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As it is used here, parameters probably means about the same as

As it is used here, parameters probably means about the same as

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to answer the question of how complex languages are actually formed, the researcher needs to observe

how languages are started from scratch. Amazingly' however this is possible.

Some of the most recent languages evolved due to the Atlantic slave trade. At that time, slaves from a

number of different ethnicities were forced to work together under colonizer's rule. Since they had no

opportunity to learn each other's languages, they developed a make-shift language called a pidgin,

Pidgins are strings of words copied from the language of the landowner. They have little in the way of

grammar, and in many cases it is difficult for a listener to deduce when an event happened, and who

did what to whom. [A] Speakers need to use circumlocution in order to make their meaning

understood. [B] Interestingly, however, all it takes for a pidgin to become a complex language is for a

group of children to be exposed to it at the time when they learn their mother tongue. [C] Slave

children did not simply copy the strings of words uttered by their elders, they adapted their words to

create a new, expressive language. [D] Complex grammar systems which emerge from pidgins are

termed creoles, and they are invented by children.

Further evidence of this can be seen in studying sign languages for the deaf. Sign languages are not

simply a series of gestures; they utilize the same grammatical machinery that is found in spoken

languages. Moreover, there are many different languages used worldwide. The creation of one such

language was documented quite recently in Nicaragua. Previously, all deaf people were isolated from

each other, but in 1979 a new government introduced schools for the deaf. Although children were

taught speech and lip reading in the classroom, in the playgrounds they began to invent their own sign

system, using the gestures that they used at home. It was basically a pidgin. Each child used the signs

differently, and there was no consistent grammar. However, children who joined the school later, when

this inventive sign system was already around, developed a quite different sign language. Although it

was based on the signs of the older children, the younger children's language was more fluid and

compact, and it utilized a large range of grammatical devices to clarify meaning. What is more, the

children used the signs in the same ways. A new creole was born.

Some linguists believe that many of the world's most established languages were creoles at first. The

English past tense —ed ending may have evolved from verb 'do'. 'It ended' may once have been 'It

end-did'. Therefore it would that even the most widespread languages were partly created by

children. Children appear to have innate grammatical machinery in their brains, which springs to life

when they are first trying to make sense of the world around them. Their minds can serve to create

logical, complex structures, even when there is no grammar present for them to copy.

11. In paragraph 1, why does the writer include information about the Cherokee language?

A. To show how simple, traditional cultures can have complicated grammar structures

B. To show how English grammar differs from Cherokee grammar

C. To prove that complex grammar structures were invented by the Cherokees.

D. To demonstrate how difficult it is to learn the Cherokee language

12. What can be inferred about the slaves' pidgin language?

A. It contained complex grammar.



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B. It was based on many different languages.

C. It was difficult to understand, even among slaves.

D. It was created by the land-owners.

13. All the following sentences about Nicaraguan sign language are true EXCEPT

A. The language has been created since 1979.

B. The language is based on speech and lip reading.

C. The language incorporates signs which children used at home.

D. The language was perfected by younger children.

14. In paragraph 3, where can the following sentence be placed?

It included standardized word orders and grammatical markers that existed in neither the pidgin

language, nor the language of the colonizers.

A. [A] B. [B]



C. [C] D. [D]



15. 'From scratch' in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to:

A. from the very beginning

B. in simple cultures

C. by copying something else

D. by using written information

16. 'Make-shift' in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to:

A. complicated and expressive

B. simple and temporary

C. extensive and diverse

D. private and personal

17. Which sentence is closest in meaning to the highlighted sentence?

A. All languages, whether they are spoken by a few people or a lot of people, contain grammar.

B. Some languages include a lot of grammar, whereas other languages contain a little.

C. Languages which contain a lot of grammar are more common that languages that contain a little.

D. The grammar of all languages is the same, no matter where the languages evolved.

18. All of the following are features of the new Nicaraguan sign language EXCEPT:

A. All children used the same gestures to show meaning.

B. The meaning was clearer than the previous sign language.

C. The hand movements were smoother and smaller.

D. New gestures were created for everyday objects and activities.

19. Which idea is presented in the final paragraph?

A. English was probably once a creole.

B. The English past tense system is inaccurate.

C. Linguists have proven that English was created by children.

D. Children say English past tenses differently from adults.



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20. Look at the word 'consistent' in paragraph 4. This word could best be replaced by which of

the following?

