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12 Degradation, Stability, and Environmental Issues

12 Degradation, Stability, and Environmental Issues

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Handbook of

Industrial

Chemistry

Organic Chemicals



Mohammad Farhat AIi, Ph.D.

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia



Bassam M. El AIi, Ph.D.

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia



James G. Speight, Ph.D.

CD&Wlnc.

Laramie, Wyoming



McGraw-Hill

New York



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Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. AU rights

reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted

under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication

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of the publisher.

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DOC/DOC



010987654



ISBN 0-07-141037-6

The sponsoring editor for this book was Kenneth P. McCombs and the

production supervisor was Pamela A. Pelton. It was set in Century

Schoolbook by International typesetting and Composition. The art

director for the cover was Anthony Landi.

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Information contained in this work has been obtained by The

McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ("McGraw-Hill") from sources

believed to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its

authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information

published herein, and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be

responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use

of this information. This work is published with the understanding

that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are

not attempting to render engineering or other professional services.

If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.



To our wives and families, and to all scientists

and engineers who preceded us in such work



ABOUTTHE EDITORS



is Professor of Industrial and

Petroleum Chemistry at King Fahd University of Petroleum

& Minerals in Saudi Arabia. An expert in characterization

studies of heavy ends, residues, and asphalt, he is also knowledgeable about crude oils and products, refining process

technology, waste oil recycling, and stability characteristics

of jet fuels.



MOHAMMAD FARHAT ALI, PH.D.,



BASSAM M. EL ALI, PH.D.,



is Professor of Industrial

Chemistry at King Fahd University of Petroleum &

Minerals in Saudi Arabia. His specialties include

homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis using transition

metal complexes in hydrocarboxylation, hydroformylation,

oxidation, coupling, hydrogenation, and other important

processes; investigation of the organometallic intermediates

and the mechanisms of various homogenous reactions; and

synthesis, characterization, and application of various

supported catalytic systems in the production of fine

chemicals. He has taught many industrial chemistry

courses including Industrial Catalysis, Industrial Organic

Chemistry, Industrial Inorganic Chemistry, and Petroleum

Processes.

G. SPEIGHT, PH.D., has more than 35 years' experience

in fields related to the properties and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels. He has participated in, and led,

significant research in defining the uses of chemistry with

heavy oil and coal. The author of well over 400 professional

papers, reports, and presentations detailing his research

activities, he has taught more than 50 related courses.

Dr. Speight is the author, editor, or compiler of a total of

25 books and bibliographies related to fossil fuel processing

and environmental issues. He lives in Laramie, Wyoming.

JAMES



Contributors



Hasan A. Al-Muallem, Ph.D.

Department of Chemistry

King Fahd University of

Petroleum & Minerals

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

Mohammad Farhat AIi, Ph.D.

Professor of Chemistry

Department of Chemistry

King Fahd University of

Petroleum & Minerals

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

Bassam M. ElAIi, Ph.D.

Professor of Chemistry

Department of Chemistry

King Fahd University of

Petroleum & Minerals

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia



Manfred J. Mirbach, Ph.D.

Landis Kane Consulting

R&D Management

Fuellinsdorf, Switzerland

Ahsan Shemsi

Department of Chemistry

King Fahd University of

Petroleum & Minerals

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

James G. Speight, Ph.D.

CD&W Inc.

Laramie, Wyoming



Preface



The organic chemical industry is an important branch of industry and

its structure usually centers on petroleum and hydrocarbon derived

chemicals. The volume text of available books is generally lacking in covering other very important nonpetroleum-based organic industries such

as paints, dyes, edible oils, fats and waxes, soaps and detergents, sugars,

fermentation, chemical explosives, and agrochemical industries.

This book focuses primarily on the chemical processing of raw materials other than petroleum and hydrocarbons. These materials are usually converted into useful and profitable products that are, in general,

used as consumer goods. The book addresses the needs of both students

and practicing chemists and chemical engineers. It is intended to be a

primary source of information for the young practicing professionals

who wish to broaden their knowledge of the organic process industry as

a whole. The book may also serve as a textbook for advanced undergraduate students in industrial chemistry.

Chapter 1 describes the development of the chemical industry and its

role in welfare and employment around the world. This chapter shows

how raw materials are procured and converted to consumer products.

