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Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care: Prevention and Repair of Damage during Hair Relaxing

Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care: Prevention and Repair of Damage during Hair Relaxing

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Water Soluble Polymers

Solution Properties and Applications

Edited by



Zahid Amjad

The B.F. Goodrich Company

Brecksville, Ohio



Kluwer Academic Publishers



New York / Boston / Dordrecht / London / Moscow



eBook ISBN:

Print ISBN:



0-306-46915-4

0-306-45931-0



©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers

New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow

All rights reserved

No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher

Created in the United States of America

Visit Kluwer Online at:

and Kluwer's eBookstore at:



http://www.kluweronline.com

http://www.ebooks.kluweronline.com



To my wife, Rukhsana, for her patience and encouragement



PREFACE



This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at the symposium on

Water Soluble Polymers: Solution Properties and Applications, sponsored by the Division

of Colloids and Surface Chemistry of the American Chemical Society.

The symposium took place in Las Vegas City, Nevada on 9 to 11th September, 1997

at the 214th American Chemical Society National Meeting. Recognized experts in their respective fields were invited to speak. There was a strong attendance from academia, government, and industrial research centers. The purpose of the symposium was to present

and discuss recent developments in the solution properties of water soluble polymers and

their applications in aqueous systems.

Water soluble polymers find applications in a number of fields of which the following

may be worth mentioning: cosmetics, detergent, oral care, industrial water treatment, geothermal, wastewater treatment, water purification and reuse, pulp and paper production,

sugar refining, and many more. Moreover, water soluble polymers play vital role in the oil

industry, especially in enhanced oil recovery. Water soluble polymers are also used in agriculture and controlled release pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, a fundamental knowledge of solution properties of these polymers is essential for most industrial scientists. An

understanding of the basic phenomena involved in the application of these polymers, such

as adsorption and interaction with different substrates (i.e., tooth enamel, hair, reverse osmosis membrane, heat exchanger surfaces, etc.) is of vital importance in developing high

performance formulations for achieving optimum efficiency of the system.

A serious problem encountered in many industrial processes is the build-up of undesirable deposits on the walls of water handling equipment. These deposits, especially on

heat transfer surfaces in cooling, boiler, geothermal, and distillation systems, lead to overheating, loss of system efficiency, unscheduled shutdown time, and ultimately heat exchanger failure. These deposits can be categorized into the following four groups: a)

mineral scales (i.e., CaCO3, CaSO4•2H2O, CaSO4, CaF2, Ca3(PO4)2, etc.), b) suspended

solids (i.e., mud or silt), c) corrosion products (i.e., Fe2O3, Fe3O4, ZnO, etc.), and d) microbiological mass. In reverse osmosis systems, deposition of unwanted materials may result

in poor water quality and premature membrane failure. The development of deposits on

heat exchanger and membrane surfaces continues to be a limiting factor in the efficient

operation of the systems. Thus, effective operation of industrial water systems continues

to depend on the control of deposits in these systems.

In the past few years, polymers have been successfully used by the water treatment

industry for numerous functions including scale inhibition, metal ion stabilization, crystal

vii



viii



Preface



modification, and dispersancy. Polymers used in water treatment formulations are usually

anionic and have molecular weight ranging from 500 to 20,000 daltons. In wastewater

treatment, high molecular weight polymer are used as flocculating and coagulating agents.

In cosmetics and hair care applications, the industrial chemist depends on the use of water

soluble polymers to develop an aesthetically pleasing, functional, and stable product.

Polymers also offer unique opportunities in the controlled release of active from the formulated product. In detergents use of polymers as builders is prevalent.

This volume provides an introduction to the use of water soluble polymers in many

fields ranging from oral care, cosmetics, detergent, pharmaceutical, to industrial water

treatment. A wide range of expertise has been brought together to this book in such a diverse applications. The first four chapters address the solution properties of polymers. The

next five chapters examine the growth and inhibition of hydroxyapatite, an important

component of teeth, bones, and urinary stones. In the next 8 chapters use of polymers in

industrial water and wastewater treatment applications is presented. The final two chapters

deal with the use of polymers in hair care and detergent applications.

