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4 A Confucian take on eudaimonia

4 A Confucian take on eudaimonia

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Fire and water possess energy but are without life. Grass and trees have life

but no intelligence. Birds and beasts have intelligence but no (sense of)

righteousness (yi). Man possesses energy, life, intelligence, and in addition

(a sense of) righteousness. Therefore he is the noblest being on earth.

(Watson 1963–1:45)

The crucial difference between animal and human, according to Aristotle, is

logos, discursive thought. The crucial difference between animal and man,

according to Hsün Tzu, is the possession of yi, (a sense of) what is right or

righteous.

Logos is what Aristotle sees as the key to the sort of social formations

characteristic of the human species. Hsün Tzu goes on from the lines quoted

above to explain why humans are organized in a manner superior to other

creatures. With yi, humans set up hierarchical divisions (accept lines of

authority), which in turn create harmony and ensure (social) unity. In unity is

strength; in strength lies the power to conquer all things. ‘Thus men can dwell in

security in their houses and halls. The reason that men are able to harmonize

their actions with the order of the seasons, utilize all things, and bring universal

profit to the world is simply this: they have established hierarchical divisions and

possess yi.’ The absence of yi leads to quarreling, chaos, fragmentation and

weakness—Hsün Tzu moves immediately to link yi to li (ritual propriety), a pair

(translated ‘ritual principles’ by Watson) that occurs frequently in the texts

attributed to Hsün Tzu14— ‘This is why I say that ritual principles must not be

neglected even for a moment’ (46).

Although Aristotle emphasizes logos, he sees this as linked to the very feature

of human beings that for Hsün Tzu distinguishes them from animals. To quote

again (see Section 8.4 under (3)) from the Politics, ‘For what distinguishes

human beings from the other animals is their having a perception of good and

bad, right and wrong and the other [things of this sort], and the sharing of these

makes a household and a city’ (1253a16–18). However, Aristotle does not

immediately go on to stress the importance of a hierarchy of authority or of any

recognized forms of conduct that would keep a hierarchy firmly in place. Social

unity is based on common conceptions of how to judge things and on the practice

of deliberation in which those common conceptions are used to govern

collaborative activity. Social unity in Hsün Tzu’s Confucian conception of

society is based on everyone knowing his or her place in a hierarchy and

employing a grammar of conduct, referred to as li-yi, that facilitates interaction

between levels.

He who can follow them (li-yi) in serving his parents is called filial; he

who can follow them in serving his elder brothers is called brotherly. He

who can follow them in serving his superiors is called obedient; he who

can follow them in employing his inferiors is called a ruler.

(ibid.)



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But what is the point of following li-yi? Does doing so serve some further

purpose?

One might, from reading more of the passage from Hsün Tzu, take away the

impression that sustaining the material conditions for a comfortable existence

was the ultimate point of observing li-yi and being hierarchically organized.

Planting and cutting, breeding the six domestic animals, exploiting forests and

fish stocks, cannot be properly co-ordinated except by ‘one who is good at

organizing men in society.’ Prosperity (the argument appears to be) cannot be

sustained for very long without careful governance of wider society; individuals

or groups who cannot see how their conceptions of their material interests need

to be subordinated within a wider framework are showing their inability to

function above the level of animals.

This expectation that a ruler should promote the conditions for the material

prosperity of his subjects is thoroughly Confucian, although Confucius also

expressed a ‘man does not live by bread alone’ sentiment:

Tzu-kung asked about government. Confucius said, ‘Sufficient food,

sufficient armament, and sufficient confidence of the people.’ Tzu-kung

said, ‘forced to give up one of these, which would you abandon first?’

Confucius said, ‘I would abandon the armament.’ Tzu-kung said, ‘Forced

to give up one of the remaining two, which would you abandon first?’

Confucius said, ‘I would abandon food. There have been deaths from time

immemorial, but no state can exist without the confidence of the people.’

(Chan 1963:XII.7)

The order of priorities that this reflects is important, and the concept translated as

‘confidence’ (Lau: ‘trust’) needs to be understood as more than a feeling that

subjects should have for their ruler. Throughout the Analects, would-be rulers

and superior men are advised to adhere to li: observe propriety, set a good

example and the people will be easy to govern (e.g. XIV.41) and will flourish

(e.g. I.9). The confidence or trust that people need is in their whole social

environment. Confucius makes it sound (as in XII.7) like this confidence relates

only to the ruler, because he is answering a question about governing, but he also

believes that the ruler is principally responsible for general social well-being.