Chapter 2 discusses safety aspects in organic industries and methods

to protect the workers from hazards such as exposure to dangerous

chemicals, heat, pressures, high electric fields, accelerating objects, and

other sources of hazards.

Chapter 3 deals with the sources of pollution caused by raw materials, products, and wastes in petroleum, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, food, and other industries. The growing public concerns over the

safety of chemicals in the environment, and the efforts by the governments and industries for their control, are discussed.

Chapter 4 presents the chemistry and technology of edible oil, fat, and wax

processing including refining, recovery, crystallization, interesterification,

and hydrogenation. The key oxidation reactions of lipids leading to quality

deterioration of processed and unprocessed foods, and the mechanism of



the action of the antioxidants in improving oxidation stability of foods are

discussed.

Chapter 5 highlights the soap and detergent industry. The raw materials, important processes of production, and economic importance of the

soap and detergent industry are elaborated.

Chapter 6 covers one of the most widely distributed and abundant

organic chemicals—the sugars. The chemistry of saccharides, historical

survey, and world production of sugar are presented. The sugar recovery from the two principal sources—sugar cane and sugar beets—are

discussed. The chemistry and uses of nonsugar sweetening agents is

also presented.

Chapter 7 describes paints, pigments, and industrial coatings. The

major paint components, namely, pigments, binders, additives, and solvents are discussed in separate sections. These are followed by the principles of formulation, application techniques, durability, and testing of

paints.

Chapter 8 is devoted to the industrially produced dyes with their classification, manufacture, properties, and main applications, as well as

environmental and health aspects.

Chapter 9 presents an overview of modern fermentation processes and

their application in food, pharmaceutical, and industrial chemical industries. The social and economic importance of fermentation processes is

discussed.

The pharmaceutical industry is presented in Chapter 10 as one of the

most important sectors of healthcare worldwide. The discovery, the

development, and the production of drugs are covered in this chapter.

The chapter also includes the correlation between the growth in the

worldwide market for Pharmaceuticals and the increase of the world

population as a result of higher life expectancy and changes in lifestyle.

Chapter 11 presents an overview of the agrochemical industry.

Beginning with the introduction and historical background, it leads to

the modern trends in agriculture, chemical pest control, herbicides,

fungicides, insecticides, and biological pest control agents. Social and

economic aspects of pesticides use are also discussed.

Chapter 12 presents the chemistry of explosives. Chemical explosives

and propellants are well-covered in this book because of their importance

for peaceful uses. They are considered chemical compounds in pure form

or mixtures that rapidly produce a large volume of hot gases when

properly ignited. The destructive effects of explosives are much more

spectacular than their peaceful uses. However, it appears that more

explosives have been used by industries for peaceful purposes than in

all the wars.

Chapter 13 covers the conversion of crude oil into desired products in

an economically feasible and environmentally acceptable manner.



Descriptions are provided for (1) desalting and dewatering; (2) separation processes, of which distillation is the prime example; (3) conversion

processes, of which coking and catalytic cracking are prime examples;

and (4) finishing processes, of which hydrotreating to remove sulfur is

a prime example. Descriptions of the various petroleum products (from

fuel gas to asphalt and coke) are also given.

This chapter also includes a description of the petrochemical industry, and the production of the chemicals and compounds in a refinery that

are destined for further processing, and used as raw material feedstocks

for the fast-growing petrochemical industry.

Chapter 14 provides the basic principles of polymer science, and

addresses the importance of this subject. This chapter aims to give a

broad and unified description of the subject matter—describing the

polymerization reactions, structures, properties, and applications of

commercially important polymers, including those used as plastics,

fibers, and elastomers. This chapter focuses on synthetic polymers

because of the great commercial importance of these materials. The

chemical reactions by which polymer molecules are synthesized are

addressed along with the process conditions that can be used to carry

them out. This chapter also discusses topics on degradation, stability,

and environmental issues associated with the use of polymers.

This book is intended for university and college students who have

studied organic chemistry, as well as for scientists and technicians who

work in the organic chemical industry, and senior executives and specialists who wish to broaden their knowledge of the industrial organic

processes as a whole.

