Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
Polyvinylidene Chloride Coated Films (PVDC) Coated Polyester Films

Polyvinylidene Chloride Coated Films (PVDC) Coated Polyester Films

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

Table of Contents

Introduction

1.0



Nature of Barrier Polymeric Materials .............................................................................

1.1 Transport of Gases and Vapors ..................................................................................

1.2 Mass Transport of a Gas ............................................................................................

1.3 Special Situations—Coatings and Laminates.............................................................

1.4 Factors Affecting Permeability ....................................................................................

1.5 Polymers 101 ..............................................................................................................

1.6 Molecular Design ........................................................................................................

1.7 Elastomers 101 ...........................................................................................................



2.0



Collected Comparative Barrier Properties of Plastics and Elastomers ....................... 5



3.0



Processing ....................................................................................................................... 19



4.0



Markets and Applications for Packaging: Overview .................................................... 22

4.1 Packaging Materials ................................................................................................. 22

4.2 Markets and Applications ......................................................................................... 23



5.0



Automotive Fuels ............................................................................................................ 29



6.0



Multilayer Films ...............................................................................................................

6.1 General Constructions and Characteristics ..............................................................

6.2 Barrier Layers ...........................................................................................................

6.3 Relative Humidity of Barrier Layer ............................................................................

6.4 Application and Design .............................................................................................

6.5 Retort Sterilized Packages .......................................................................................

6.6 Illustrated Multilayer Packaging ................................................................................



40

40

40

43

43

44

45



7.0



Food and Beverage Packaging ......................................................................................

7.1 Food and Drug Administration, FDA.........................................................................

7.2 Barrier Resins ...........................................................................................................

7.3 Oriented Materials ....................................................................................................



49

49

49

51



8.0



Standard Measurements and Tests ...............................................................................

8.1 Units of Measurement ..............................................................................................

8.2 Standard Test Methods .............................................................................................

8.2.1 Gas Transmission .........................................................................................

8.2.2 Water Vapor Transmission ............................................................................

8.2.3 Rubber ..........................................................................................................

ASTM Tests ......................................................................................................................



52

52

53

53

54

55

55



9.0



1

1

1

2

2

3

4

4



vi



Thermoplastics

Acetal Resins

Polyoxymethylene (Acetal) - Chapter 1 ....................................................................................... 57

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 57



Acrylic Resin

Acrylonitrile-Methyl Acrylate Copolymer (AMA) - Chapter 2 ..................................................... 61

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 62

Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 64



Cellulosic Plastic

Cellulosic - Chapter 3 ................................................................................................................... 67

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 67



Fluoroplastic

Fluoropolymer - Chapter 4 ........................................................................................................... 69

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 69

Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer (ECTFE) - Chapter 5 ......................................... 75

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 75

Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 77

Ethylene-Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer (ETFE) - Chapter 6 ................................................... 81

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 82

Fluorinated Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer (FEP) - Chapter 7 ................................................ 85

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 85

Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 89

Perfluoroalkoxy Resin (PFA & MFA) - Chapter 8 ........................................................................ 91

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 92

Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) - Chapter 9 ...................................................................... 95

Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 96

Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 99

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) - Chapter 10 ............................................................................ 101

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 102

Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF) - Chapter 11 ....................................................................................... 109

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 109

Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) - Chapter 12 ........................................................................... 111

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 112

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 117

Hexafluoropropylene, Tetrafluoroethylene, Ethylene (HTE) - Chapter 13 .............................. 123

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 123



Table of Contents



© Plastics Design Library



vii

Tetrafluoroethylene, Hexafluoropropylene, Vinylidene Fluoride

Terpolymer (THV) - Chapter 14 ............................................................................................. 125

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 125



Ionomer

Ionomer - Chapter 15 .................................................................................................................. 127

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 128



Parylene

Parylene - Chapter 16 ................................................................................................................. 131

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 132



Polyamide

Nylon Overview - Chapter 17 ..................................................................................................... 135

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 135

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 136

Amorphous Nylon - Chapter 18 ................................................................................................. 137

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 138

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 141

Nylon 6 – PA6 - Chapter 19 ......................................................................................................... 145

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 145

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 154

Nylon 66 – PA 66 - Chapter 20 .................................................................................................... 155

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 156

Nylon 6/66 – PA 6/66 - Chapter 21 .............................................................................................. 163

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 163

Nylon 6/12 – PA 6/12 - Chapter 22 .............................................................................................. 165

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 166

Nylon 6/6.9 – PA 6/69 - Chapter 23 ............................................................................................. 171

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 171

Nylon 6.6/6.10 – PA 66/610 - Chapter 24 .................................................................................... 173

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 173



Polyamide Nanocomposite

Polyamide Nanocomposite - Chapter 25 .................................................................................. 175

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 175

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 176



Polycarbonate

Polycarbonate - Chapter 26 ........................................................................................................ 177

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 177



© Plastics Design Library



Table of Contents



viii



Polyester

Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) - Chapter 27 ....................................................................... 181