Does it follow that if almost everything people do is a manifestation of (ritual)

patterns recognizable to other people, there will be throughout society a feeling of

trust or confidence? Obviously not; knowing what to expect is not the same thing

as being confident in the sense used to translate the Chinese. Does it follow that

if such patterns keep people mindful of their position in a social hierarchy at all

times, they will have confidence or trust? Obviously not; knowing one’s place

may only initiate profound mistrust. Somehow, the ritual forms must express and

continually reinforce a message of mutual trust, particularly between those who

stand as governor and governed.



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Asked (XV.24) to provide a single word to guide conduct, Confucius offered

shu, which Chan translates as ‘altruism’ and Lau leaves untranslated but with the

gloss ‘using oneself as a measure in gauging the wishes of others.’15 Confucius‘

own gloss on shu in this passage comes out as what is sometimes called ‘the

negative formulation of the golden rule,’ viz. ‘Do not impose on others what you

yourself do not desire.’ Similar advice appears as part of what it takes to be a

humane person (jen, XII.2). Asked (VI.30) whether someone who benefited the

common people on a grand scale would be regarded as a humane person,

Confucius was prepared to go one better and call such a person a sage. What the

humane person (jen) can aim for, if not philanthropy on a grand scale, is this:

‘wishing to establish his own character, [he] also establishes the character of

others, and wishing to be prominent himself, [he] also helps others to be

prominent. To be able to judge others by what is near to ourselves may be called

the method of realizing humanity (jen)’ (Chan 1963). Lau (1979) translates

without the connotations of social advancement: ‘helps others to take a stand in

so far as he himself wishes to take a stand, and gets others there in so far as he

himself wishes to get there,’ and he translates the ‘method’ of the second

sentence just quoted as ‘the ability to take as analogy what is near at hand,’

which he glosses in a note: ‘viz. oneself.’ Waley (1938) translates ‘you yourself

desire rank and standing, then help others to get rank and standing. You want to

turn your own merits to account; then help others to turn theirs to account—in

fact the ability to take one’s own feelings as a guide—that is the sort of thing

that lies in the direction of Goodness [=jen].’ This is close to a positive

formulation of the golden rule: ‘as ye would that men should do to you, do ye

also to them likewise’ (Luke 6:31).

From this we might plausibly infer that what a Confucian would offer, as an

analysis of what (in Greek) should be meant by a life that is eudaim n, is this:

living in a secure social environment in which people’s confidence is constantly

reinforced by the message communicated from others that those who are

established (have a place to stand) wish them to be established (have a place to

stand) and that those who are improving their own lot wish them to improve their

own lot. Confucius and his followers believed that this could not be achieved

without thoroughly structuring social interaction by means of a ritualized sense of

propriety. The expression ‘establish [oneself]’ (‘take a stand’) is twice connected

essentially to the li (VIII.8, XVI.13).

The image of li as a kind of grammar of action can be usefully unpacked at

this point. When a language forms its sentences in different ways depending on

whether one, two or more items of a kind are being discussed, when a language

marks whether an action is to be viewed as ongoing or as a point in time, when a

language distinguishes whether men or women are being discussed (and treats

indeterminate or mixed groups as consisting entirely of men), the awareness of

its speakers is shaped accordingly. A culture that expects people to quicken their

step when passing those to whom respect should be shown, that requires large

investments of resources to mark certain transitions (of life, of seasons), that



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requires certain postures, kinds of dress, facial expressions to match occasions,

will likewise shape the awareness of its people.16

In response to the sort of question that would naturally occur to a Greek

philosopher, ‘what is li the means of achieving?’ one very plausible Confucian

answer is ‘to achieve that climate of confidence or trust that is perhaps even

more important to people (in so far as they are human beings) than being well

fed.’ Is li an instrumental or a constitutive means to this end? If the former, then

one might imagine achieving this trust or confidence without li or with a

radically different emphasis on li. But if ritualized forms are distinctively

characteristic of human life, any other way of achieving this trust or confidence

might well be argued by Confucians to amount to a failure to promote our

humanity.

