6



7



8

9



Fluid

drams to

milliliters or

cuhic

centimeters



Fluid

ounces

to

miililiters



Liquid

quarts

to

liters



Gallons

to

liters



3.71)

7.39

11.09

14.79

18.48



29-57

59%

88.72

118.29

147.87



0.94633

1.89267

2.83900

3.78533

4.73167



3.78533

7.57066

11.35600

15.14133

18.92666



22.18

25.88

29.57

33.27



177.44

207.01

236.58

266.16



5.67800 22.71199

6.62433 26.49733

7.57066 30.28266

8.51700 34.06799



Square



Mass



Square

inches

to

square

centimeters



Square

feet to

s uare

iecimeters



1

2

3

4



5



6.452

12.903

19.355

25.807

32.258



9.290

18.581

27.871

37.161

46.452



0.836

1.672

2.508

3.345

4.181



0.4047

0.8094

1.2141

1.6187

2.0234



6

7

8

9



38.710

45.161

51.613

58.065



55.742

65.032

74.323

83.613



5.017

5.853

6.689

7.525



2.4281

2.8328

3.2375

3.6422



1

2

3

4

5



64.7989

129.5978

194.3968

259.1957

323.9946



28.3495

56.6991

85.0486

113.3981

141.7476



0.45359

0.90718

1.36078

1A1437

2.26796



31.10348

62.206%

93.31044

124.41392

155.51740



6

7

8

9



388.7935

453.5924

518.3913

583.1903



170.0972

198.4467

226.7962

255.1457



2.72155

3.17515

3.62874

4.08233



186.62088

217.72437

248.82785

279.93133



Square

yards to

Acres

square

to

meters hectares



Cuhic



1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9



Grains to

milligrams



Avoirdupois

ounces

to

grams



Cuhic

inches to

cuhic

centimeters



Cuhic

feet to

cuhic

meters



Cuhic

yards to

cuhic

meters



Bushels

to

hectoliters



16.387

32.774

49.161

65.549

81.936

98.323



0.02832

0.05663

0.08495

0.11327

0.14159

n.16990



0.765

1.529

2.294

3.058

3.823

4.587



131.097

147.484



0.22654

0.25485



6.116

6.881



0.35239

0.70479

1.05718

1.40957

1.761%

2.11436

2Z675

2.81914

3.17154



iii7To 0:iGSii 5.352



Avoirdupois

pounds

to kilograms



Troy

ounces

to grams



1 mile (statute) = 5280 feet

1 mile (nautical) = 6080.20 feet

1 Gunter’s chain = 20.1168 meters

1 sq. statute mile = 259.000 hectares

1 fathom

- 1.829 meters

= 1853.25 meters

1 nautical mile

1 foot

- 0.304801 meter

1 avoir. pound

= 453.5924 grams

15432.356 grains = 1.000 kilogram

= 1000.028 k .004 cm’

1 liter



The length of the nautical mile given above, and adopted by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic

Survey many years ago, is defined as that of a minute of arc of a great circle of a sphere

whose surface equals that of the earth (Clarke’s Spheroid of 1866).



(continued)



SMITHSONIAN



PHYSICAL TABLES



63

T A B L E 32.-TABLES



FOR C O N V E R T I N G U. S. W E I G H T S A N D M E A S U R E S

(concluded)



P a r t 3.-Miscellaneous



equivalents of U. S. and metric weights and measures"



(For other equivalents than those below, see Tables 30, 31, and 33.)

LINE.\R MEASURES



1 mil (.001 in.) =25.4001 p

1 in. = .000015783 mile

1 hand (4 in.) = 10.16002 cm

1 link (.66 ft) = 20.11684 cm

1 span (9 in.) = 22.86005 cm

1 fathom (6 ft) = 1.828804 m

1 rod (55 yd) (25 links) = 5.02910 m

1 chain (4 rods) = 20.11684 m

1 light year (9.5 X 10" km) = 5.9 X 10"

miles

1 parsec (31 X 10" km) = 19 X 10'' miles

ilk in. = .397 mm

in. = .794 mm

&in. = 1.588 mm

4 in. = 3.175 mm

4 in. = 6.350 mm

3 in. = 12.700 mrn

1 angstrom unit = .0000000001 m

1 micron ( p ) = B00001 m = .00003937 in.

1 millimicron ( m p ) = .000000001 rn

1 m =4.970960 links = 1.093611 yd

= .198838 rod= .04970% chain

SQU.\RE MEASURES



1 sq. link (62.7264 in?) = 404.6873 cm2

1 sq. rod (625 sq. links) = 25.29295 m2

1 sq. chain (16 sq. rods) = 404.6873 m'

1 acre (10 sq. chains) = 4046.873 m2

1 sq. mile (640 acres) = 2.589998 km2

1 km2= .3861006 sq. mile

1 m2= 24.7104 sq. links = 10.76387 ft2

= .039537 sq. rod = .00247104 sq.

chain

CUBIC ME.\SURES



=2359.8 cma

1 cord (128 ft*) = 3.625 ma



1 board foot (144 in.")