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 181

Polyethylene Napthalate (PEN) - Chapter 28 ............................................................................ 183

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 183

Polycyclohexylenedimethylene Terephthalate (PCTG) - Chapter 29 ...................................... 185

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 185

Polycyclohexylenedimethylene Ethylene Terephthalate (PETG) - Chapter 30 ...................... 187

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 187

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) - Chapter 31 ........................................................................ 189

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 190

Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) - Chapter 32 ............................................................................... 201

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 202

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 204



Polyimide

Polyimide - Chapter 33 ............................................................................................................... 205

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 205



Polyolefin

Polyethylene Overview - Chapter 34 ......................................................................................... 209

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 209

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 210

Ultra Low Density Polyethylene (ULDPE) - Chapter 35 ........................................................... 217

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 217

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) - Chapter 36 ....................................................................... 219

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 219

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 226

Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) - Chapter 37 ......................................................... 227

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 228

Medium Density Polyethylene and Linear Medium Density

Polyethylene (MDPE & LMDPE) - Chapter 38 ...................................................................... 235

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 235

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) - Chapter 39 ...................................................................... 237

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 237

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 247

Polyolefin Plastomers (POP) - Chapter 40 ................................................................................ 249

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 249

Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC) - Chapter 41 ........................................................................... 251

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 251

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (EVA) - Chapter 42 ............................................................ 253

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 254

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 257



Table of Contents



© Plastics Design Library



ix

Ethylene - Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (EVOH) - Chapter 43 ...................................................... 259

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 259

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 275

Ethylene-Acrylic Acid Copolymer (EAA) - Chapter 44 ............................................................. 281

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 281

Polypropylene (PP) - Chapter 45 ............................................................................................... 283

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 284

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 290

Polybutene, Polybutylene (PB) - Chapter 46 ............................................................................ 291

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 291



Polyphenylene Sulfide

Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) - Chapter 47 ............................................................................... 293

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 293



Polysulfone

Polysulfone - Chapter 48 ............................................................................................................ 295

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 295



Polyvinyl Alcohol

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH) - Chapter 49 ..................................................................................... 297

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 297



Styrenic Resin

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer (ABS) - Chapter 50 ............................................ 299

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 299

Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate Copolymer (ASA) - Chapter 51 ............................................... 303

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 303

Polystyrene (PS) - Chapter 52 .................................................................................................... 307

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 308

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 310

Oriented Polystyrene (OPS) - Chapter 53 ................................................................................. 311

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 311

General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) - Chapter 54 ................................................................. 313

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 313

High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) - Chapter 55 ........................................................................... 315

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 315

Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer (SAN) - Chapter 56 .............................................................. 317

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 318

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 320



© Plastics Design Library



Table of Contents



x

Styrene-Butadiene Block Copolymer (SBS) - Chapter 57 ....................................................... 323

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 323



Vinyl Resin

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Chapter 58 ...................................................................................... 325

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 326

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 329

Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) - Chapter 59 .......................................................................... 331

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 332

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 352

Polyvinylidene Chloride Coated Films (PVDC) Coated

Polyester Films - Chapter 60 ................................................................................................. 355

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 356

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 367



Thermoplastic Alloys

Plastic Alloy

Polyethylene/Polystyrene Alloy - Chapter 61 ........................................................................... 369

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 369



Multilayer Structures

Co-Continuous Lamellae Multilayer Systems

Co-Continuous Lamellar Structures - Chapter 62 ................................................................... 371

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 371

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 372

Laminar Multilayer Structure - Chapter 63 ............................................................................... 375

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 376

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 384



Multilayer Films

Multilayer Films - Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Barrier - Chapter 64 .............................................. 385

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 385

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 398

Multilayer Films - Polyvinylidene Chloride Barrier - Chapter 65 ............................................ 401

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 401

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 409

Multilayer Films - Plasma Polymerization - Chapter 66 ........................................................... 411

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 411

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 412



Table of Contents



© Plastics Design Library



xi

Multilayer Films - Laminated Fluoropolymer Films - Chapter 67 ........................................... 413

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 413

Multilayer Films - General - Chapter 68 .................................................................................... 415

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 416



Thermosets

Epoxy Resin

Epoxy Thermoplastic - Chapter 69 ............................................................................................ 419

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 419



Thermoplastic Elastomers

Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomer

Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPO) - Chapter 70 .......................................................... 421

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 422



Polyether Block Amide

Polyether Block Amide (PEBA) - Chapter 71 ............................................................................ 427

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 427



Polybutadiene Thermoplastic Elastomer

Polybutadiene Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) - Chapter 72 ................................................. 435

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 435



Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer

Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer - Chapter 73 .................................................................... 439

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 440



Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer

Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer - Chapter 74 ...................................................................... 443

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 444



Vinyl Thermoplastic Elastomer

Vinyl Thermoplastic Elastomer - Chapter 75 ............................................................................ 451

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 451



© Plastics Design Library



Table of Contents



xii



Rubbers

Butadiene Rubber

Polybutadiene - Chapter 76 ........................................................................................................ 455