Animal ethologists do speak of rituals (of courtship, etc.); these, however, are

instinctive (pre-programmed or ‘hard-wired’). Humans have to rely on

representing to themselves how ritual is to be conducted. Here the well-known

aphorism by Kant quoted in Section 7.4 is applicable, provided that the second

occurrence of ‘law’ is interpreted broadly enough to cover representations of how

ritual should be carried out. ‘Everything in nature works in accordance with laws.

Only a rational being has the power to act in accordance with his ideas (nach der

Vorstellung, literally: in accordance with the representation) of laws.’ It then

becomes clear that distinctively human rituals, depending as they do on

representation, depend essentially on the human capacity for what the

Greeks called logos, even if the discursive practices of classical Greece and China

were very different.

Could humans engage both in the practices of discursive thought that generate

a sense of rational appropriateness and in ritual practices that sustain a sense of

social propriety? Is there any reason why one of these accounts should be

emphasized to the exclusion of the other? Could we deliberate fruitfully about

adjustments needed in any prevailing sense of social propriety? Can we indeed

deliberate fruitfully about anything unless our interactions with one another

(especially when ‘taking counsel’ or consulting, i.e. considering together what is

to be done) are governed by forms of social propriety? (Minimally, we rely on

the rules of parliamentary procedure, Robert’s Rules of Order, but doing so does

not guarantee that any genuine deliberation takes place.) Might a phronimos who

looked at the traditions of China have to acknowledge the importance of ritual

forms? Might the true sage, having studied the philosophy of ancient Greece,

have to acknowledge the importance of deliberation? Viewed at a very high level

of abstraction, the two traditions seem merely to have emphasized different but

equally important features of what it is to live a characteristically human life, and

a synthesis of both accounts, one that improves on each, seems possible.

However, the possibility rests on a significant assumption shared by the two

traditions about the value of community life—even if the forms of community in

classical Greece and China were very different—as an indispensable part of what

it is for humans to live well, to flourish. It might be argued that we would find it



228 THE END AS A STANDARD



difficult to blend ritual and deliberation in this way because of the ‘watershed’ that

our culture crossed in the seventeenth century. There certainly are critics,

identified as ‘communitarians,’ who complain that we have lost the assumption

of the value of community life (communitas) and live poorer lives because we

understand our relations to one another strictly in terms of association (societas).

People enter associations only to further their individual interests; collective

goals have only instrumental value for the individuals involved, and only so long

as their individual interests are served.

It is difficult to determine how much of the ‘communitarian’ critique is the

result of exaggeration. Political theories can certainly be identified that have

been based on the assumption of ‘social atomism’, viz. that humans enter society

with their identities and interests already formed. Even if the implausibility of

this assumption remains unacknowledged, it is hard to say how deeply our social

practices have changed in the past three to four centuries. To be sure, we have

come to rely increasingly on contractual relationships and rule-governed

institutions instead of assessments of character and general trust in the social

order. Whether that means we have no place in our lives for, and are incapable

of, finding personal fulfillment in the success of a collective venture—whether

that means (the question at the beginning of this section) that seeing our cities or

states collectively do admirable things, and contributing to the collective effort

cannot be a constituent of our eudaimonia—are not obviously rhetorical

questions easily answered by ‘of course not.’

Part of the difficulty is that unsophisticated ‘communitarian’ critics do not

appreciate the extent to which conflicts in our society, although often framed in

the rhetoric of the individual versus the state, are in fact conflicts between groups

(or between the group identities of the individuals in conflict). There are, largely

unremarked, rituals (the full range of social phenomena to which the Chinese

word li would apply) that hold such groups together. If the social cohesiveness of

some more comprehensive group needs to be improved, it needs its own rituals

to be given an importance that overrides that of less comprehensive groups, as

the emperor’s rituals (and the corresponding loyalties) were to take precedence

over those of families. On the whole, ‘communitarian’ critics do not address the

relevant social mechanisms.

Two common assumptions further confuse the issues. The first is that the

personal and the collective are mutually exclusive goals, that individuals cannot

take a personal interest in the collective success of a collective enterprise. The

second is that individuals entering collective enterprises (with private interests)

cannot and do not modify their conceptions of their own interests and come to

identify their personal interests with the success of the collective. When

explicitly stated, these assumptions do not have a great deal of plausibility.