CAPACITY MEASURES



1 minim (Q) = .0616102 ml

1 fl. dram (60 = 3.69661 ml

1 fl. oz (8 fl. dr) = 1.80469 in."



n)



=3.5729 ml

1 gill (4 fl. oz.) = 7.21875 in." = 118.292

ml

1 liq. pt (28.875 in?) = .473167 1

1 liq. qt (57.75 in.") = 946333 1

1gallon (4 qt, 231 in?) = 3.785332 1

1 dry pt (33.6003125 in.") = S50599 1

1 dry qt (67.200625 in.") = 1.101198 1

1 pk (8 dry qt, 537.605 in?) = 8.80958 1

1 bu (4 pk, 2150.42 in.") = 35.2383 1

1 firkin (9 gallons) = 34.06799 1

1 liter = 264178 gal = 1.05671 liq. qt

= 33.8147 fl. oz =270.518 fl. d r

1 ml. = 16.2311 minims.

1dkl. = 18.1620 dry pt = 9.08102 dry qt

= 1.13513 pk = .28378 bu



MASS ME.\SURES

Avm'rdupois weights



1 grain = .064798918 g

1 dram av. (27.34375 gr) = 1.771845g

1 oz av. (16 dr av.) = 28.349527 E

1 Ib av. (16 oz av..or 7000 gr)

= 14.583333oz ap. (3) or oz t.

= 1.2152778or 7000/5760 lb ap.

or t.



__



=453S924277 . u



1 kg = 2.204622341 1s av.

1 g = 15.432356gr = .5643833 dr av.

- = .03527396 Oz av.

1 short hundred weight (100 Ib)

= 45.359243 kg

1long hundred weight (112 lb)

= 50.802352 kn

1 short ton (2000 lb)

= 907.18486 kg

1 long ton (2240 Ib)

= 1016.04704 kg

1 metric ton = 0.98420640 long ton

= 1.1023112 short tons

T r o y weights



1 pennyweight (dwt 24 gr) = 1.555174 g

gr, oz, pd are same as apothecary

' 4 fiothrcaries' wrig hts



1 g r = 64.798918 mg

1 scruple ( 3 , 2 0 gr) = 1.2959784 g

1 dram (3.3 3

= 3.8879351 e

1 oz (QS)

'

= 31.103481

1 Ib (125,5760 gr) = 373.24177 g

1 g = 15.432356 gr = 0.771618 3

= 0.2572059 3 = .03215074 j

1 kg = 32.150742 3 = 2.6792285 lb



1 metric carat = 200 mg = 3.0864712 gr

U. S. 3 dollar should weigh 12.5 g and the

smaller silver coins in proportion.



-Taken from Circular 47 of the National Bureau of Standards, 1915, which see for more complete

tables. .



SMlTHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



64

O F METRIC AND BRITISH IMPERIAL WEIGHTS

AND MEASURES *



TABLE 33.-EQUIVALENTS



(For U. S. Weights and Measures, see Table 32.)

Part 1.-Metric



t o imperial



LINEAR MEASURE



}=



(.001 m)

1 centimeter (.01 m) =

1 decimeter (.l m)

=

METER(^)



1 dekameter

1 hectometer

('Om)



. . .} . .=

} . .=



0.39370 in.

3.93701 in.

3.280843 ft

1.09361425 yd

10.93614yd

109.361425yd



1 kilometer



1 micron



MEASURE O F CAPACITY



1 milliliter (ml)

(.001 liter)

1 centiliter (.OI liter)

1 deciliter (.1 liter)

1 LITER (1,000 CU.}

centimeters or 1

cu. decimeter)

1 dekaliter (10 liters)

1 hectoliter (100 '' )

1 kiloliter (1,ooO " )



0.62137 mile



. . . . .



~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 g i ~ /



= 0.176 pint

= 1.75980pints

= 2.200 gallons

= 2.75 bushels

= 3.437 quarters



APOTHECARIES' MEASURE



6.21372 miles

0.001 mm



-



={



0.0610 in?



1 cm'



0.03520 fluid ounce

0.28157 fluid drachm

15.43236 grains weight

- 0.01693 minim



w't)

1 mm'



AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT



(mg) . .= 0.01543 grain

(.Ol gr:m) = 0.15432 grain

1.54324 grains

(.l

)=

- 15.43236

grains

(10 gr!ys) = 5.64383 drams

(100

)=

7 ' 5 2 3 i b

1 KILOGRAM (1,000 " ) =

rrreins

1 myriagram (10 kg) = 22.046% Ib

1 quintal

(100 " ) = 1.96841 cwt

1 millier or tonne

.= 0.9842 ton

(1,000 kg)



1 milligram

1 centigram

1 decigram

GRAM .

1 dekagram

1 hectogram



SQUARE MEASURE



1 cm' .



.



. . . .-



0.1531 in.'



. . . . .-



1



1.



CUBIC ME.\SURE



1 em8 (1,000mm8).

1 dm' (1,000 cm')

1 ma or stere

(l,OOOdma)}'



.=



.=

'



=



{



0.0610in.a

61.024 in?

