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9  Encoding Time Values Programmatically

9  Encoding Time Values Programmatically

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Example 4-3. Encoding various time values in Perl

#!/usr/bin/perl

use Time::Local;

use POSIX qw(strftime);

# June 1, 2008, 5:32:11pm and 844 milliseconds

$year = 2008;

$month = 5;

# months are numbered starting at 0!

$day

= 1;

$hour = 17;

# use 24-hour clock for clarity

$min

= 32;

$sec

= 11;

$msec = 844;

# UNIX Time (Seconds since Jan 1, 1970)

1212355931

$unixtime = timelocal( $sec, $min, $hour, $day, $month, $year );

print "UNIX\t\t\t$unixtime\n";

# populate a few values (wday, yday, isdst) that we'll need for strftime

($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,

$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime($unixtime);

# YYYYMMDDhhmmss.sss

20080601173211.844

# We use strftime() because it accounts for Perl's zero-based month numbering

$timestring = strftime( "%Y%m%d%H%M%S",

$sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year, $wday, $yday, $isdst );

$timestring .= ".$msec";

print "YYYYMMDDhhmmss.sss\t$timestring\n";

# YYMMDDhhmm 0806011732

$timestring = strftime( "%y%m%d%H%M", $sec,$min,$hour,$mday,

$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst );

print "YYMMDDhhmm\t\t$timestring\n";

# POSIX in "C" Locale

Sun Jun

$gmtime = localtime($unixtime);

print "POSIX\t\t\t$gmtime\n";



1 17:32:11 2008



Discussion

You can use perldoc Time::Local or man strftime to find out more about possible ways

to format time.

Perl’s Time Idiosyncrasies

Although Perl is very flexible and is definitely a good tool for this job, it

has its idiosyncrasies. Be careful of the month values when writing code

like this. For some inexplicable reason, they begin counting months with

0. That is, January is 0, and February is 1, instead of January being 1.

Days are not done this way. The first day of the month is 1. Furthermore,

you need to be aware of how the year is encoded. It is the number of

years since 1900. Thus, 1999 is 99 and 2008 is 108. To get a correct

value for the year, you must add 1900. Despite all the year 2000 histrionics, there are websites to this day that show the date as 6/28/108.



4.9 Encoding Time Values Programmatically | 69



4.10 Decoding ASP.NET’s ViewState

Problem

ASP.NET provides a mechanism by which the client can store state, rather than the

server. Even relatively large state objects (several kilobytes) can be sent as form fields

and posted back by the web browser with every request. This is called the ViewState

and is stored in an input called __VIEWSTATE on the form. If your application uses this

ViewState, you will want to investigate how the business logic relies on it and develop

tests around corrupt ViewStates. Before you can build tests with corrupt ViewStates,

you have to understand the use of ViewState in the application.



Solution

Get the ViewState Decoder from Fritz Onion (http://www.pluralsight.com/tools.aspx).

The simplest use case is to copy and paste the URL of your application (or a specific

page) into the URL. Figure 4-4 shows version 2.1 of the ViewState decoder and a small

snapshot of its output.



Discussion

Sometimes the program fails to fetch the ViewState from the web page. That’s really

no problem. Just view the source of the web page (see Recipe 3.2) and search for
type= "hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE"...>. Take the value of that input and paste it into

the decoder.

If the example in Figure 4-4 was your application, it would suggest several potential

avenues for testing. There are URLs in the ViewState. Can they contain JavaScript or

direct a user to another, malicious website? What about the various integer values?

There are several questions you should ask yourself about your application, if it is using

ASP.NET and the ViewState:

• Is any of the data in the ViewState inserted into the URL or HTML of the subsequent page when the server processes it?

Consider that Figure 4-4 shows several URLs. What if page navigation links were

derived from the ViewState in this application? Could a hacker trick someone into

visiting a malicious site by sending them a poisoned ViewState?

• Is the ViewState protected against tampering?

ASP.NET provides several ways to protect the ViewState. One of them is a simple

hash code that will allow the server to trap an exception if the ViewState is modified

unexpectedly. The other is an encryption mechanism that makes the ViewState

opaque to the client and a potential attacker.

• Does any of the program logic depend blindly on values from the ViewState?



70 | Chapter 4: Web-Oriented Data Encoding



Figure 4-4. Decoding ASP.NET ViewState



Imagine an application where the user type (normal versus administrator) was

stored in the ViewState. An attacker merely needs to modify it to change his effective permissions.

When it comes time to create tests for corrupted ViewStates, you will probably use

tools like TamperData (see Recipe 3.6) or WebScarab (see Recipe 3.4) to inject new

values.



4.11 Decoding Multiple Encodings

Problem

Sometimes data is encoded multiple times, either intentionally or as a side effect of

passing through some middleware. For example, it is common to see the nonalphanumeric characters (=, /, +) in a Base 64-encoded string (see Recipe 4.2) encoded with

4.11 Decoding Multiple Encodings | 71



URL encoding (see Recipe 4.5). For example, V+P//z== might be displayed as V%2bP%2f

%2f%3d%3d. You’ll need to be aware of this so that when you’ve completed one round

of successful decoding, you treat the result as potentially more encoded data.



Solution

Sometimes a single parameter is actually a specially structured payload that carries

many parameters. For example, if we see AUTH=dGVzdHVzZXI6dGVzdHB3MTIz, then we

might be tempted to consider AUTH to be one parameter. When we realize that the value

decodes to testuser:testpw123, then we realize that it is actually a composite parameter

containing a user ID and a password, with a colon as a delimiter. Thus, our tests will

have to manipulate the two pieces of this composite differently. The rules and processing in the web application are almost certainly different for user IDs and passwords.



Discussion

We don’t usually include quizzes as a follow-up to a recipe, but in this case it might be

worthwhile. Recognizing data encodings is a pretty important skill, and an exercise

here may help reinforce what we’ve just explained. Remember that some of them may

be encoded more than once. See if you can determine the kind of data for each of the

following (answers in the footnotes):

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.



xIThJBeIucYRX4fqS+wxtR8KeKk=*

TW9uIEFwciAgMiAyMjoyNzoyMSBFRFQgMjAwNwo=†

4BJB39XF‡

F8A80EE2F6484CF68B7B72795DD31575§

0723034505560231‖

713ef19e569ded13f2c7dd379657fe5fbd44527f#



* MD5 encoded with Base 64

† SHA1 encoded with Base 64

‡ Base 36

§ Hexadecimal MD5

‖ Octal

# Hexadecimal SHA1



72 | Chapter 4: Web-Oriented Data Encoding



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