This is not to say that fairly narrow private interests cannot stand in sharp

tension with more comprehensive collective interests. This tension, however, is

not something that has arisen only in the wake of the seventeenth century. It is

hard to say if any of Aristotle’s contemporaries would have openly challenged



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the claim of the collective interests of their respective poleis, although within a

generation of Aristotle’s death there was a philosophical school in Athens ready

to make this challenge. The founder of the school, Epicurus, whose views will be

the subject of the first section of the next chapter, was also eager to claim a more

dominant role for pleasure enjoyed privately (albeit with one’s friends) in the

account of what it is to live well. If there has come to be more tension between

the private and public since the seventeenth century, the challenge of Epicurus may

well prove to have more resonance with current attitudes than the views we have

hitherto considered.

Further reading

For a strict deontological approach to ethics, see Fried (1978); and for a less strict

approach see Scheffler (1982). Dancy (1993) also counts as a deontological

approach. For a useful collection of articles on the dispute between

consequentialist and deontological approaches, see Scheffler (1988). For

Aristotle on eudaimonia and deliberative rationality, see Ackrill (1974), Wiggins

(1978) and Nussbaum (1986: chapters 10 and 11); for Aristotle’s use of the

concept of the ergon of man, see Nagel (1972) and Wilkes (1978). For a

sympathetic treatment of Aristotle on contemplation, see Rorty (1978). For a

comprehensive treatment of the aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy touched on in

this chapter, see Cooper (1975) and for another, this one with attention paid to

the differences between the two versions of the Ethics, see Kenny (1992). (For

Hsün Tzu and Confucius, see on Confucians in the further reading for Chapter

8.) Mulhall and Swift (1992) collect what they identify as communitarian critics

of John Rawls’ liberal theory of justice (see Section 6.4). Avineri and de-Shalit

(1992) is another useful collection of articles on communitarianism, its targets

and its opponents, and Bell (1993) is a treatise on the same in dialogue form.

Notes

1 ‘Standard’ translates ‘horos’; see Section 4.2.

2 Some crucial points in this chapter will turn on the differences between the two

versions of Aristotle’s Ethics. The two versions share three books, ‘the common

books’ (Nicomachean V, VI, VII=Eudemian IV, V, VI). The Nicomachean has

long been assumed to be the more mature and authoritative version, although this

assumption has occasionally been challenged. A recent modest challenge to the

preference given to the Nicomachean version was mounted by Anthony Kenny,

who argued that the common books originated in and were more integral to the

argument of the Eudemian version. For a retrospective look at how his challenge

was received, see Kenny (1992: Appendix I).

3 According to Mautner (1996: respective entries), ‘deontology’ was coined by

Jeremy Bentham (late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries) to mean ‘science of

morality.’ ‘Teleology’ was coined by the early eighteenth-century German



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4



5

6

7



8



9



10

11

12



13



14

15



philosopher Christian Wolff for any matter pertaining to purposiveness.

‘Consequentialism’ was coined by Elizabeth Anscombe in 1958 for the doctrine

that people are responsible for the foreseen but unintended consequences of their

actions and was subsequently applied where ‘utilitarianism’ had been common.

Specific ‘utilitarian’ doctrines will be discussed in Chapter 10.

The etymology of eudaimonia is ‘having a good daimon’ that is a good personal

minor deity (not unlike a guardian angel or fairy godmother) to look after one.

Aristotle sometimes (e.g. 1098a19) couples the adjective eudaim n with another,

makarios, which means ‘blessed,’ ‘fortunate.’ (Whether fortune has been kind to

someone is another dimension of assessment that we treat as external or objective.)

When eudaimonia and makariot s are distinguished, it is in cases where, lacking in

good fortune, an excellent person does as well as can be done with limited resources

(e.g. 1100b35–1101a8), and hence is eudaim n but not makarios.

This illustration is taken from Ackrill (1974:15ff).

This terminology was introduced by Hardie (1965).

The Nicomachean version speaks of the ergon of a human being (1097b31), but it

is clear from the discussion that Aristotle is considering the ergon of the human

being qua living, hence of the human soul (psuch =what makes a living thing

alive). The Eudemian version speaks of the ergon of the soul (1219a24),

specifically the human soul (1219b38).