A. natural

B. predictable

C. Imaginable

D. uniform

PASSAGE 3 - Question 21-30

Memorandum

To all staff,

The hospital is always trying to cut its carbon footprint, and to do this, we want to encourage

staff, visitors and patients to use environmentally-friendly forms of transport to and from the hospital.

Therefore, we are making the following changes, which will come into effect from 1st April:

Car Park A will stay as a staff car park, but, to encourage car sharing, it will only be available

to cars containing 3 passengers or more. This rule will be in place between 7am and 6pm. A car park

attendant will monitor users. Note that cars do not have to leave the car park with three passengers.

The parking fee will remain at the current price of El an hour up to a maximum of E5 per day. If you

are Interested in car sharing and wish to find members of staff who live in your area or along your

route, please click on the link on the human resources page of the hospital website, Car Park C,

previously a staff-only car-park, will now be open to visitors at the increased cost of E2/hour up to 5

hours, and El an hour after that. These new rates will also apply to staff/visitor Car Park E. Car Park B

will only be open to blue card holders. Only senior and emergency staff are eligible for this card.

Car park D will no longer be in use, as it will make way for an improved bus park. The

current bus service (Service 56D) from the city centre will be replaced by two services. The service

will be available to staff' patients and visitors alike.

Service 57A will run from: Hebdon Town centre, Hebden Station, Critchley Park and Ride,

Grafton Street Train Station, Portchester City Centre (Bus Stop D on Mill Yard) to the hospital. The

service will run 24 hours a day every 20 minutes between 7am and 7pm and once an hour during the

night.

Service 62A will run from Oldgrave Town Centre, Kings Wood Park and Ride and Polegate

Park and Ride to the hospital every 15 minutes between 7.30 am and 7.00 pm and once every 30

minutes thereafter.

The buses will have a flat rate of El per journey. Staff will be able to buy a bus pass valid for

20 trips for just €15. These can be purchased on the bus.

Staff can also purchase a Go! pass from the human resources website. The Go! pass costs €45

and entitles users to park at any of the city's park and ride services for just E2 a day. It is valid for one

year.

There will also be an improved lock-up shed for bicycles and motorcycles in the former car

park D. Hospital staff may wish to take advantage of the voucher giving 50% off all cycles and cycle



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accessories bought from Perkin's Wheels, which is downloadable from the Human Resources website.

Note that you will have to show your staff ID card at the store when making purchases. There will be a

fix-it session once a fortnight in car park D on Fridays at 2pm- 5pm. At this time, bicycle mechanics

from Perkins Wheels will give advice on bicycle upkeep and make minor bicycle repairs free of

charge.

We hope you will take advantages of these schemes.

21. Under the rules, staff can only park in car park A at noon if...

A. they hold a blue card.

B. there are three people in the car.

C. there are two people in the car.

D. they stay for a maximum of 5 hours.

22. The cost to park in Car Park A for 4 hours will be...

A. £4



B. £14



C. £5



D. £15



23. Staff should__________to find people to share a car with them.

A. visit the human resources department

B. speak to their departmental manager

C. ask their friends

D. go online

24. After April 1st, Car Park C will be for...

A. staff only

B. visitors only

C. staff and visitors

D. everybody

25. The cost to park in Car Park C for 8 hours will be...

A. £8



B. £13



C. £18



D. £23



26. The cost to park in Cark Park E for 4 hours will be...

A. £4



B. £7



C. £8



D. £10



27. The cost to park in Car Park B is ...

A. not given in the text

B. the same as car parks C & E

C. the same as car park A

D. £5

28. Joe sometimes works the night shift. What is the maximum time he may have to wait for a

bus from the hospital to the station?

A. 30 minutes

B. 35 minutes

C. 40 minutes

D. 59 minutes



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29. Jane has to make 8 return trips to the hospital from Oldgrave Town Centre for treatment.

How much money will she save by buying a bus pass?

A. £1



B. £4



C. £7



D. £11



30. Which is NOT true about Perkin's Wheels?

A. It sells bicycles and motorbikes.

B. It will sell goods to staff at half price.

C. It will fix staff member's bikes for no charge.

D. It will fix cars for staff members.

PASSAGE 4 - Question 31-40



The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights radio, televisions, and

telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power

failure, people grope about in flickering candlelight. Cars hesitate in the streets because there are no

traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.

Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries ago.

Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for millions of years. Scientists are discovering

more and more that the living world may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit

humanity.

All living cells sent out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it sends out pulses of recorded

electricity; they form an electrocardiogram, which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart

is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an

electroencephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely small-of-ten

so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle

cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all.

When large numbers of these cells are linked together' the effects can be astonishing.

The electric eel is an amazing storage battery. It can send a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of

electricity through the water in which it lives. An electric house current is only one hundred twenty

volts. As many as four fifths of all the cells in the electric eel's body are specialized for generating

electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to the length of its body.

31. What does the word HESITATE in the first paragraph mean?

A. crash

B. stop

C. be uncertain

D. be fast

32. How long ago did human know about electricity?

A. more than twenty years ago

B. more than two hundred years ago



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C. more than two thousand years ago

D. more than two million years ago

33. From the sentence: "All living cells sent out tiny pulses of electricity", we can infer...?

A. Electric pulses of animals are dangerous for themselves.

B. Very tiny animals like mosquitoes do not have

C. A dead elephant still have electric pulses.

D. A fly has pulses of electricity.

34. The word "astonishing" can be replaced by

A. surprising



B. small



C. strong



C. weak



35. The word "four fifths" means

A. 45



B. 54



C. 4/5



D. 5/4



36. What is the main idea of the passage?

A. Electric eels are potentially dangerous.

B. Biology and electricity appear to be closely related.

C. People would be at a loss without electricity.

D. Scientists still have much to discover about electricity.

37. The author mentions all of the following as results of a blackout EXCEPT

A. refrigerated food items may go bad

B. traffic lights do not work

C. people must rely on candlelight

D. elevators and escalators do not function

38. Why does the author mention electric eels?

A. To warn the reader to stay away from them.

B. To compare their voltage to that used in houses.

C. To give an example of a living electrical generator.

D. To describe a new source of electrical power.

39. How many volts of electricity can an electric eel emit?

A. 1,000



B. 800



C. 200 D. 120



40. It can be inferred from the passage that the longer an eel is the

A. more beneficial it will be to science.

B. more powerful will be its electrical charge.

C. easier it will be to find.

D. tougher it will be to eat.

________________________________________________________________

PHẦN 3: VIẾT - VSTEP WRITING

Thời gian: 60 phút

Số câu hỏi: 2

________________________________________________________________



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TASK 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

You received an email from your English friend, Tom. He asked you for some information and

advice about your region. Read part of his email below.

I am going to spend a two-week holiday in your city this summer. I feel quite worried because I have

never been there. Can you tell me a bit about your city as well as give me some advice (things like

hotel or somewhere to stay, what to do and what clothes to bring)? I want to prepare well for this trip

and I look forward to seeing you, too.

Write an email responding to Tom.

You should write at least 120 words. You do not need to include your name or addresses. Your

response will be evaluated in terms of Task Fulfillment, Organization, Vocabulary and Grammar.

TASK 2

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Read the following text from a car magazine.

The number of car-owners increasing every day because every person expects the freedom to travel

and comfort while traveling. And that is why most of us want to own a car. However owning a car has

many good points and limitations as well.

Write an essay to an educated reader to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a

car.

You should write at least 250 words. Your response will be evaluated in terms of Task Fulfillment,

Organization, Vocabulary and Grammar.



________________________________________________________________

PHẦN 4: NÓI - VSTEP SPEAKING

Thời gian: 12 phút

Số câu hỏi: 3

________________________________________________________________

Part 1: Social Interaction (3’)

Let’s talk about yourself.



-



Can you tell me about your typical working day?

What do you like most about your studying/job?

How do you spend the weekends?



Let’s talk about your reading habit.



-



What do you like to read the best?

Do you often read newspapers?

Where do you like to read?



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Part 2: Solution Discussion (4’)

Situation: Your foreign friend is visiting Hanoi. You are going to take him/her around Hanoi. Which

means of transport do you choose, motorbike, bus or car? And why?

Part 3: Topic Development (5’)

Topic: People are encourage to learn English.