I hope this book will prove to be a valuable addition to the library of the academic

researchers and, even more so, for the technology-focused industrial scientist involved

with polymers who are interested in expanding their applications into new fields.

Zahid Amjad

Cleveland, Ohio



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



I am grateful to all the contributors for their cooperation and hard work in preparing

their respective chapters and to all those who made the symposium possible and this volume available. Financial support of the national and international scientists is gratefully

acknowledged. Special thanks are extended to the American Chemical Society Division of

Colloid and Surface Chemistry, ACS Corporation Associates, Avlon Industries, ColgatePalmolive Company, and The B.F. Goodrich Company. Their generous assistance contributed substantially to the success of the symposium.

I am thankful to Drs. Michael M. Reddy and Petros G. Koutsoukos for serving as the

various session chairmen, and to John Zibrida for his efforts in the selection of industrial

speakers. I want to give special thanks to Jeff Pugh for his efficient and organized handling of the considerable correspondence associated with both the symposium and the

book. I would like to thank the management of The B.F. Goodrich, in particular Dr. Victoria F. Haynes, for encouragement and support in organizing this symposium and the editing of this volume. Thanks are also extended to the editorial staff of Plenum Publishing

Corporation, and especially to Susan Safren, for assistance during all stages of production

of this book. Finally, I would to thank my wife for contending with me during the several

weekends I was finalizing the manuscript.



ix



ABOUT THE EDITOR



Zahid Amjad is a Research Fellow in the Advanced Technology Group of The B. F.

Goodrich Company. A native of Pakistan, he received his M.Sc. in Chemistry from Panjab

University and a Ph.D. from Glasgow University, Scotland. Dr. Amjad was a Lecturer at

the Institute of Chemistry of Panjab University, and was Assistant Research Professor at

the State University of New York at Buffalo. After spending 3 years with Calgon Corporation, he joined The B.F. Goodrich Company where he has served since 1982. Dr. Amjad’s

current major interests include biological and industrial applications of water soluble and

water swellable polymers, interaction of polymers at solid-liquid interface, membranebased separation processes, and controlled-release of pharmaceuticals.

Dr. Amjad has presented invited lectures at various national and international meetings, contributed to several books, and published numerous papers on the properties and

behavior of water soluble and water swellable polymers, as well as on crystal growth and

inhibition kinetics, control and removal of foulants from water purification apparatus—particularly membrane-based processes, and controlled release of actives. He is

holder of 28 patents and has edited three books. He has been inducted into National Hall

of Corporate Inventors, is the recipient of the 1997 EDI Innovation Award, and is a member of several professional organizations. He is also on the Adjunct Faculty in Pharmaceutical Sciences at the School of Pharmacy, Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe,

Louisiana.



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Index Terms

AA: see Acrylic acid

AA/AHPSE/PEGAE

calcium phosphate scale inhibition and

as clay dispersant agent

Acrylamide, wastewater treatments and

Acrylic acid

characteristics of

interfacial adsorption kinetics

poly: see Poly(acrylic acids)