It is, however, traditional to interpret the activity itself as non-discursive, as the

intuitive appreciation of the splendor of the highest things from the clarity of the

view afforded by our theories. Moreover, it is assumed to be as difficult to

articulate and communicate as the grasp that a mathematician seeks of the whole of

a proof once the sequence of steps has been followed one by one.

‘Someone thinks he will do well if he spends his life in scientific research; to do

this he must have leisure; to get the money for his living expenses he does a

disgraceful but not time-consuming thing: one great fraud’ (Anscombe 1965:65).

See Politics 1253a2–18 (quoted in Section 8.4 under (3)) and Nicomachean Ethics

1097b8–11 (quoted in Section 9.1).

The interpretation here follows that of Kenny (1992:16–19).

The word for ‘and’ merges with the word for ‘good,’ and the concept appears in the

texts as a variety of fused words: kalos kai agathos becomes kalos kagathos,

(adjective, ‘admirable and -good’) to kalon kagathon, (noun phrase, ‘the admirable

and -good’) h kalokagathia (substantive, ‘admirable-and-good-ness’). These were

common Greek expressions applied, sometimes with a touch of irony, to

recognized worthies; compare the English expressions ‘the great and the good’ and

‘the beautiful people’.

Although his use of ‘humanism’ is not spelled out directly in terms of the

assumption attributed here to Aristotle, Chan Wing-tsit (1963) is able to title his

chapter of selections from the Analects ‘The Humanism of Confucius’ partly

because human good is in effect treated in Confucian thought as not answering to

any wider constraint.

‘In Hsün Tzu, for example, more than a third of the occurrences of yi are in the

binomial expression of li-yi’ (Hall and Ames 1987:98).

In two passages of the Analects, Confucius claims that there is a single thread

binding his thought together; in one, a trusted disciple explains in his absence that

the thread consists of being conscientious (chung) and in shu (IV.15; cf. XV.3). See



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note 10 to Chapter 8 on chung as parallel to Kant’s good will, and compare ‘Chung

is the doing of one’s best and it is through chung that one puts into effect what one

has found out by the method of shu’ (Lau 1979:16).

16 Cf. the thesis of Jonathan Z.Smith that ritual is a ‘mode of paying attention’ and of

‘having attention focused,’ Section 2.2 and note 4 to Chapter 2.



10

PLEASURE AS THE MEASURE



For we recognize pleasure as the good which is primary and

congenital; from it we begin every choice and avoidance, and we

come back to it, using the feeling as the yardstick (kan n) for

judging every good thing.

(Epicurus (third century BCE): LS 21B2)1

…in the civil state [a man acquires] moral liberty, which alone

makes man truly the master of himself. For to be driven by appetite

alone is slavery, and obedience to the law one has prescribed for

oneself is liberty.

(Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1762:27)

Recapitulation: To possess genuinely admirable qualities of

character, according to Aristotle’s account, a person’s responses

have to be able to be connected properly via deliberative reasoning to

an adequate concept of what it is that constitutes living well for a

human being. The word eudaimonia represents this concept in Greek,

and Aristotle proposed to assess the claims of different ways of life

to realize eudaimonia by reference to the unique role of discursive

thought (logos) in human life. Aristotle’s own texts, however, are

ambivalent toward the question of whether eudaimonia should

include scope for the exercise of many excellences or was to be

achieved by maximizing the time spent on a single supremely valuable

activity. The line of thought that proceeded through the second of

these alternatives, which was developed in the Nicomachean Ethics,

did not appear able to ensure anything more than an instrumental role

for ethical excellences and opened up the possibility that the

supremely valuable activity it identified, contemplation, might justify

conduct and qualities of character that were arguably anything but

admirable. To develop a more satisfactory account, it seemed,

Aristotle should have given more attention to another feature that he



PLEASURE AS THE MEASURE 233



explicitly associated with the nature of human beings (and with their

capacity for discursive thought): their need to carry out part of their

lives in public activities. The account developed in the other version

of the Ethics generally made more room for ethical excellences and,

in common with classical Confucian thinkers, allowed for the

importance of social relations in its account of human flourishing.