Learning English

- Good job

- Higher education

- Connection to the world

- [your own ideas]

Further questions:

- How are education priorities today different from those in the past?

- What is your opinion on the way languages are taught in schools?

- What changes do you think will happen in the classroom in the near future?



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IV. PRACTICE TEST 3

________________________________________________________________

PHẦN 1: NGHE HIỂU - VSTEP

Thời gian: Khoảng 40 phút

Số câu hỏi: 35

________________________________________________________________

Directions: In this section of the test, you will have an opportunity to demonstrate your ability to

understand conversations and talks in English. There are three parts in this section with special

directions for each part. Answer all the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied by the

speakers in the recording.

There will be time for you to read the instructions and you will have a chance to check your work. The

recording will be played ONCE only.

Time allowance: about 40 minutes, including 05 minutes to transfer your answers to your answer

sheet.

PART I-Questions 1-8

Directions: In this part, you will hear EIGHT short announcements or instructions. There is one

question for each announcement or instruction. For each question, choose the right answer A, B, C or

D. Then, on the answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to

the letter of the answer that you have chosen.

Now, let's listen to an example. On the recording, you will hear:

Woman: Hello. This is the travel agency returning your call. You left a message about the holiday

you've booked, asking which meals are included in the cost during your stay at Sunny Hotel. Lunch

and dinner are free but if you wish to have breakfast in the hotel, you will need to pay an extra amount

of money, depending on what you order. Let me know if I can help you with any other information.

Goodbye.

On the test book, you will read:

Which meal is NOT included in the price of the holiday?

A. Breakfast

B. Lunch

C. Dinner

D. All

The correct answer is A. Breakfast. Now, let's begin with the first question.

1. What does the problem have to do with?

A. The railways

B. The roads

C. The airports

D. The bus stations

2. What is the topic of the man's new book?



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A. Insects

B. Flowers

C. Butterflies

D. Reptiles

3. What has happened to the woman?

A. Her meeting was unproductive

B. Her meeting was boring.

C. Her meeting was difficult.

D. Her meeting was cancelled.

4. What is being offered on the advertisement?

A. A VIP ticket with special services

B. A ticket which includes supper

C. A special ticket for a family

D. Two tickets for the price of one

5. What is the man asking the hotel manager for?

A. A new suitcase

B. A small lock

C. A spare key

D. A special knife

6. What is the artist looking forward to?

A. Seeing her work on display

B. Meeting some new artists

C. Buying an oil painting

D. Giving a presentation

7. What is the reason for the woman's call?

A. She's left her laptop on her desk.

B. She's left her diary behind.

C. She's left her passport in a drawer.

D. She's left her suitcase in the room.

8. Where does the man want the meal to be delivered?

A. To his car

B. To his office

C. To his studio

D. To his home

PART 2-Questions 9-20

In this part, you will hear THREE conversations. The conversations will not be repeated. There are

four questions for each conversation. For each question, choose the correct answer A, B, C or D.

Questions 9 to 12. Listen to a conversation between a student and the university advisor.



149



9. Why is the student talking to the advisor?

A. To try and determine the best subject for him to major in.

B. To ask about the advisor's experiences as an undergraduate.

C. To get advice about transferring to a different university.

D. To decide which classes would be best to take next quarter.

10. Which of these statements about the student's experience are true?

A. He is senior at Kryptos Univeristy.

B. He is majoring in business administration.

C. He wanted to go to a school close to home.

D. He has made lots of friends at Kryptos.

11. What will the student have to do if he transfers?

A. Send educational records.

B. Take extra courses.

C. Change majors.

D. Visit his friends.

12. What will most likely happen next?

A. The advisor will call the students' parents.

B. The student will search for more information.

C. The student will move back to his hometown.

D. The advisor will do research in the lab.

Questions 13 to 16. Listen to a conversation between two students in their first class of the term.

13. Why is the man taking this course?

A. It's an elective.

B. It's a required course.

C. It's important to him.

D. It's enjoyable for him.

14. Why is the woman taking this course?

A. It's an elective.

B. It's a required course.

C. It's important to her.

D. It's enjoyable for her.

15. What will they do next?

A. Buy their textbooks.

B. Email some information.

C. Save some money.

D. Listen to a lecture.

16. What is the purpose of this conversation?

A. To study the text together.



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