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 455

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 457



Butyl Rubber

Butyl Rubber - Chapter 77 .......................................................................................................... 459

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 460

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 461



Bromobutyl Rubber

Bromobutyl Rubber - Chapter 78 ............................................................................................... 465

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 466



Chlorobutyl Rubber

Chlorobutyl Rubber - Chapter 79 ............................................................................................... 467

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 468



Polyisobutylene Rubber

Polyisobutylene Rubber - Chapter 80 ....................................................................................... 469

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 469



Specialty Elastomers

Specialty Elastomers - Chapter 81 ............................................................................................ 471



Chlorosulfonated Polethylene Rubber

Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (CSPE) - Chapter 82 ................................................. 473

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 473



Epichlorohydrin Rubber

Epichlorohydrin Rubber (ECO) - Chapter 83 ............................................................................ 475

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 475



Table of Contents



© Plastics Design Library



xiii



Ethylene-Propylene Rubber

Ethylene-Propylene Rubbers (EPM, EPDM) - Chapter 84 ........................................................ 477

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 477

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 480



Fluoroelastomer

Vinylidene Fluoride-Hexafluoropropylene Copolymer - Chapter 85 ...................................... 481

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 481



Natural Rubber

Natural Rubber - Chapter 86 ...................................................................................................... 483

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 483

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 486



Neoprene Rubber

Polychloroprene Rubber (CR) - Chapter 87 .............................................................................. 487

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 487



Nitrile Rubber

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer (NBR) - Chapter 88 .......................................................... 489

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 489

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 492



Polysulfide Rubber

Polysulfide Rubber - Chapter 89 ................................................................................................ 493

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 493



Polyurethane Rubber

Polyurethane - Chapter 90 .......................................................................................................... 495

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 495

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 498



Silicone Rubber

Silicone or Polysiloxane - Chapter 91 ....................................................................................... 499

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 499



© Plastics Design Library



Table of Contents



xiv



Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) - Chapter 92 ........................................................................ 501

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 502

Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 504

Additional Barrier Materials - Chapter 93 ................................................................................. 505

Metallized Films ..................................................................................................................... 505

Biodegradable or Organic Films .......................................................................................... 505

Barrier Properties .................................................................................................................. 505

Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 506



Appendices



Permeability of Gloves ............................................................................................................... 509

Permeation Rates ........................................................................................................................ 535

Permeability Units Conversion .................................................................................................. 553

Glossary of Terms ....................................................................................................................... 557



Indices

Trade Name .................................................................................................................................. 587

References ................................................................................................................................... 591



Table of Contents



© Plastics Design Library



509



Appendix I



Permeability of Gloves

Gloves are made from several different materials. The

following chapter outlines glove permeability by material type, listed below are a few characteristics of

some of the broad use materials.

Natural Rubber: Excellent flexibility and resistance

to tearing. Good resistance to numerous acids and

ketones.[2029]

• Applications. Poultry, food processing,

small parts assembly, pharmaceutical

manufacturing, and janitorial/plant maintenance.[1129]

Polychloroprene Rubber -Neoprene: Multi-purpose

chemical resistance: acids and aliphatic solvents; no

proteins.

Performs well when exposed to sunlight and

ozone.[2029] Neoprene gloves offer broad-spectrum protection, with excellent resistance to a wide range of

chemicals, including oils, acids, caustics, and solvents.[1129]

• Applications. Petrochemicals, degreasing, electronics, refining, and handling oils, acids, caustics, alcohols, and

solvents.[1129]

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer - Nitrile: Very

good resistance to abrasion and perforation. Very good

resistance to hydrocarbon derivatives; no proteins.[2029]

Superior choice over rubber or neoprene when exposed

to aromatic and petroleum solvents, as well as caustics and animal fats.[1129]



© Plastics Design Library



• Applications. Chemical processing (oil

refining, and petrochemicals), food processing (red meat, poultry, vegetables,

fruit, dairy, and canning), aerospace and

automotive degreasing, automotive assembly and painting, machining operations (using cutting oil and coolants,

metal fabrication), graphic arts (printing

cleanup), furniture manufacturing, electronics (semiconductors, circuit board

manufacturing).[1129]

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA): Nearly inert to strong solvents, including aromatics, aliphatics, and chlorinated

solvents—chemicals which quickly deteriorate natural rubber, neoprene, and PVC gloves. PVA also offers good resistance to snags, punctures, abrasion, and

cuts.[1129]

• Applications. Electronics, handling

strong organic solvents, working with

epoxies and prepreg.[1129]

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Good resistance to acids

and bases; no proteins.[2029]

• Applications. Handling chromic acid,

caustics, oils, and petroleum solvents.[1129]

Key to Permeation Ratings:

BTT Breakthrough Time.

LDL Lowest Detectable Level.

µg/cm2/min



Micrograms per square centimeter per minutes.



Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Polyvinylidene Chloride Coated Films (PVDC) Coated Polyester Films

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×