35.3148 ft'

1.307954 yda



TROY WEIGHT



1CRAM.



.



.={



0.03215 oz troy.

0.64301 pennyweight

15.43236 grains



APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT



0.25721 drachm



NoTE.-The METERis the length, at the temperature of O"C, of the platinum-iridium bar

deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at SGvres, near Paris,

France.

The present legal equivalent of the meter is 39.370113 inches, as above stated.

The KILOGRAM

is the mass of a platinum-iridium weight deposited at the same place.

The LITERcontains 1 kilogram weight of distilled water at its maximum density (4"C),

the barometer being at 760 millimeters.

In accordance with the schedule adopted under the Weights and Measures (metric system) Act. 1897.



(continued)



SMITHWNIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



65

T A B L E 33.-EQUIVALENTS

O F M E T R I C AND BRITISH I M P E R I A L W E I G H T S

AND MEASURES (continued)



(For U. S. Weights and Measures, see Table 32.)

P art 2.-Metric



t o imperial, multiples

Measure of capacity



Linear measure

~



Millimeters

to

inches



Meters

to

feet



Meters

to

yards



Liters

to

pints



Kilometers

tomiles



1

2

3

4

5



0.03937011 3.28084 1.09361

0.07874023 6.56169 2.18723

0.11811034 9.84253 3.28084

0.15748045 13.12337 4.37446

0.19685056 16.40421 5.46807



0.62137

1.24274

1.86412

2.48549

3.10686



1

2

3

4

5



6

7

8

9



0.23622068

0.27559079

0.31496090

0.35433102



3.72823

4.34960

4.97097

5.59235



6

7

8

9



19.68506

22.96590

26.24674

29.52758



6.56169

7.65530

8.74891

9.84253



Dekaliters to

gallons



Hectoliters to

bushels



Kiloliters to

quarters



1.75980 2.19975 2.74%9 3.43712

3.51961 4.39951 5.49938 6.87423

5.27941 6.59926 8.24908 10.31135

7.03921 8.79902 10.99877 13.74846

8.79902 10.99877 13.74846 17.18558

10.55882

12.31862

14.07842

15.83823



13.19852

15.39828

17.59803

19.79778



16.49815

19.24785

21.99754

24.74723



20.62269

24.05981

27.49692

30.93404



Square measure

<



A



Weight (Avoirdupois)



Square

centimeters

to

square

inches



Square

meters

to

square

feet



Square

meters

to

square

yards



Hectares

to

acres



1

2

3

4

5



0.15500

0.31000

0.46500

0.62000

0.77500



10.76393

21.52786

32.29179

43.05572

53.81965



1.19599

2.39198

3.58798

4.78397

5.97996



2.4711

4.9421

7.4132

9.8842

12.3553



1

2

3

4

5



0.01543 15432.356 2.20462

0.03086 30864.713 4.40924

0.04630 46297.069 6.61387

0.06173 61729.426 8.81849

0.07716 77161.782 11.02311



6

7

8

9



0.9300

i.08500

1.24000

1.39501



64.58357 7.17595

75.34750 8.37194

86.11143 9.56794

96.87536 10.76393



14.8263

i7.2974

19.7685

22.2395



6

7

8

9



0.09259 92594.138 13.22773 11.81048

0.10803 108026.495 15.43236 13.77889

0.12346 123458.851 17.63698 15.74730

0.13889 138891.208 19.84160 17.71572



CCibic measure



' Cubic



decimeters to

cubic

inches



CCubic

ubimeters

c'



'



f?



grains



Apothecaries'

measure



meters to

cubic

feet



to

cubic

yards



Cubic

centimeters

to fluid

drachms



1.30795

2.61591

3.92386

5.23182

6.53977



Milligrams



Kilograms



'?



grains



Kilograms

to

pounds



Avoirdupois



(cont.)



Troy weight



1



Quintals

to

hundredweights



1.96841

3.93683

5.90524

7.87365

9.84206



Apothecaries'

weight



Milliers

or

tonnes to

tons



Grams

to

ounces

troy



Grams

to

pennyweights



Grams

to

scruples



1

2

3

4

5



61.02390

122.04781

183.07171

244.09561

305.11952



35.31476

70.62952

105.94428

141.25904

176.57379



0.28157

0.56314

0.84471

1.12627

1.40784



1

2

3

4

5



0.98421

1.%841

2.95262

3.93683

4.92103



0.03215

0.06430

0.09645

0.12860

0.16075



0.64301

1.28603

1.92904

2.57206

3.21507



0.77162

1.54324

2.31485

3.08647

3.85809



6

7

8

9



366.14342

427.16732

488.19123

549.21513



211.88855 7.84772 1.68941

247.20331 9.15568 1.97098

282.51807 10.46363 2.25255

317.83283 11.77159 2.53412



6

7

8

9



5.90524

6.88944

7.87365

8.85786



0.19290

0.22506

0.25721

0.28936



3.85809

4.50110

5.14412

5.78713



4.62971

5.40132

6.17294

6.94456



(continued)



SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES



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Table 31. Fundamental Units of Length, Area, Volume, and Mass

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