2-(Acryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium

chloride, wastewater treatments and

Activation free energy

Additives, crystallization kinetics and

Adsorption

activation energy and

alumina powder

diffusion control of

electrostatic resistance to

hydroxyapatite and

hydroxyapatite crystal growth and

hydroxypropylcellulose, on HAP

kinetics of

polyacrylic acid

polymer: see Polymer adsorption

of polyvinyl pyrrolidone on alumina

of SDS on HAP

of SPVPA to hydroxyapatite beads

water-soluble macromolecules

AIBN: see Azobisisobutyronitrile

Alkaline hair relaxers

Alumina, polyacrylic acid adsorption on

Alumina powder adsorption

Aluminum separation

AMD-co-AETAC polymers

characterization of

flocculation experiments

preparation of

wastewater treatments and

Amorphous silica

Amphoteric acrylamide copolymers

application to detergents

preparation of

Amphoterics

Anhydrite scales, formation on heat exchanger

surfaces

Anionic polymers, examples of

Antiscalants, silica

Arrhenius expression

Azobisisobutyronitrile



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51

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24

15

19

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71

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11

25

26

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254



Index Terms

Bacteria, attachment to saliva-coated beads

Benzene hexacarboxylic acid, hydroxyapatite

crystal growth and

Boltzmann’s constant

Borate–carbazole reaction, uronic acid and

Boric acid, poly(vinyl alcohol) solubility and

1-Bromonaphthalene, surface tension of

Brownian diffusion coefficient

Calcite crystal growth

Calcium carbonate

formation in natural water

inhibition by maleic acid copolymers

Calcium carbonate crystal growth

kinetic inhibition of

organic inhibitors of

relative inhibition of

Calcium phosphate inhibitors, efficacy of

Calcium phosphate nucleation

on FEP

on PMMA

radiofrequency glow discharge and

on silicone rubber

Calcium phosphate scale, novel inhibitor of

Calcium sulfate dihydrate scale, formation on

heat exchanger surfaces

Calculus, dental: see Dental calculus

Capillary suction time

Cationic polymers

hair care and

performance on sludge

Cations, crystallization in presence of

Chlorides, recycled water and

Chondroitin sulphate, hydroxyapatite

adsorption and

Chromatography, high performance size exclusion

Citric acid, hydroxyapatite crystal growth

inhibition and

Clay dispersant, AA/AHPSE/PEGAE as

Colloidal particles, isolatiodseparation of

Concentrated particulate suspensions

Conformation: see Polymer concentration

Constant composition

Contact angle

Cooling tower

agricultural waste in

biologically treated wastewater in

boiler blowdown in

boiler condensate in



Links

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77

18

64

34

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119

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Index Terms

Cooling tower (cont.)

low TDS water

municipal wastewater in

reuse of blowdown

scale formation in

scrubber blowdown in

seawater and

side-stream softening

wet dry

Cooling water treatment

calcium phosphate scale

optimization in recycled waters

Copolymers

of acrylic acid

characterization of

HMPAAs and

maleic acid

of pyreneacrylamide

Corrosion

control in recycled water

control of

Corrosion inhibitors

molybdate/phosphonate

molybdate/zinc

orthophosphate

zinc

Cosmetics industry, water-soluble polymers in

Crosslink density, in HMPAAs

Crystal growth

calcite

hydroxyapatite: see Hydroxyapatite crystallization

impurities and

organophosphonate inhibition of

polyelectrolytes and

in pure solution

pyrophosphate inhibition of

of SPVPA

Crystalline structure, of poly(vinyl alcohol) gels

Crystallinity

optimal freezing times and

of poly(vinyl alcohol)

Crystallization

cations and

of gypsum

hydroxyapatite: see Hydroxyapatite crystallization

of hydroxyapatite

in presence of additives/impurities

PVA gels and

thermodynamics of



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214

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118

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215

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210

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256



Index Terms



Links



Crystallization kinetics

additives/impurities influence on

constant composition method and

dosigraph and

potentiometer and

stoichiometrics and

Cyclohexane, interfacial adsorption kinetics

Cyclohexane/water interface

dynamic interfacial tension data

HMPAA adsorption and

hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acids) and



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51

56

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Decane, surface tension of

Dental calculus

etiology of

sodium polyvinylphosphonic acid inhibition of

Dental calculus formation

SPVPA effects

Dental plaque

etiology of

sodium polyvinylphosphonic acid inhibition of

SPVPA effects on

Dental plaque formation

SPVPA effects on

Deodorant textiles, copolymer treatment effects

Detergents, amphoteric acrylamide copolymers

Dialysis equilibrium, SDS concentration

determination and

Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, crystal

growth inhibition

Dicarboxylic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal

growth and

Diffusion coefficient

Diiodomethane, surface tension of

Dimethyl sulfoxide, as poly(vinyl alcohol) solvent

Dissolution studies

Disulfide bonds, hair relaxers and

DMSO: see Dimethyl sulfoxide

Dodecaine, surface tension of

Dosigraph, crystallization kinetics and

Drop volume, Kruss Drop Volume Tensiometer and

Drop volume technique

Drop volume tensiometry

DuNouy ring method

Dynamic interfacial tension

cyclohexane/water interface and

determination of



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231

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10

13

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