Prospectus: The Epicurean school of Athens (established not long

after Aristotle’s death) stood as a challenge—as much by the way of

life its members followed as by the teachings of their founder —to

the claim that humans are by nature animals that find (at least part of

their) fulfillment in civic life. Epicurus advised against participation

in public affairs as a consequence of applying the measure

(‘straightedge’) that formed the centerpiece of his doctrines, viz. that

humans could be counted as living well precisely to the extent that

they experienced pleasure and avoided pain. These guiding

experiences are personal, private and peculiar to individuals, and

applied at the level of individuals they constitute a highly variable

standard. Epicurus admitted that the experience of pleasure could be

enhanced by sharing with others, and the possibility that people can

enlarge their conceptions of their own personal fulfillments to

include the well-being of others suggests that the difference between

self-regarding concerns and other-regarding concerns is neither sharp

nor difficult to bridge. How far we each ought to enlarge our personal

concerns, however, is not easy to determine. Theorists who have

insisted that we must extend them to everyone tend to overlook the

values realized by partiality. Some have insisted that our moral

concerns must extend beyond the human species to all sentient

creatures.

10.1

The protean standard of hedonism

Whose pleasures? Which assessment of risk?

Sixteen years after Aristotle’s death, a native of the island of Samos in his midthirties named Epicurus bought a house and garden in Athens and with a circle of

friends embarked on a quiet, private life free from involvement in civic affairs. He

offered a carefully articulated philosophical position in support of this way of

life. This included a comprehensive theory of nature and of the gods, a theory

which he believed removed much of the basis for the fears and superstitions that

haunted the lives of ordinary people. But he offered this theory not as the object

of the sort of contemplation that made for a fulfilled human life but as the

instrument for removing psychological states that might detract from the true aim



234 PLEASURE AS THE MEASURE



of life, which was the very ordinary pleasures that could be experienced in a

tranquil life.2

When we say that pleasure is the end, we do not mean the pleasures of the

dissipated and those that consist in having a good time, as some out of

ignorance and disagreement or refusal to understand suppose we do, but

freedom from pain in the body and from disturbance in the soul. For what

produces the pleasant life is not continuous drinking and parties or

pederasty or womanizing or the enjoyment of fish and the other dishes of

an expensive table, but sober reasoning which tracks down the causes of

every choice and avoidance, and which banishes the opinions that beset

souls with the greatest confusion.

(LS 21B5)

Pleasure was, as Epicurus put it, the straightedge (yardstick, kan n; see first

quotation at the head of this chapter), simultaneously the end for which we

should (rationally) aim and the standard of value to be used in making our

judgments about what to do.

Placed against this criterion, it was clear to him that one should be lawabiding,

not because by itself being so gave one a better life but because breaking the law

risked retaliation from people (LS 22A5), which in turn jeopardized, in a way

that simply was not worth the risk, one’s prospects for a life of pleasures enjoyed

in tranquility. Such excellences of character as one needed to live this quiet,

private life were, as one of his opponents, a Stoic named Cleanthes, put it (21O),

mere handmaidens to pleasure. Indeed, Epicurus assigns a role to what he calls

phron sis, which like Aristotle he treats as the chief virtue and source of all other

virtues. But instead of making phron sis subservient to theoretical wisdom, or to

the exercise of theoretical wisdom in contemplation, he makes it entirely

subservient to living pleasurably as he understood it (21B6). In the Nicomachean

Ethics, Aristotle recommended philosophical contemplation because it exercises

the characteristic human capacity on the best possible object, making it the

activity most worthy of human beings, but he also insisted that it is an enjoyable

thing to do. Epicurus made no distinctions in terms of what is worthwhile; if it is

enjoyable and will not reduce your prospects for further enjoyment, then it is a

constituent of your eudaimonia.

Aristotle had dismissed the view of those who identified pleasure as the good

that belongs to human beings, because pleasure is something that we share with

other creatures. But Epicurus could easily reply that he was recommending a

perspective on pleasure (the use of pleasure as a kan n) that was possible only for

a human being. All animate creatures make efforts to adjust their relations to the

environment (heat loss, oxygen intake) and seek to undergo certain kinds of

process (ingesting food, engaging in reproductive activities); they also exhibit

aversions to undergoing certain processes. What an animal avoids is taken to be

uncomfortable, distressing or painful for it; what an animal seeks is taken to be



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