At the end, we gratefully acknowledge the financial aid, facilities,

and support provided by the Deanship of Scientific Research at King

Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Mohammad Farhat AU, Ph.D.

Bassam M. ElAIi, Ph.D.

James G. Speight, Ph.D.



Contents



About the Editors .............................................................



vi



Contributors .....................................................................



vii



Preface ............................................................................



ix



1. Introduction: an Overview of the Chemical

Process Industry and Primary Raw Materials .......



1



1.1



The Chemical Process Industry .................................



1



1.2



Development of the Chemical Industry ......................



2



1.3



Characteristics of the Chemical Industry ...................



3



1.4



Raw Materials, Manufacturing, and

Engineering ................................................................



5



Environmental Aspects ..............................................



8



References ............................................................................



9



2. Safety Considerations in Process Industries ........



11



1.5



2.1



Introduction .................................................................



12



2.2



OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health

Administration) and PSM (Process Safety

Management) .............................................................



14



2.3



Incident Statistics and Financial Aspects ..................



16



2.4



Safety Decision Hierarchy ..........................................



16



2.5



Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment

(HARA) .......................................................................



17



Types of Hazards in Industries ..................................



18



2.6.1



18



2.6



Heat and Temperature .............................



This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.



v



vi



Contents

2.6.2



Pressure Hazards .....................................



19



2.6.3



Electrical Hazards ....................................



21



2.6.4



Mechanical Hazards .................................



23



2.6.5



Toxic Materials .........................................



24



2.6.6



Fire and Explosion ...................................



27



2.6.7



Accelerator and Falling Objects ................



30



2.6.8



Confined Space ........................................



31



2.6.9



Radiation ..................................................



33



2.6.10 Noise and Vibrations ................................



37



2.6.11 Ergonomics ..............................................



39



Risk Management Plan ..............................................



40



2.7.1



The Role of Safety Personnel ...................



40



2.7.2



Personal Protective Equipment

(PPE) .......................................................



41



Appraising Plant Safety and

Practices ..................................................



44



Planning for Emergencies ........................



45



References ............................................................................



47



3. Industrial Pollution Prevention ...............................



49



2.7



2.7.3

2.7.4



3.1



Definition of Industrial Waste .....................................



50



3.2



Types of Industrial Wastes .........................................



51



3.2.1



Classification of Industrial Waste ..............



52



3.3



Public Concern over Pollution ....................................



54



3.4



Legislation to Waste Management ............................



56



3.5



Industrial Pollution Prevention ...................................



57



3.6



Assessment of Industrial Pollution Prevention ..........



58



3.6.1



Assessment of Waste Generation ............



58



3.6.2



Feasibility of the Industrial Pollution

Prevention ................................................



59



Feasibility Implementation ........................



59



3.6.3



This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.



Contents



vii



Waste Management ...................................................



61



3.7.1



Procedural Change ..................................



61



3.7.2



Technology Change .................................



63



3.7.3



Input Material Change ..............................



64



3.7.4



Product Change .......................................



64



Recycling ....................................................................



64



3.8.1



Options in Recycling .................................



65



3.8.2



Recycling Technologies ...........................



66



Waste Treatment ........................................................



69



3.9.1



Physical Treatment ...................................



70



3.9.2



Chemical Treatment .................................



73



3.9.3



Biological Treatment .................................



75



3.10 Waste Disposal by Incineration .................................



77



3.10.1 Rotary Kiln Incinerators ............................



78



3.10.2 Liquid Injection Incinerators (LII) ..............



79



3.10.3 Fluidized Bed Incinerators ........................



81



3.10.4 Multiple-Hearth Incinerators .....................



81



3.11 Ultimate Disposal .......................................................



81



3.11.1 Land-Farming ...........................................



81



3.11.2 Landfilling .................................................



82



3.11.3 Deep-Well Injection ..................................



83



3.11.4 Ocean Dumping .......................................



83



References ............................................................................



84



4. Edible Oils, Fats, and Waxes ..................................



85



3.7



3.8



3.9



4.1



Introduction .................................................................



86



4.2



Fatty Acids ..................................................................



88



4.3



Glycerides ..................................................................



92



4.4



Physical Properties of Triglycerides ...........................



94



4.4.1



94



Melting Point ............................................



This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.



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