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Figure 2. The sampling procedure applied in the study
3.5. Data management and data analysis strategy
3.5.1. Data collection tool
Data collection tool for the study was patients’ medical records. Apart from regulated
information, the medical record also included variables that needed for analysis. Each medical
record is divided to five parts:
1. General information of patients including age, sex, race, professions, residence, education,
marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption.
2. Pre-operative outcomes including diagnosis at admission, duration of symptoms (time from
onset of symptoms to admission), duration of preoperative hospitalization (time from
admission to surgery), history of comorbidities, symptoms at admission (pain characteristics,
anorexia, nausea, constipation, vomiting, and others), clinical examinations (vital signs,
temperature, localized pain in Mc Burney's point, tenderness, rebound tenderness), laboratory
investigations (WBC count, Leucocytosis, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycemia, serum
creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, QT, TCK, INR, urianalysis, ECG, abdominal ultrasonography,
plain abdominal X-ray, and abdominal MSCT).
3. Operative outcomes including histopathological findings (localized inflammatory APP,
purulent APP, gangrenous APP, perforative APP, apostematous APP) operative approach
(laparoscopic, open), causes of APP (fecaliths, hypertrophy of mural lymphoid follicles).
4. Post-operative outcomes including duration of postoperative hospitalization (time from
surgery to discharge), duration of total hospitalization (time from admission to discharge)
3.5.2. Data collection technique
For information regarding general information, the author and colleagues would face-to-face
interview with patients or patient's relatives. For information regarding pre-operative outcomes,
the author and skillful doctors would directly observe and examine on patients. For information
regarding operative and post-operative outcomes, the author review record of operation at
Emergency Unit and Operating Room.
3.5.3. Data analysis strategy
Data entry and data analysis was performed by using commercial software SPSS 16.0.
Qualitative variables would be summarized by frequency, proportion and tested by Chi-Square
test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant.
3.6. Ethic issues
This study was approved by Expert Committee of Nguyen Tri Phuong Hospital. Prior to
using information of patients, all participants in the study were called for agreement of utilization
their information. If they were willing to share their medical records, a informed consent was
deliver to their home for signing. In addition, all data related to patients would be coded and only
used for studying purposes.
3.7. Chapter summary
This study is a retrospective study in which medical records of patients with APP from June
to December 2013 will be reviewed. It is expected that 130 cases will be recruited into the study.
The subjects must be patients aged > 60 years, hospitalized at Nguyen Tri Phuong Hospital,
underwent appendectomy for clinically suspected APP, and had positive histological findings as
APP. A questionnaire developed on the basis of medical records of selected subjects includes
four divisions: 1) general information of patients (age, sex, race, professions, residence,
education, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption), pre-operative outcomes (diagnosis at
admission, duration of symptoms, duration of preoperative hospitalization, history of
comorbidities, symptoms at admission, clinical examinations, laboratory investigations),
operative outcomes (histopathological findings, operative approach, causes of APP ), and postoperative outcomes (duration of postoperative hospitalization, duration of total hospitalization).
The commercial software SPSS 16.0 will be used to input the collected data and utilized for data
Chapter 4. Results
All findings of the study were describe throughoutly in this chapter. Demographic
characteristics of 130 participants was firstly depicted. Pre-operative variables such as duration
of symptoms onset to hospitalization, symptoms, signs and laboratory findings were all included.
Operative outcomes including histological findings and operative approach were also examined.
Post-operative outcomes consisting of duration of post-operative hospitaliation and total duration
of hospitalization were added. Finally, the relationship between clinical symptoms and
backgroud profile was also explored.
4.2. Demographic characteristic of patients
The mean of age of patients in the study was 71.01 ± 7.4. Many patients lived in Ho Chi
Minh in which district 8 and Binh Chanh district had the highest of number of patients living in
(23.85% and 13.08%). Long An was also the place where 10% of patients came from. Female
patients accounted for 61.54%, while male patients constitute 38.46%. Most of patients were
unemployed or did not work at all (88.46%). Kinh was the ethnic community predominant in the
study (87.69%). For region of living, it was calculated that 75.38% of patients were lived in
urban areas. More than half of patients (57.69%) had finished elementary of secondary school,
while only 3.85% had the education of above high school. Regarding marital status, 67.69%
patients had married and 25.38% were widows or widowers.
Table 4. Demographic characteristics of patients (n=130)
Age (years) [mean ± sd (range)]
Ho Chi Minh city
71.01 ± 7.4 (60-89)
Ben Tre province
Binh Phuoc province
Dong Nai province
Dong Thap province
Hung Yen province
Kien Giang province
Long An province
Ninh Thuan province
Soc Trang province
Tien Giang province
Under employment/still working
Above high school
Among 130 patient involved in the present study, smokers accounted for 24.62%. The mean
frequency of smoking of smokers ranged from 19.50 ± 8.22 packs/year. For alcohol
consumption, 23.08% of patients drunk alcohol, of which 60% drunk 1 glass/day. There was only
1.54% patients used betal nut in their usual life.
Table 5. History of use of alcohol, cigarette and betel nut (n=130)
Number of pack/year* [median ± sd (range)] (n = 32)
Alcohol consumption (n = 30)
Number of glass/day (n = 30)
Betal nut consumption
Number of nut/day (n = 2)
19.50 ± 8.22 (4-30)
4.3. Pre-operative outcomes
At the time of admission to Nguyen Tri Phuong Hospital, 80.62% of patients were